Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Zika virus: A review of literature
    Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam Samaneh Bayrami Sepideh Jamali Moghadam Raheleh Golrokhi Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi
    2016(12):989-994. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.007
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 332.50 K](89)
    Zika virus (ZIKV) has two lineages: African and Asian. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are thought to replicate initially in dendritic cells and then spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream. Risk for infection through blood transfusion, sexual practices and perinatal transmission exists. The possible routes of perinatal transmission are during delivery, breastfeeding and by close contact between the mother and her newborn. Also, mucocutaneous exposures to the virus by infected blood or monkey bite, organ transplantation or hemodialysis are the other routes of ZIKV transmission. There are two types of ZIKV infection; Zika fever and congenital infection. Clinical presentation of Zika fever varies from asymptomatic infections to a self-limiting febrile disease with low grade fever, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, headache, retro-orbital pain and arthritis/arthralgia with periarticular edema, myalgia, vertigo, vomiting and asthenia. This clinical feature could be mistaken for dengue or chikungunya fevers. Microcephaly is the most important and frequently reported clinical picture of suspected congenital Zika syndrome. Laboratory tests are needed for diagnosis of ZIKV infection, because there is no known pathognomonic clinical, biochemical or radiological features. RT-PCR is the most well-liked assay. Serum samples are tested by immunoglobulin G ELISA with ZIKV antigen. Samples are also tested by immunoglobulin M ELISA. There is no certified vaccine or therapeutic medication. In asymptomatic or uncomplicated patients, treatment is not necessary.
    2  Experimental evaluation of Odonata nymph in the biocontrol of schistosomiasis intermediate hosts
    Aly Younes Hanaa El-Sherief Fathia Gawish Marwa Mahmoud
    2016(12):995-1000. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.006
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 794.05 K](78)
    Objective: To evaluate the predatory potential of the Odonata nymph on freshwater snails that serve as intermediate hosts for Schistosoma species (Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina). Methods: Observations on the searching, attacking and devouring of the two snail types with series of laboratory-based predation experiments, whose aims were to determine daily predation rate, differential predation, prey preference considering small-, medium-and large-sized snails were conducted. Results: Laboratory evaluation revealed that, the Odonata nymph could kill and consume the two intermediate hosts. The number of snails consumed differed according to the snail type, size and density. The times taken for searching and handling times were dependent on the snail size, type and satiation of the predator. The predation rate varied also with respect to snail type, size and density. This study also evaluated that Odonata nymphs consumed more Bulinus truncatus than Biomphalaria alexandrina per unit time, and that there may be a preference for smaller than larger snails. Conclusions: According to our observation, the predator, Hemianax ephippiger nymph may be a suitable biocontrol agent in connection with Schistosoma intermediate hosts.
    3  Potential effect of striatin (DLBS0333), a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Channa striata for wound treatment
    Puji Rahayu Faustine Marcelline Erna Sulistyaningrum Maggy Thenawidjaja Suhartono Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata
    2016(12):1001-1007. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.008
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.25 M](95)
    Objective: To characterize proteins and other nutrients in striatin (DLBS0333), a bioactive protein fraction isolated from snakehead fish (Channa striata) and to investigate its wound healing activity. Methods: Proteins and other constituents in striatin were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two dimension electrophoresis, immunoblotting assay, spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The wound healing activity of striatin was studied in vitro using 3T3 fibroblast cells and in vivo using wound-induced animal model. Various parameters related to wound healing process were evaluated. Results: Striatin contained four major bioactive proteins with approximate molecular weight of 8.3, 10.9, 15.4 and 16.7 kDa. In addition to proteins, striatin also contained amino acids (10 essential and 7 non essential amino acids), fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid), vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin B6) and other nutrients (carbohydrate, dietary fiber, biotin, choline, inositol, L-carnitine, selenium) which are potential for wound healing and increasing serum albumin level. Treatment with striatin both in vitro and in vivo indicated that striatin enhanced cell proliferation. Wound-induced animal model treated with striatin showed significantly faster wound healing process, as confirmed by wound size and faster serum albumin level recovery. Although striatin does not contain albumin, this bioactive protein fraction may lead to enhanced albumin synthesis in the liver thereby maintaining the blood albumin level. Thus, consuming striatin is a better option to improve albumin levels in diseased condition and the condition of being injured. Conclusions: Striatin (DLBS0333) is a potential natural compound for accelerating wound healing in conditions such as post surgery and post partum, and increasing albumin level.
    4  The impacts of a fliD mutation on the biofilm formation of Helicobacter pylori
    Panan Ratthawongjirakul Vorraruthai Thongkerd Wanpen Chaicumpa
    2016(12):1008-1014. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.005
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.61 M](83)
    Objective: To investigate the impact of the fliD gene on the biofilm formation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Methods: H. pylori fliD mutant was constructed using inverse PCR mutagenesis. The mobility of the bacteria and its adhesion ability to human epithelial cells were assessed using a motility assay and a fluorescein isothiocyanate staining adhesion assay, respectively. The formation of biofilm was evaluated using a pellicle assay and a crystal violet staining assay. The cyto-architecture of the biofilm was documented with scanning electron microscopy. Results: It was found that there was no significant difference in the levels of bacterial adhesion and the biofilm formation between the wild-type ATCC 43504 and the fliD mutant. Apart from a poor motility, the fliD mutant had a slightly delayed formation of its biofilm and an incomplete cyto-architecture of its biofilm. The bacterial cells residing in the biofilm of the fliD mutant showed a loose accumulation with less apparent crosslinking fibrils. Most of the mutant cells had truncated flagella. Conclusions: This study provides the preliminary evidences that fliD potentially regulates biofilm formation and is required for the motility of H. pylori. Further studies need to be performed in order to develop fliD as a novel target for vaccine or antimicrobial agent in future.
    5  Effects of bixin in high-fat diet-fed-induced fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice
    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez Rita Valadez Romero
    2016(12):1015-1021. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.006
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.29 M](78)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-obesity activity of bixin (BIX) on C57BL/6J mice which were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to determine the mechanism of this effect. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were separately fed a high-calorie diet or a normal diet for 8 weeks, then they were treated with BIX for another 13 weeks. After administration for 13 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Body adiposity, serum lipid level, and insulin resistance were evaluated. In addition, a histological assay of pancreas and liver, an evaluation of the inhibitory properties on pancreatic lipase, and α-amylase were conducted. Results: Administration of BIX significantly decreased the body weight gain, adipocyte size, fat pad weights, hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, reduced liver weight exhibited decreased serum leptin levels, malic enzyme, glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase, hepatic fatty acid synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity. However, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels were increased in hepatic tissue. BIX also decreased lipid and carbohydrates absorption due to inhibition of pancreatic lipase and α-amylase. Long term supplementation of BIX significantly decreased hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and glucose level. Decreased levels of hepatic steatosis and the islets of Langerhans appeared less shrunken in HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: The antiobesity effect of BIX appears to be associated at least in part, to its inhibitory effect on lipids and carbohydrate digestion enzymes such as pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase, and α-amylase. The results suggested that BIX also act as an antioxidant and may treat visceral obesity normalizing glucose levels, improving insulin resistance and increasing energy expenditure. Therefore, achiote which has a main component, the carotenoid BIX, could be a viable food for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.
    6  Chemo-type of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. from DR Congo and relative in vitro antioxidant potential to the polarity of crude extracts
    Dorothee Dinangayi Tshilanda Philippe Bila Babady Damase Nguwo Vele Onyamboko Christian Muamba Tshilolo Tshiongo Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua Philippe Vuka Tsalu Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana
    2016(12):1022-1028. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.013
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 515.72 K](78)
    Objective: To carry out a phyto-chemical characterization of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum) harvested in DR Congo and to assess the antioxidant potential of crude extracts with respect to the polarity for comparison reason. Methods: The phyto-chemical characterization of essential oil produced by hydrodistillation was performed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis and the antioxidant potential evaluation by in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity method. Results: A previously weighed amount of fresh leaves of O. basilicum produced 0.65% of essential oil that led to the identification of a set of 84.44% out of 99.98% as major compounds (> 1.5%). The chemo-type of this essential oil was linalool-methyl chavicol. Chemical components of oil were characterized by oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons (46.00%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (26.75%). With respect to the amount of components, methyl chavicol also known as estragole (35.72%) constituted the very large quantity afterward linalool (21.25%) and then epi-α-cadinol (8.02%), α-bergamotene (6.56%), eugenol (4.60%), 1,8-cineole (4.04%), germacrene D (2.06%), thymol (1.64%), and (E)- citral (1.55%), respectively. Essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential and IC50 = (1.180 ± 0.015) mg/mL. Non-polar crude extracts yields were low compared to the one of polar extracts. Only methanol and ethyl acetate had considerably manifested antioxidant potential with IC50 values equal to (0.025 ± 0.013) mg/mL and (0.085 ± 0.012) mg/mL, respectively. As concerns to IC50 values, essential oil was less active than methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The methanol crude extract exhibited the highest activity. Non-polar extracts showed insignificant radical scavenging ability that did not allow assessing IC50 values. These results highlighted the occurrence of antioxidant potential compounds in polar media. Conclusions: Essential oil and crude extracts of O. basilicum growing in DR Congo can be advocated as natural sources of antioxidant potential compounds not only in food but also in pharmaceutical industries. The high antioxidant potential of polar crude extracts highlights antioxidant character of its composition particularly butyl stearate and rosmarinic acid we isolated and identified, respectively in the methanol crude extract.
    7  Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. leaves extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Leila Mousavi Rabeta Mohd Salleh Vikneswaran Murugaiyah Mohd Zaini Asmawi
    2016(12):1029-1036. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.002
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 421.21 K](84)
    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (O. tenui- florum) leaves used in the traditional medicine management of diabetes in Malaysia. Methods: O. tenuiflorum leaves were extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were evaluated in terms of antidiabetic activity by using acute, subcutaneous glucose tolerance, and sub-chronic tests in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analyses. Results: With an acute dose (1 g/kg), the methanol extracts showed significant reduction (31%) in fasting blood glucose (FBG) of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The FBG-decreasing effect of ethyl acetate extract was more rapid than that of the other extracts; the decreasing rates were 20% after 2 h, 21% after 3 h, and 8% after 5 and 7 h. After 7 h (31%), the effect of methanol extract on FBG was significantly lower than that of metformin. In the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, only methanol and hexane extracts showed the similarity of metformin in diabetic rats. After 14 days, the effects of these extracts were similar to those of metformin (63.33%). The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of extracts decreased as the polarity of the extraction solvent increased. Conclusions: The results obtained provide support for a possible use of O. tenuiflorum leaves in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2 diabetic.
    8  Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Kirkia wilmsii tubers
    Kayini Chigayo Paul Eanas Lesedi Mojapelo Simon Mnyakeni-Moleele Jane Masiiwa Misihairabgwi
    2016(12):1037-1043. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.004
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 566.25 K](80)
    Objective: To determine suitable phytochemical extraction solvents, screen for phytochemicals, determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Kirkia wilmsii (K. wilmsii), an ethnomedicine in South Africa. Methods: Extractions were performed from dried tubers of the K. wilmsii plant, using several solvents and varying extraction times. Extract yields were determined and suitable extraction solvents were selected. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Results: Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, cardenolide deoxy sugars and reducing sugars. Of the 12 solvent extracts used, six gave yields higher than 5%, while the other six gave yields less than 1%. The highest extract yield of 52.9% was obtained using 80% methanol while the lowest yield of 7.3% was obtained using ethanol at 60 min. The 80% methanol, methanol/chloroform/water (12:5:3) and 60% methanol extracts were significantly higher than those of ethanol, methanol and water (P < 0.05). Total phenolic content recorded extracts ranged from (45.32 ± 0.50) to (122.84 ± 0.31) mg gallic acid equivalent per gram. A maximum total flavonoid content of (917.02 ± 0.10) mg quercetin equivalent per gram and a minimum of (206.26 ± 0.10) mg quercetin equivalent per gram were recorded for methanol and water, respectively. The flavonoid content for methanol was significantly higher than all the other extracts (P < 0.05). The scavenging profiles of K. wilmsii extracts were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of ascorbic acid and IC50 values ranged from 129.94 μg/mL for methanol to 225.04 μg/mL for water. An IC50 value of 56.52 μg/mL was obtained with ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Ethanol, methanol, methanol/chloroform/water, 80% methanol, 60% methanol and water can be used as suitable phytochemical extraction solvents for K. wilmsii tubers. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content analysis proved the presence of high levels of phenolic compounds as well as flavonoids. The presence of phenols and flavonoid could be responsible for the radical scavenging activities observed.
    9  Evaluation of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Cistus ladaniferus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Mohamed El Kabbaoui Alae Chda Ouarda Azdad Najlae Mejrhit Lotfi Aarab Rachid Bencheikh Abdelali Tazi
    2016(12):1044-1049. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.005
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 798.52 K](85)
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cistus ladaniferus (C. ladaniferus) on glycemic and lipidemic status in diabetic rats. Methods: Overnight fasted rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) to induce experimental diabetes. The aqueous extract of the leaves of C. ladaniferus was administered orally at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. Hypoglycemic effect, body weight, oral glucose tolerance, change in lipid parameters, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract were evaluated in experimental animals. Results: Administration of 500 mg/kg of C. ladaniferus extract to diabetic rats for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea and creatinine. Furthermore, the extract of C. ladaniferus improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats, and its antidiabetic effect was similar to the one obtained with glibenclamide. The hypolipidemic effect was demonstrated by an important decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Conclusions: It is concluded that C. ladaniferus leaf extract showed an antidiabetic activity in experimental diabetes which was similar to the one obtained with glibenclamide.
    10  Antityrosinase, antioxidative activities, and brine shrimp lethality of ethanolic extracts from Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl.
    Patcharawan Tanamatayarat
    2016(12):1050-1055. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.001
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 343.80 K](81)
    Objective: To evaluate all parts of Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl. (P. serratum) for their phytochemistry and biological activities including antityrosinase, antioxidant, and brine shrimp lethality. Methods: Nine ethanolic extracts from different P. serratum parts such as twig, whole fruit, pericarp, and root were investigated for their phytochemical screening and biological activities in terms of tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidant against 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, and lethality to brine shrimp larvae. Results: Phytochemical screening also revealed the presence of flavonoids, condensed tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, and sugars in P. serratum. The root extract was the most effective for antityrosinase activity with IC50 of (21.63 ± 0.31) mg/mL, and the leaf extract exhibited the highest antioxidation activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods, with IC50 of (4.34 ± 0.09) and (119.80 ± 1.01) μg/ mL, respectively. The essential oil extracted from the whole fruit displayed the highest toxicity against brine shrimp, with LC50 of (3.57 ± 1.82) μg/mL. Conclusions: This study indicates that ethanolic extracts from each P. serratum part have differences in phytochemistry and biological activities (antityrosinase, antioxidant, and brine shrimp lethality). Some parts of the plant should be considered in the further study.
    11  Role of zinc as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory to relieve cadmium oxidative stress induced testicular damage in rats
    Samir Abd El-Monem Bashandy Enayat Abdel Aziz Omara Hossam Ebaid Mohamed Mahmoud Amin Mahmoud Sanad Soliman
    2016(12):1056-1064. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.016
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.11 M](91)
    Objective: To investigate the role of zinc in reducing the deleterious effects of cadmium on male gonads. Methods: Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl2 and ZnCl2 at dose level of 2.2 mg/kg (1/40 of LD50 of cadmium per day). Results: The rats treated with cadmium exhibited a significant increase in levels of testicular malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitrogen oxide and inducible nitrogen oxide synthase immunostaining reaction, as well as an elevation of blood hydroperoxide and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition, a significant decrease in testicular ascorbic acid, zinc, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, sex organ weight, plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone were observed in the cadmium group. Sperm motility and count were decreased with cadmium treatment, while sperm abnormalities elevated significantly. Zinc treatment was found to mitigate the toxic effects of cadmium on oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, sex hormones, and inflammatory markers. Rats injected with cadmium showed intense histopathological changes. Zinc manifested protective role and markedly reduced tissues damage induced by cadmium. Conclusions: The protective effect of zinc can be attributed to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties.
    12  New aspects about Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Blattellidae)
    Hassan Nasirian
    2016(12):1065-1075. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.017
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 933.25 K](81)
    The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Blattellidae) (S. longipalpa), recently has infested the buildings and hospitals in wide areas of Iran, and this review was prepared to identify current knowledge and knowledge gaps about the brown-banded cockroach. Scientific reports and peer-reviewed papers concerning S. longipalpa and relevant topics were collected and synthesized with the objective of learning more about health-related impacts and possible management of S. longipalpa in Iran. Like the German cockroach, the brown-banded cockroach is a known vector for food-borne diseases and drug resistant bacteria, contaminated by infectious disease agents, involved in human intestinal parasites and is the intermediate host of Trichospirura leptostoma and Moniliformis moniliformis. Because its habitat is widespread, distributed throughout different areas of homes and buildings, it is difficult to control. Considering its possible resistance to insecticides, the control situation may be far more complex. For improved control of S. longipalpa an integrated pest management program is needed. Sanitation, indoor insecticide spraying in the initial cockroach control phase and insecticide formulation baits are recommended simultaneously.
    13  Leonurus sibiricus L. (honeyweed): A review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology
    Md. Abu Sayed Md. Ashraful Alam Md. Shariful Islam Md. Taif Ali Md. Emdad Ullah Abu Zaffar Shibly Md. Aslam Ali Md. Mahdi Hasan-Olive
    2016(12):1076-1080. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.003
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 589.23 K](74)
    Leonurus sibiricus is a herbaceous plant found in many countries in Asia and America. This plant is widely practiced as a remedy for the treatment of diabetes, menstrual irregularities, and bronchitis. The approval of therapeutic implications of any drugs depends on the well characterized mode of actions of the compounds. The bioactive compounds like diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids in Leonurus sibiricus show analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-atherogenic and antihemorrhagic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial and allelopathic potency. Interestingly, the expression level of some genes is altered by the crude extract treatments, which are effective against cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases where the molecular mechanisms are yet to be explored. Intriguingly, the extracts significantly induce nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a signaling molecule of vasodilation in combination with interferon-γ indicating positive effect on atherosclerosis. Further investigations are required to unlock the effects of bioactive compounds found in extracts at clinical settings.

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