Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 10,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps
    Yitades Gebre Nikkiah Forbes Teshome Gebre
    2016(10):815-824. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.008
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 562.14 K](88)
    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barre syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.
    2  Life cycle and morphology of development stages of Physocephalus dromedarii (Nematoda: Spirocercidae)
    Rolf Karl Schuster Saritha Sivakumar Jorg Kinne
    2016(10):825-829. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.001
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.75 M](78)
    Objective: To study the development of Physocephalus dromedarii (P. dromedarii) in the final host. Methods: For this, 5 adult dromedaries were orally infected with third larval stages of P. dromedarii obtained from naturally infected scarab beetles (Scarabaeus cristatus). The camels were necropsied 14, 42, 70, 84 and 280 days after infection and their abomasi were examined for the presence of nematodes. Results: Early 4th stage larva occurred already 2 weeks after infection. They were still in the sheet of the 3rd stage larva. Six weeks after infection, the nematodes became juvenile male and female adults measuring 9 and 10 mm, respectively. Their size doubled at 10 weeks post infection and patency was reached at 12 weeks. P. dromedarii was still present in the camel that was examined 40 weeks after infection. Conclusions: As a result of experimental infection of the natural host, the determined prepatent period of P. dromedarii equalled 12 weeks.
    3  The anti-tubercular activity of Melia azedarach L. and Lobelia chinensis Lour. and their potential as effective anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis candidate agents
    Won Hyung Choi In Ah Lee
    2016(10):830-835. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.007
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 566.77 K](80)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of Melia azedarach L. (M. azedarach) and Lobelia chinensis Lour. (L. chinensis) extracts against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts were evaluated using different indicator methods such as resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system assay. The M. tuberculosis was incubated with various concentrations (50–800 μg/mL) of the extracts for 5 days in the REMA, and for 4 weeks in MGIT 960 system assay. Results: M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts showed their anti-M. tuberculosis activity by strongly inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in a concentration-dependent manner in the REMA and the MGIT 960 system assay. Particularly, the methanol extract of M. azedarach and n-hexane extract of L. chinensis consistently exhibited their effects by effectively inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in MGIT 960 system for 4 weeks with a single-treatment, indicating higher anti-M. tuberculosis activity than other extracts, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were measured as 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/ mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts not only have unique anti-M. tuberculosis activity, but also induce the selective anti-M. tuberculosis effects by consistently inhibiting or blocking the growth of M. tuberculosis through a new pharmacological action. Therefore, this study suggests the potential of them as effective candidate agents of next-generation for developing a new anti-tuberculosis drug, as well as the advantage for utilizing traditional medicinal plants as one of effective strategies against tuberculosis.
    4  Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants: Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils
    Marwa Chraibi Abdellah Farah Sara Lebrazi Oumaima El Amine Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim
    2016(10):836-840. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.002
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 330.00 K](80)
    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides (T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium (M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition. Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium (leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method. Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part's essential oils gave as major compounds, borneol (34.26%), carvacrol (31.21%) and thymol (3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)- pulegone (75.48%), carvone (6.66%) and dihydrocarvone (4.64%) for M. pulegium. Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method, indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.015% (v/v) and from 0.125% to 0.031% (v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.
    5  Anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus evaluation of 15 non-alkaloidal compounds from Pterogyne nitens
    Caroline Sprengel Lima Carlos Roberto Polaquini Mariana Bastos dos Santos Fernanda Patrícia Gullo Fernanda Sangalli Leite Liliane Scorzoni Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani Maria Jose Soares Mendes-Giannini Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida Andreia Alves Rezende Luis Octavio Regasini
    2016(10):841-845. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.003
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 395.78 K](83)
    Objective: To evaluate anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus activities of 15 nonalkaloidal compounds from Pterogyne nitens Tulasne (Leguminosae), a South American medicinal plant. Methods: Compounds were submitted to antifungal assays, using microdilution method described by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document, with minor modifi- cations. Five species of Candida and two species of Cryptococcus, including clinical isolates were screened. Antifungal activity was expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Amphotericin B and fluconazole were used as standard antifungal drugs. Results: Among tested compounds, six substances presented fungal growth inhibition (MIC < 31.2 μg/mL) [three flavone derivatives (1–3), a glycosylated flavonol derivative (5) and two phenolic acids (10 and 12)]. Sorbifolin (1), exhibited potent antifungal activity, demonstrating MIC value of 3.90 μg/mL against Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Cryptococcus gattii 118 and fluconazole-resistant clinical isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Pedalin (2) and nitensoside B (3), two glycosylated flavone derivatives, were active against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90012 (MIC = 7.80 μg/mL). Conclusions: Flavone derivatives from Pterogyne nitens can serve as prototypes for the design and development of innovative anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus hits.
    6  Effectiveness of some herbals on initial enamel caries lesion
    Gulcin Bilgin Gocmen Funda Yanikoglu Dilek Tagtekin George K. Stookey Bruce R. Schemehorn Osman Hayran
    2016(10):846-850. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.005
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 310.60 K](92)
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of herbal medicaments such as ginger, rosemary and honey on remineralization of initial enamel lesion. Methods: Demineralized human enamel specimens were measured for baseline surface microhardness and fluorescence methods. Ten specimens in each of four groups were used in this in vitro recycling study with the following treatments which applied three times a day: 1) sodium fluoride toothpaste (Ipana, Procter & Gamble, Turkey), 2) gingerhoney (Arifoglu Herbals, Anzer Honey, Turkey), 3) ginger-honey-chocolate (Bind Chocolate, Turkey), 4) rosemary oil (Arifoglu Herbals, Turkey). Treatment regimens of demineralization and remineralization cycle were applied for 21 days. The post-treatment data were obtained by measurements of surface microhardness and fluorescence methods. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test with Tukey's honest significant difference test. Results: Enhanced remineralization was observed with several of the treatment systems including ginger + honey and rosemary. Significant differences between treatments were observed by microhardness and FluoreCam fluorescence assesment, compared to the positive control group (NaF dentifrice). Significantly, greater remineralization was observed with the honey + ginger treatment regimen. No significant differences between groups were observed using the fluorescence assessment method, quantitative lightinduced fluorescence. Conclusions: Herbals (ginger, honey and rosemary) have enhanced remineralization of initial enamel lesion.
    7  Essential oils from Elaeoselinum asclepium: Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties
    Moufida Bouchekrit Hocine Laouer Mohamed Hajji Moncef Nasri Serkos Artin Haroutounian Salah Akkal
    2016(10):851-857. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.014
    [Abstract](58) [HTML](0) [PDF 363.00 K](90)
    Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from Elaeoselinum asclepium (L.) Bertol. (E. asclepium), and test the efficiency of the essential oil as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. Methods: Essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of E. asclepium by hydro distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We study for the first time the chemical composition of the essential oil of E. asclepium, followed by the in vitro antimicrobial activities, which were evaluated by agar diffusion method against six Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungi. In addition, The antioxidant activities were also investigated using assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and ferricreducing capacity. Results: The analyzed essential oil of the aerial parts of E. asclepium was rich in α-pinene (43.9%), other compounds detected in appreciable amounts were sabinene (27.9%) and β-pinene (16.0%). The essential oil yields 1.2%, the IC50 values of essential oil in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay in the reducing power assay were 48.26 mg/ mL and at 1 mg/mL, respectively. The absorbance value of essential oil at 700 nm was 0.956. The antimicrobial effect was higher on Candida albicans ATCC 1024 strain with the inhibition zone 14.5 mm than bacteria and molds. Conclusions: The essential oil of E. asclepium has antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. These species may be used as an important source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.
    8  Jatropha curcas L: Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties
    Sillma Rampadarath Daneshwar Puchooa Rajesh Jeewon
    2016(10):858-865. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.019
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.97 M](79)
    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities as well as the phytochemical and lavicidal properties of different parts of Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) growing in Mauritius. Methods: Determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants extracts by test tube reactions. Disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used to detect the antimicrobial sensitivity and activity (minimal inhibitory concentration). The crude solvent extracts were also tested on the larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae). Results: The antimicrobial activities were significantly dependent for the different crude plant extracts on the thirteen microorganisms tested. For the Gram-positive bacteria, the crude ethyl acetate extract was more efficient compared to the Gram-negative bacteria with both solvents being effective. The crude ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark and mature seed oil showed the highest efficacy. The highest mortality percentage was observed after 24 h for both Diptera flies with (66.67 ± 2.89)% of Bactrocera cucurbitae larvae killed by ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark. Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The larvicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.
    9  Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extract increases insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice
    Suphaket Saenthaweesuk Jarinyaporn Naowaboot Nuntiya Somparn
    2016(10):866-871. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.010
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.35 M](82)
    Objective: To examine the effect of Pandanus amaryllifolius (P. amaryllifolius) leaf extract on the insulin resistance state in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in mice fed with high-fat diet (45% fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks on the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of P. amaryllifolius leaf at 125 and 250 mg/kg/day, respectively for another six weeks. At the 5th week of treatment, oral glucose tolerance test was conducted. After six weeks of treatment, the levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles were determined. The liver, muscle and epididymal fat tissues were removed for measuring the biochemical parameters and protein expression, as well as histological examination. Results: Six weeks of treatment with P. amaryllifolius led to a significant reduction in the blood glucose level as well as improvement in the insulin resistance. P. amaryllifolius also increased the liver glycogen storage and serum adiponectin and decreased the serum leptin levels. A reduction in the serum and hepatic triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acid levels was also observed. The histological examination showed that the obese mice treated with P. amaryllifolius reduced the lipid droplet in liver tissue and adipocyte size in epididymal fat tissue. The treatment also increased the protein expression of glucose transporter 4 in the muscle and fat tissues. Conclusions: The treatment with P. amaryllifolius could decrease several parameters of impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of P. amaryllifolius leaf extract in alleviating the insulin dysfunction in obesity state.
    10  Cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of naringenin-oxime relative to naringenin on normal and cancer cell lines
    Abdurrahim Kocyigit Ismail Koyuncu Murat Dikilitas Fatemeh Bahadori Baki Turkkan
    2016(10):872-880. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.004
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.26 M](84)
    Objective: To assess and compare the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating effects of naringenin (NG) and its new derived compound naringenin-oxime (NG-Ox) on MCF-7, HT-29, PC-12 cancer and L-929 normal cell lines. Methods: The cells were incubated with different doses of NG-Ox and NG (50– 1 000 μmol/L) for 24 h. The cell viability was assessed based on ATP cell viability assay. Intracellular accumulation of ROS was determined using the fluorescent probes 2’7’- dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) and, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by acridine orange staining at below the IC50 levels. Results: Both NG-Ox and NG exhibited cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects and resulted in increased ROS values in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were more pronounced on cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of NG-Ox were higher than that of NG in all cell lines. Significant correlations were observed between cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and ROS, in all cell lines exposed to either NG-Ox or NG. Conclusions: This study showed that both NG-Ox and NG possess cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic activities through the production of ROS on cells, NG-Ox being the more effective one. Therefore, derived compound of NG might be used as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of cancer.
    11  Production of secondary metabolite E2.2 from Phaleria macrocarpa endophytic fungus
    Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata
    2016(10):881-885. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.005
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 664.71 K](83)
    Objective: To isolate new endophytic fungus from Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpa) that is able to produce E2.2 compound. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from P. macrocarpa. Morphological and molecular identification was done to determine the species of the endophytic fungus. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the ability of this fungus to produce E2.2 compound and to quantify the total yield of E2.2 from fungal fermentation. Fermentation process was optimized by observing suitable medium, pH and length of fermentation process. Phloroglucinol and gallic acid addition were examined to determine the effect of each compound on E2.2 production. Results: One endophytic fungus was successfully isolated from P. macrocarpa plant. Morphological and molecular identification showed that it was a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides which belonged to Glomerellaceae family. This fungus showed highest production of E2.2 when incubated in potato dextrose broth with initial pH value of the medium at 5, and was incubated for 15 days. Phloroglucinol was found to better enhance E2.2 production. Conclusions: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides found in P. macrocarpa plant is promising as a potential alternative source of E2.2.
    12  Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments
    Amin Salehi Hamidreza Tasdighi Majid Gholamhoseini
    2016(10):886-891. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.009
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 737.16 K](85)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of drought stress and organic fertilizer on German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) nutrient uptake, leaf chlorophyll content and osmotic adjustment under field conditions. Methods: This experiment was carried out through a randomized complete block design with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. The main plots were subjected to the following irrigation treatments: irrigation after 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mm evaporation from Class A pan. The sub-plots were treated with three vermicompost doses (0, 5 and 10 t/ha). Results: Although drought stress reduced the nutrient percentages in the shoots, application of vermicompost enhanced the nutrient percentages, particularly when the plants were subjected to moderate to severe drought stress conditions. Moreover, the results of this study showed that the interaction between irrigation treatments and vermicompost rates on leaf chlorophyll content was significant. Comparison between the combined treatments indicated that under normal irrigation and moderate drought stress conditions chamomile plants received 5 and 10 t/ha vermicompost showed significantly higher leaf chlorophyll content comparing to the control treatment. Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.
    13  A rare cause of acute abdomen – Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma
    Hock Chin Chong Feng Yih Chai Yew Eng Tan Sophia Si Ling Heng Siti Asilah Mohd Desa
    2016(10):892-895. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.011
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.24 M](79)
    Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) is a rare entity that mimics acute abdomen. Rectus sheath hematoma is the accumulation of blood in rectus sheath due to muscle or epigastric vessel injury. However, SRSH without a trauma or anticoagulation is rare. It frequently mimics acute abdomen and it may lead to misdiagnosis and unnecessary laparotomy. In this article, we described two cases of SRSH with their diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Both of our patients in report were neither consumed antiplatelet nor coagulopathy. They both had abdominal muscle straining before their symptoms presentation. We hypothesized that the SRSH may be induced by rectus muscle injury secondary to inappropriate straining or posture. To diagnose SRSH, clinical findings are important but radiologic imaging such as computed tomography, can be diagnostic. In expanding SRSH, percutaneous arterial embolization of epigastric artery is useful to secure the bleeding. If embolization is not feasible, surgical exploration hemostasis is curative. In non-expanding SRSH, it can be managed nonoperatively. SRSH is an important initial differential for acute abdomen. Radiologic imaging helps in diagnosis. Stable SRSH can be managed conservatively with good outcome.
    14  A review on promising phytochemical, nutritional and glycemic control studies on Moringa oleifera Lam. in tropical and sub-tropical regions
    Hafiz Irfan Muhammad Mohd Zaini Asmawi Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan
    2016(10):896-902. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.006
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.31 M](87)
    Plants have provided sources to find novel compounds. These plants are being used as therapeutic purposes since the birth of mankind. The traditional healers normally utilize medicinal plants as crude drugs while scientists using the folk claim as guides to explore medicinal plants. Moringa oleifera is a famous edible plant having therapeutic and nutritive values. The present study was designed to cumulate the research data regarding to what extent, phytochemical, nutritional and glycemic control studies has been explored using its different extracts. The articles indicated that the powder, aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera (leaves, pods, seeds, stem and root bark) have significant therapeutic herbal potential to treat diabetes mellitus. Collectively, the mechanism behind is intestinal glucose inhibition, insulin release as well as decrease in insulin resistance probably regeneration of β-cells of pancreas, increase in glutathione and reduction in malondialdehyde. Conclusively, this article give descriptive information about antidiabetic effect, claimed marker compounds and proposed antihyperglycemic mechanism of a single plant. It can be suggested a potential herbal source to treat diabetes mellitus as being widely accepted by major population as nutrition and therapeutic agent.

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