Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis among patients with seizures in northern coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India
    Bala Chandra Sekhar Pappala Jyothi Padmaja Indugula Sateesh Kumar Talabhatula Ramalakshmi Suryakarani Kolli Arpit Kumar Shrivastava Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
    2016(11):903-908. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.001
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 536.93 K](85)
    Objective: To report cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) from three neighboring districts of Andhra Pradesh state in India where NCC burden was never explored before. Methods: A total of 160 patients presenting with recent onset seizures were recruited from neurology, general medicine, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a local major tertiary care teaching hospital serving above districts during the period 2011–2014. Brain imaging was performed in all the above cases. A commercial immunoglobulin G-ELISA kit (sensitivity = 85%; specificity = 94%) was employed for the serological diagnosis of NCC. Results: The recruited patients presented with generalized, simple partial, and complex partial seizures (55%, 31.25% and 13.75% respectively). NCC was diagnosed in 44 of 160 (27.5%) seizure cases based on imaging characteristics, and a positive serum antibody ELISA. No association was detected between seropositivity with the number and location of the lesion(s) in the brain. Conclusions: The possible potentiality of NCC could be identified as an underlying cause of the recent onset of seizures in this region as explored in the present study. It is recommended that NCC should be suspected as one of the major differential in every recent onset seizure with or without a radio imaging supportive diagnosis, especially in areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.
    2  Secondary metabolites and their biological activities in Indonesian soft coral of the genus Lobophytum
    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra Tutik Murniasih Respati Tri Swasono Joko Tri Wibowo Annissa Nur Cahya Saputri Meilia Rahma Widhiana Irma Shita Arlyza
    2016(11):909-913. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.011
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 670.95 K](81)
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, antimalarial activities and cytotoxicity of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions from a crude extract of Lobophytum sp. Methods: This organism was collected from the Selayar Islands (South Sulawesi). The antioxidant activity was performed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method. All fractions from the crude extract of Lobophytum sp. were examined for their cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and heme polymerization inhibitory activity assay for antimalarial activity. Results: It was found that the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited heme polymerization inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 11.7, 14.3 and 12.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the n-butanol fraction showed moderate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 150.00 and 92.74 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: This study provides information on antioxidant, antibacterial and antimalarial activities as well as the cytotoxicity of all fractions from the crude extract of Lobophytum sp. This is a new report of antimalarial substances derived from Lobophytum sp.
    3  Proteomic profile of human monocytic cells infected with dengue virus
    Viviana Martínez-Betancur Marlen Martínez-Gutierrez
    2016(11):914-923. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.004
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.40 M](87)
    Objective: To identify the changes in the proteome of U937 cells infected with dengue virus (DENV). Methods: In this study, differentiated U937 cultures were infected with two DENV-2 strains, one of which was associated with dengue (DENV-2/NG) and the other one with severe dengue (DENV-2/16681), with the aim of determining the cellular proteomic profiles under different infection conditions. Cellular proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and those proteins with differential expression profiles were identified by mass spectrometry. The obtained results were correlated with cellular viability, the number of infectious viral particles, and the viral DNA/protein quantity. Results: In comparison with non-infected cultures, in the cells infected with the DENV- 2/NG strain, nine proteins were expressed differentially (five were upregulated and four were downregulated); in those cultures infected with the DENV-2/16681 strain, six proteins were differentially expressed (two were downregulated and four were upregulated). The downregulated proteins included fatty acid-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein 1, protein disulfide isomerase, enolase 1, heat shock 70 kDa protein 9, phosphotyrosyl phosphatase, and annexin Ⅳ The upregulated proteins included heat shock 90 kDa protein AA1, tubulin beta, enolase 1, pyruvate kinase, transaldolase and phospholipase C-alpha. Conclusions: Because the monocyte/macrophage lineage is critical for disease pathogenicity, additional studies on these proteins could provide a better understanding of the cellular response to DENV infection and could help identify new therapeutic targets against infection.
    4  Identification of antigenic proteins from salivary glands of female Anopheles maculatus by proteomic analysis
    Yunita Armiyanti Renam Putra Arifianto Elisa Nurma Riana Kartika Senjarini Widodo Widodo Loeki Enggar Fitri Teguh Wahju Sardjono
    2016(11):924-930. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.012
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.13 M](91)
    Objective: To identify antigenic proteins from the salivary glands of female Anopheles maculatus using a proteomic approach to find the biomarker candidate for serological tools. Methods: The identification of antigenic proteins of Anopheles maculatus salivary gland used these techniques: one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), western blot, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: The proteins that have molecular weight (MW) 43 and 34 kDa were the antigenic protein. Computational bioinformatic analysis by Mascot Server revealed seven novel hypothetical proteins (MW: 43 kDa) and two novel hypothetical proteins (MW: 34 kDa). Further analysis (BLASTP, antigenicity, epitope mapping, and specificity analysis) showed that two novel proteins were identified as apolipoprotein D and cathepsin D in Anopheles darlingi. Conclusions: The identified proteins are potential to be developed as a biomarker of mosquito bite's exposure.
    5  Larvicidal activities of hydro-ethanolic extracts of three Cameroonian medicinal plants against Aedes albopictus
    Tankeu Nzufo Francine Biapa Nya Prosper Cabral Pieme Constant Anatole Moukette Moukette Bruno Nanfack Pauline Ngogang Yonkeu Jeanne
    2016(11):931-936. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.004
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 574.03 K](88)
    Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of Syzygium guineense (Myrtaceae) (S. guineense), Monodora myristica and Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) (Z. heitzii) extracts against Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: The larvicidal activity of the hydro-ethanolic extracts from these plant species was assessed at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/L) on first-instar of Ae. albopictus larvae in comparison with untreated controls. Mortality rate was recorded daily for a period of 12 days. The values of LC50 and lethal time killing 50% of the tested individuals (LT50) were calculated using the log-probit analysis. Results: The root extract of S. guineense exhibited the best activity with 100% mortality after 8 days of treatment at 200 mg/L, followed by the fruit extract of Z. heitzii with 83.33% mortality at the same concentration. Nonetheless, larvae were most susceptible to the fruit extract of Z. heitzii both in terms of LC50 (39.89 mg/L) and LT50 (145.68 h). A statistically significant difference between the control and the group treated at 200 mg/L was noticed in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study shows that the hydro-ethanolic extracts of S. guineense, Monodora myristica and Z. heitzii tested have significant larvicidal activity. These preliminary results are of great interest and some of these plant species can be proposed for the formulation of new bioinsecticides to control Ae. albopictus populations.
    6  Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract
    Idir Moualek Ghenima Iratni Aiche Nadjet Mestar Guechaoui Souad Lahcene Karim Houali
    2016(11):937-944. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.002
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.13 M](84)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo (A. unedo) leaves. Methods: In this context, the in vitro antioxidant activity was demonstrated by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical and H2O2 radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, ferric reducing power, total antioxidant capacity and by the protection against peroxidation of β-carotene-linoleic acid in emulsion. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated first by studying the membrane of human red blood cells against different hypotonic concentrations of NaCl and against heat, inhibiting the denaturation of albumin. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found respectively [(207.84 ± 15.03) mg gallic acid equivalent/g, and (13.070 ± 0.096) mg quercetin equivalent/g]. The extract displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl [IC50 at (7.956 ± 0.278) μg/mL], ˙OH [IC50 = (1 015.74 ± 46.35 μg/ mL)], H2O2 [IC50 = (114.77 ± 16.86) μg/mL] and showed a good antioxidant activity through ferrous ion chelating activity [IC50 = (1 014.30 ± 36.21) μg/mL], ferric reducing power [IC50 = (156.55 ± 17.40) μg/mL], total antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (461.67 ± 4.16) μg/mL] and β-carotene-linoleic acid protection against peroxidation [I % = (87.04 ± 1.21)% at 1 000 μg/mL]. Conclusions: A. unedo showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation and red blood cells membrane stabilization. Our results show that aqueous leaf extract of A. unedo has good antioxidant activity and interesting anti-inflammatory properties. A. unedo aqueous extract can be used to prevent oxidative and inflammatory processes.
    7  Anthelmintic activity of Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae) extract against adult worms and eggs of Haemonchus contortus
    Mohamed Bonewende Belemlilga Aristide Traore Sylvin Ouedraogo Adama Kabore Hamidou Hamadou Tamboura Innocent Pierre Guissou
    2016(11):945-949. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.015
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 423.15 K](82)
    Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic property of Saba senegalensis (A.DC) Pichon (Apocynaceae) (S. senegalensis) on Haemonchus contortus that is traditionally used in Burkina Faso for its gastrointestinal parasites treatment. Methods: The lyophilized aqueous decoction of leaves of S. senegalensis at concentrations of 0.10, 1.00, 3.00, 10.00 and 15.00 mg/mL was used on eggs and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus collected from gastrointestinal tract of small ruminant. Results: The LC50 on adult worms was 6.79 mg/mL and 3.25 mg/mL for the leaves of S. senegalensis and the levamisole (reference drug), respectively. Inhibition of hatching assay showed a concentration-dependent manner with an inhibition of 93.63% at the concentration of 15.00 mg/mL of S. senegalensis. Conclusions: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of S. senegalensis possesses an anthelmintic property and may justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites.
    8  Anti-nitric oxide production, anti-proliferation and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract from Tithonia diversifolia
    Poonsit Hiransai Jitbanjong Tangpong Chuthamat Kumbuar Namon Hoonheang Onrunee Rodpech Padchara Sangsuk Urairat Kajklangdon Waraphorn Inkaow
    2016(11):950-956. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.02.002
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 874.39 K](75)
    Objective: To determine the cytotoxicity, reduction in nitric oxide production and antioxidative activity of the aqueous leaf extract from Tithonia diversifolia (T. diversifolia) in an in vitro model. Methods: Leaves of T. diversifolia were collected from natural habitats and extracted with distilled water using the decoction method. The cytotoxic effect of the extract in terms of cell viability was determined using RAW264.7 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) via the mitochondrial respiration method using the MTT reagent. The effect of the extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells was measured using the Griess reagent. The chemical antioxidant was evaluated by ABTS- and DPPH-radical scavenging assays. Results: The half-maximal cytotoxic concentration values were 145.87 μg/mL and 73.67 μg/mL for human PBMCs and RAW264.7 cells, respectively. In the presence of phytohemagglutinin-M, the IC50 on PBMCs proliferation was 4.42 μg/mL. The noncytotoxic range of the extracts inhibited LPS-induced nitrite production in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 11.63 μg/mL. To determine the anti-oxidative properties, the N-acetyl cysteine equivalent antioxidant capacity of the extract was (32.62 ± 1.87) and (20.99 ± 2.79) mg N-acetyl cysteine/g extract, respectively determined by the ABTS-radical and DPPH-radical assay. However, the extract did not confer death protection in a hydrogen peroxideinduced RAW264.7 co-culturing model. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the immunomodulation caused by the aqueous leaf extract of T. diversifolia, resulting from the inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-Minduced PBMCs proliferation and LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Although the anti-oxidative activity was presented in the chemical-based anti-oxidant assay, the extract cannot protect cell death from stress conditions.
    9  GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) leaves
    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga Agnes Llamasares Castillo Mary Jho-Anne Tolentino Corpuz
    2016(11):957-961. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.015
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 588.23 K](79)
    Objective: To investigate and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the leaves of Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) (B. luzonica), an endemic plant in the Philippines. Methods: The air dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain three different extracts. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Qualitative determination of the different biologically active compounds from crude extracts of B. luzonica using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed different types of high and low molecular weight chemical entities with varying quantities present in each of the extracts. These chemical compounds are considered biologically and pharmacologically important. Furthermore, the three different extracts possess unique physicochemical characteristics which may be attributed to the compounds naturally present in significant quantities in the leaves of B. luzonica. Conclusions: The three extracts possess major bioactive compounds that were identified and characterized spectroscopically. Thus, identification of different biologically active compounds in the extracts of B. luzonica leaves warrants further biological and pharmacological studies.
    10  Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical standardization of Lunasia amara Blanco wood extract
    Muhammad Sulaiman Zubair Syariful Anam Subehan Lallo
    2016(11):962-966. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.014
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 646.15 K](82)
    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity of wood extracts of Lunasia amara Blanco (L. amara) and to perform further phytochemical standardization. Methods: The wood extracts of L. amara were assessed for cytotoxic activity by in vitro tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method against two human cancer cell lines, cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and breast cancer cells (T47D). Thin layer chromatography, Dragendorf, acetic anhydride-sulfuric acid and ferric chloride were used to detect alkaloids, steroids and polyphenols, respectively. Furthermore, quantitative determination of total alkaloid by ultra fast liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection using lunacrine as a marker compound was performed as well. Results: The ethyl acetate extract exhibited higher cell-growth inhibition than methanol and n-hexane extracts on HeLa and T47D cancer line cells with the IC50 of 71.15 and 79.04 μg/mL, respectively. Total alkaloid in ethyl acetate extract was counted as (10.46 ± 0.28)% (w/w), while lunacrine determined by ultra fast liquid chromatographyphotodiode array detection method was found to be (3.55 ± 0.26)% (w/w). Conclusions: The high total alkaloid and lunacrine concentration on the extract confirm the potential cytotoxic property of ethyl acetate wood extract of L. amara.
    11  Antiacanthamoebic properties of natural and marketed honey in Pakistan
    Farzana Abubakar Yousuf Malik Hassan Mehmood Abdul Malik Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui Naveed Ahmed Khan
    2016(11):967-972. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.05.010
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](74)
    Objective: To determine antiacanthamoebic activity of natural and marketed honey samples. Methods: Natural honey samples were collected directly from the bee hive and marketed honey samples were purchased from the local market in Karachi, Pakistan. Both honey samples were tested for their flavonoid content (quercetin equivalent per gram of the extract) and phenolic content (gallic acid equivalent per gram). Furthermore, their antioxidant activity was determined by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Using amoebistatic and amoebicidal assays, the effects of honey samples were tested against growth and viability of Acanthamoeba parasites. Results: Natural honey exhibited potent amoebistatic and amoebicidal effects, in a concentration-dependent manner. Honey-treated Acanthamoeba castellanii showed loss of acanthopodia, following which amoebae detached, rounded up, reduced in size, decreased in cytoplasmic mass and they were observed floating in the culture medium. Importantly, honey-treated amoebae did not revive when inoculated in fresh growth medium, however, glycerol-treated amoebae exhibited viable trophozoite and active growth. In contrast, marketed honey samples varied in their efficacy against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The proportion of flavonoid, as determined by quercetin measurements and the proportion of phenolic, as determined by gallic acid measurements was higher in natural honey compared with marketed honey. Similarly, the antioxidant activity, as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was higher in natural honey vs. marketed honey. Conclusions: This study shows that natural honey has antiacanthamoebic properties and possesses higher flavonoid, phenolic and antioxidant properties compared with the marketed honey. These findings are of concern to the public, health officials, and to the manufacturers regarding production of honey for medical applications.
    12  Procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin as promising markers for sepsis diagnosis and prognosis
    Silvia Angeletti Rossella Ottaviani Arcangela Michela Lanotte Lucia Pedicino Marina De Cesaris Alessandra Lo Presti Eleonora Cella Marta Fogolari Massimo Ciccozzi Giordano Dicuonzo
    2016(11):973-974. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.014
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 260.09 K](71)
    13  Therapeutic applications of collagenase (metalloproteases): A review
    Hamzeh Alipour Abbasali Raz Sedigheh Zakeri Navid Dinparast Djadid
    2016(11):975-981. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.017
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 462.72 K](98)
    Non-invasive therapeutic methods have recently been used in medical sciences. Enzymes have shown high activity at very low concentrations in laboratories and pharmaceutical, enabling them to play crucial roles in different biological phenomena related to living organism, especially human medicine. Recently, using the therapeutic methods based on non-invasive approaches has been emphasized in medical society. Researchers have focused on producing medicines and tools reducing invasive procedures in medical. Collagenases are proteins which catalyze chemical processes and break the peptide bonds in collagen. Collagen may be generated more than the required amount or produced in unsuitable sites or may not degrade after a certain time. In such cases, using an injectable collagenase or its ointment can be helpful in collagen degradation. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, it has been revealed that collagenases have several therapeutic properties in wound healing, burns, nipple pain and some diseases including intervertebral disc herniation, keloid, cellulite, lipoma among others. This review describes the therapeutic application of collagenase in medical sciences and the process for its production using novel methods, paving the way for more effective and safe applications of collagenases.
    14  Human and animal sarcocystosis in Malaysia: A review
    Baha Latif Azdayanti Muslim
    2016(11):982-988. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.003
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 927.79 K](80)
    Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a coccidian intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Sarcocystis. More than 200 Sarcocystis species have been recorded and the parasites are found in mammals, birds and reptiles. They require two hosts to complete their life cycle. In Malaysia, sarcocystosis was reported as a potential emerging food and water-borne disease after a series of large outbreak of human infections. There was not enough attention given before even though it was reported in both humans and animals. The first human case of invasive muscular sarcocystosis among local Malaysian was reported in 1975. Besides, a retrospective autopsy examination on 100 tongues revealed 21% positive cases. On top of that, a sero-epidemiological survey conducted in 243 subjects in West Malaysia showed that 19.7% had Sarcocystis antibodies. The clinical symptoms of muscular sarcocystosis were first described comprehensively in 1999. Meanwhile, many types of animals including livestock were found harbor the sarcocysts in their tissue. The first case of human intestinal sarcocystosis was reported in 2014. This review indicates that human sarcocystosis is currently endemic in Malaysia and parallel to that reported in animals. However, more studies and investigations need to be conducted since the source of human infection remains unknown.

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