Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Screening and antibacterial efficacy of selected Indian medicinal plants
    Suresh Mickymaray Mohammad Saleh Al Aboody Pradipta Kumar Rath Panneerselvam Annamalai Thajuddin Nooruddin Mohammad Saleh Al Aboody Pradipta Kumar Rath Panneerselvam Annamalai Thajuddin Nooruddin
    2016(3):185-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.005
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 979.09 K](181)
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of five Indian medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica L. (A. indica), Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. (A. lanata), Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn., Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. and Solanum surattense Burm. f. against opportunistic bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV infected patients for the potential phytoconstituents in plant extracts. Methods: The opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens from Gramnegative group and Staphylococcus aureus from Gram-positive group were isolated from HIV infected patients. The antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal plants was carried out by disc diffusion method. The potential phytoconstituents of medicinal plant extracts were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Results: Among the five medicinal plants tested, A. indica and A. lanata showed the significant antibacterial activity. A. indica showed potential activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. A. lanata significantly exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 19 phytoconstituents were identified in the ethanolic extract of A. indica and A. lanata by GC–MS analysis respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation revealed that A. indica and A. lanata, possessed significant antibacterial activity when compared with the other plant extracts tested. The presence of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by GC–MS analysis in both A. indica and A. lanata extracts has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and the findings in this study could be the first one to report.
    2  Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride from Clinacanthus nutans, a traditional Thai herbal medicine
    Sirada Pongmuangmul Supaporn Phumiamorn Phanchana Sanguansermsri Nalin Wongkattiya Ian Hamilton Fraser Donruedee Sanguansermsri
    2016(3):192-197. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.014
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 949.14 K](133)
    Objective: To evaluate the monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) from Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) for their in vitro antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) by plaque reduction assay. Methods: MGDG and DGDG were extracted with chloroform from C. nutans leaves. MGDG and DGDG were separated from chloroform crude extract using column chromatography, characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The anti HSV-1 and 2 activity against pre-treatment and posttreatment of the compounds was evaluated using plaque reduction assay. The cytotoxicity of the extract and the compounds on Vero cells were performed by MTT assay. Results: MGDG and DGDG obtained by column chromatography showed identical pro- files as standard MGDG and standard DGDG using thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. MGDG and DGDG from C. nutans showed 100% inhibition of HSV-1 replication at the post step of infection at noncytotoxic concentration with IC50 values of 36.00 and 40.00 μg/mL, and HSV-2 at 41.00 and 43.20 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MGDG and DGDG from C. nutans were demonstrated to have antiherpes simplex activity at the same level as standard synthetic compounds. In contrast, pretreatment of Vero cells with MGDG and DGDG before HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection did not show inhibitory effect against these viruses. MGDG and DGDG exhibited antiviral activity against HSV-1 with selectivity index of 26.00 and 23.00 and HSV-2 of 23.30 and 21.30. Conclusions: MGDG and DGDG from C. nutans, a traditional Thai herbal medicine illustrated inhibitory activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2, probably by inhibiting the late stage of multiplication, suggesting their promising use as anti-HSV agents.
    3  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of aerial parts of the Daphne mucronata Royle extract in mice: Opioid-independent action
    Zohreh Khodadadian Majid Hassanpour-Ezatti Seyed Zahra Mousavi Jinous Asgarpanah
    2016(3):198-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.004
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 687.17 K](127)
    Objective: To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory property and possible involvement of opioid receptors of ethyl acetate extract from aerial parts of Daphne mucronata (D. mucronata) in mice by formalin test. Methods: Single doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight of ethyl acetate extract of D. mucronata were intraperitoneally administered to the mice 30 min before analgesic test. The anti-nociceptive effect of preparations was evaluated based on the formalin in mice. Results: The results indicated that the extract (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) increased the pain threshold of mice and induced analgesia in both phases of formalin test. Like morphine sulfate (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the extract also showed more effective analgesic effect on the late phase of formalin test. Pre-treatment of animals with naloxone (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) did not inhibit the effects of the extract. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that D. mucronata contains potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory compounds which support its traditional use. Moreover, it seems that the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract is mediated by non-opioid mechanisms. Further pharmacological studies are required to determine whether the analgesic mechanisms are actually responsible for such properties.
    4  Sub-chronic effects of a Phthirusa pyrifolia aqueous extract on reproductive function and comparative hormone levels in male rats
    Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brand?o-Costa Vivianne Ferreira Araujo Elizabeth Neves Maria Tereza Santos Correia Ana Lucia Figueiredo Porto Maria das Gra?as Carneiro-da-Cunha
    2016(3):202-210. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.003
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.49 M](142)
    Objective: To explore the effects of aqueous extract from Phthirusa pyrifolia leaves (67 mg/kg body weight for 12 days) on the reproductive function of male Wistar rats through oral administration. Methods: Animals (n = 30), aged 13 weeks and weighing (378.5 ± 5.0) g, were housed in a vivarium under controlled environmental conditions [photoperiod of 12 h light/dark, temperature of (23 ± 1) ℃] and were fed standard rations ad libitum. The experiment ran for 12 days, wherein animals were divided into three groups: negative control (n = 6) received water, positive control (n = 12) with finasteride at a concentration of 1.0 mg/kg; and a test group (n = 12) submitted to aqueous extract. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and submitted to analyses. Results: The morphological results of the testes showed that the aqueous extract induced significant changes in the diameter and cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubules as well as the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, the extract was able to abruptly decrease testosterone concentrations by about 81.88% in the treated group when compared with the negative control, (47.0 ± 4.8) ng/dL and (255.0 ± 2.0) ng/dL, respectively, and 76.8%, (211.0 ± 8.7) ng/dL, when compared with finasteride. However, the extract causes neither liver damage nor impairment of renal function. Conclusions: These results suggest that the high amounts of flavonoids shown to be in the extract may be responsible for its hepato-protective effects and suggest a possible decrease in the libido and reproduction of rats.
    5  Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria
    Hassanain Al-Talib Norliana Dalila Mohamad Ali Mohamed Harreez Suhaimi Siti Shafika Nabila Rosli Nurul Huda Othman Nur Ain Sakinah Mansor Amira Kartini Sulaiman Shah Nurul Syuhada Ariffin Alyaa Al-Khateeb
    2016(3):211-215. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.009
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 977.98 K](133)
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activities of green vegetables (pennywort, mint, garlic, parsley and celery) against four common enteric bacteria [Salmonella enterica (ATCC 25957) (S. enterica), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), Escherichia coli (ATCC 43889) (E. coli) and Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) (E. cloacae)] as an alternative medicine for controlling food borne diarrhea disease and the synergistic effect of green vegetables against those bacteria. Methods: Five common vegetables (pennywort, mint, garlic, parsley and celery) were purchased and extracted. The antimicrobial activities of these extracts were tested against four common enteric bacteria (S. enterica, S. flexneri, E. coli and E. cloacae). Ten different concentrations of the extracts (from 640 to 1.25 mg/mL) were prepared and used for the study. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution method. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by using both well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. Results: Garlic extract showed excellent inhibitory effects on all enteric bacteria. Other plants (parsley, celery, mint and pennywort) were not effective against enteric bacteria. The MIC of garlic against S. flexneri and E. cloacae was 40 mg/mL. The MIC of S. enterica and E. coli were 20 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method with clear and sharp inhibition zones of tested bacteria against plant extracts. Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery) showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.
    6  Quantitative determination of vitexin in Passiflora foetida Linn. leaves using HPTLC
    Aussavashai Shuayprom Donruedee Sanguansermsri Phanchana Sanguansermsri Ian Hamilton Fraser Nalin Wongkattiya
    2016(3):216-220. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.006
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 608.65 K](142)
    Objective: To establish a simple, rapid, precise and accurate high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method with densitometric detection for the determination of vitexin in Passiflora foetida Linn. (P. foetida). Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant leaf powder was used for the experimental work. Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with ethyl acetate: methanol: distilled water: formic acid in the proportion of 50:2:3:6 (v/v), as the mobile phase. The determination was carried out using the densitometric absorbance mode at 340 nm. Results: Vitexin response was linear over the range of 2.5–17.5 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative SD was < 3%. Accuracy of the method was determined and the average recovery was 100.3%. The limit of quantitation and limit of detection were 0.879 and 0.290 μg/mL, respectively. The contents of vitexin in P. foetida leaf extracts were within the range of 0.030%– 0.310%. Conclusions: The method was evaluated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision and reproducibility. Each analysis by HPTLC is less expensive than current methods. This method is suitable for routine quality control of raw material of the leaves of P. foetida extract and its products.
    7  Comparative repellency effect of three plant extracts on Paederus beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), the cause of linear dermatitis in Iran
    Dariush Gaffari Maryam Hakimi Parizi Abbas Aghaei Afshar Siavosh Tirgari
    2016(3):221-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.007
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 290.89 K](136)
    Objective: To investigate the repellent effect of neem, juniper and eucalyptus extracts as a form of protection against Paederus beetles, which are a cause of linear dermatitis in Iran. Methods: After collecting and extracting plant samples, the extracts were tested on Paederus beetles in three concentrations (2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%) with direct method under laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20). Results: The results indicated that there was a significant difference between neem with juniper and eucalyptus at the 2.5% and 5.0% concentrations (P < 0.05), whereas there was a significant difference between all three extracts at the 10.0% concentration (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This is the first report on the repellent effect of these three plant extracts on Paederus beetles. Neem oil appeared to have the largest effect on Paederus spp. and juniper essential oil exhibited the second highest repellency, followed by eucalyptus.
    8  Phytochemistry, anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl. leaf extract
    Ovuakporie-Uvo Oghale MacDonald Idu
    2016(3):225-231. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.007
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 703.29 K](134)
    Objective: To study the phytochemistry, anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl. (A. difformis) and to verify claims of use in folk medicine. Methods: For anti-asthmatic activity, male and female guinea pigs with average body weight of (451.4 ± 118.1) g were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as control (distilled water); Group 2 was administered with salbutamol (reference drug) only; Group 3 served as ovalbumin sensitized group, Group 4, 5 and 6 were treated with A. difformis extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Described methods were used to test fluid viscosity, fluid volume and quantitative phytochemistry analysis. Absorbance was read using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer and results computed in percentage. Total antioxidant assays [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assay], were carried out using reported procedures. Results: The anti-asthmatic evaluation showed that protection from asthma of the animals in Group 6 (400 mg/kg, 32.7%) were similar to that in Group 2 (salbutamol, 33.0%). Excised trachea was free of mucus secretion in Group 5 (200 mg/kg) as was observed in the control group. Fluid volume increase in Groups 3 and 6 indicated mucus secretion. DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract was effective as ascorbic acid which served as standard at 20 μg/mL. But, the extract elicited low lipid peroxidation activity compared with the reference (tocopherol) at concentrations tested. Conclusions: A. difformis aqueous leaf extract is safe and possesses positive antiasthmatic and antioxidant activities as claimed by traditional herbal practitioners in Delta State.
    9  Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice
    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot Supaporn Wannasiri
    2016(3):232-238. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.006
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.38 M](136)
    Objective: To examine the effect of Senna alata (S. alata) leaf extracts on the regulation of lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Methods: The obesity condition was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them with high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. At the 7th week of diet feeding, the obese mice were treated with the water extract of S. alata leaf at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively, that continued for six weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the biochemical parameters were determined. The hepatic histology and the gene and protein expressions were also examined. Results: In comparison with the obese control mice, the mice treated with S. alata showed a significant reduction in the elevated blood glucose levels and a decrease in the serum insulin and leptin levels. A reduction in the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, and hepatic triglyceride levels were also observed. The histological examination of the obese mice treated with S. alata showed a reduced lipid accumulation in the liver tissue. Hepatic lipogenic gene expression showed that S. alata decreased the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. S. alata could suppress hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) protein. Moreover, the protein expression of PPARα in liver tissue was clearly increased by S. alata treatment. Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARγ and upregulating PPARα. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.
    10  Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from ten Algerian Ficus carica L. varieties
    Souhila Mahmoudi Mustapha Khali Abderahim Benkhaled Karima Benamirouche Imen Baiti
    2016(3):239-245. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.010
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.31 M](132)
    Objective: To determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic leaf extracts of ten Algerian fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties (uniferous, biferous and caprifig tree). Methods: Phenolics were extracted by Soxhlet method and analyzed by the Folin– Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Flavonoids were determined by aluminum trichloride assay and the antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied with the disc diffusion method and a macrodilution broth method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations. Results: The mean extract yield was 14.10% ± 0.66% (n = 10). Leaf extract of biferous followed by uniferous varieties had the highest total phenolic contents [(52.296 ± 5.232) and (48.973 ± 2.015) mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry plant extract respectively], flavonoids [(14.388 ± 0.333) and (14.136 ± 1.082) mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry plant extract] and antioxidant capacity [IC50 (798.754 ± 108.590) and (825.004 ± 110.835) μg/ mL]. Antioxidant capacity of fig leaves was significantly correlated with phenolic contents (r = 0.748). These extracts showed bactericidal activity and moderate antifungal activity, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations were determined on Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: All tested extracts contain phenolic compounds and exhibited an antioxidant activity and an antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further researches on identification and purification of phenolic compounds are required.
    11  Evaluations of cytotoxicity of Smilax myosotiflora and its effects on sexual hormone levels and testicular histology in male rats
    Muhammad Hilmi Wan Norliza Ahmad Mohd Dasuki Sul'ain
    2016(3):246-250. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.013
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 582.15 K](127)
    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity of Smilax myosotiflora (S. myosotiflora) methanolic extract and its effects on sexual hormone levels and testicular histology in male rats. Methods: The cytotoxicity of S. myosotiflora methanolic extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay. Forty eight male rats were randomly divided into four groups (Groups Ⅰ–Ⅳ) of 12 each. Rats in Group Ⅰ were administered with 0.5 mL of distilled water (vehicle), whilst Groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ received 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the methanolic extract of S. myosotiflora in 0.5 mL of the vehicle, respectively. Male rats treated with continuous daily dosing were killed and necropsied after a total dose period of 60 days. Sexual hormones were assayed and histological examination of testes was performed according to standard methods. Results: S. myosotiflora extracts did not produce any cytotoxicity to brine shrimp in all concentrations tested. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in rats treated with high dose of S. myosotiflora. Testicular histology showed normal architecture with all stages of spermatogenesis in all experimental groups. Conclusions: The present work confirmed that S. myosotiflora extract improves reproductive functions, without any cytotoxic activity and produces no histological changes to the testes.
    12  The inhibition of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume leaf extract on COX-2 expression of WiDr colon cancer cells
    Agustina Setiawati Handika Immanuel Mery Tri Utami
    2016(3):251-255. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.012
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 714.76 K](173)
    Objective: To determine the inhibition activity of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume (T. flagelliforme) leaf extract on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression of colon cancer cells. Methods: T. flagelliforme leaf extract was prepared to macerate in ethyl acetate. In vitro anticancer activity was assayed by MTT method on WiDr colon cancer cells. This study applied apoptosis induction assay to investigate the mechanism of cell death using double staining method. COX-2 expression was stained by immunocytochemistry. Results: T. flagelliforme showed anticancer activity and induced apoptosis on WiDr cells through inhibition of COX-2 expression with IC50 70 μg/mL. Conclusions: This study showed that T. flagelliforme is a promising chemopreventive agent for colon cancer through COX-2 inhibition.
    13  Changes in energetic profile of pregnant ewes in relation with the composition of the fetal fluids
    Samia Haffaf Bouabdellah Benallou
    2016(3):256-258. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.005
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To evaluate the energetic profile of fetal fluids and to make comparisons of the concentrations of the constituents present with those in the maternal plasma. Methods: A study was conducted in 102 gravid sheep uteri. The four stages of gestation as Stage Ⅰ (0–60 days), Stage Ⅱ (61–90 days), Stage Ⅲ (91–120 days) and Stage Ⅳ (121– 145 days) were identified based on the crown anus length of the embryo/fetus. The amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from the gravid uteri of each group were subjected to biochemical analysis of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. Results: The levels of glucose and triglyceride in maternal plasma were lower (P < 0.05) on late pregnancy as well as in amniotic and allantoic fluids. No significant variation (P > 0.05) of plasma cholesterol levels was detected between the sampling periods. Contrariwise, cholesterol concentrations of fetal fluids were higher in Stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ of pregnancy when compared with the Stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Conclusions: The influence of pregnancy on the biochemical composition of fetal fluids was statistically significant.
    14  In vitro antihistamine-releasing activity of a peptide derived from wasp venom of Vespa orientalis
    Jafar Jalaei Mehdi Fazeli Hamid Rajaian Somayeh Layeghi Ghalehsoukhteh Alireza Dehghani Dominic Winter
    2016(3):259-264. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.001
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 1023.97 K](131)
    Objective: To investigate the antihistamine-releasing effect of a peptide isolated from wasp venom of Vespa orientalis. Methods: This peptide was separated from crude venom by chromatography methods and mass spectrometry. Then various concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 μmol/L) of the peptide were incubated with mast cells and lactate dehydrogenase assay was performed. Results: No significant effect was observed in lactate dehydrogenase absorbance under 128 μmol/L concentration. This implied that the peptide did not cause cell death in mast cells and consequently, histamine release did not happen. Moreover, the results showed the IC50 of mast cells degranulation at 126 μmol/L, which was approximately high implying that this peptide had high selectivity for normal cells and did not cause histamine release from these cells. Conclusions: This would be a great aim in new drug development, in which an agent acts potentially on its target tissue without activating the immune system.
    15  Bee pollen extract of Malaysian stingless bee enhances the effect of cisplatin on breast cancer cell lines
    Wan Adnan Wan Omar Nur Asna Azhar Nurdianah Harif Fadzilah Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed Kamal
    2016(3):265-269. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.011
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 655.43 K](128)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of methanolic bee pollen extract (BPE) of Malaysian stingless bee [Lepidotrigona terminata (L. terminata)] and its synergistic effect with cisplatin (a chemotherapeutic drug) on MCF-7 cancer cell line. Methods: The antioxidant activity of BPE from L. terminata was measured by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity at different concentrations of BPE and cisplatin was determined through using MTT assay on MCF-7 and L929 cell lines. An interaction effect (synergistic, additive and antagonistic) between BPE and cisplatin was determined by CompuSyn software based on MTT assay data. Results: The EC50 (50% decrement of DPPH inhibition) of BPE was 0.5 mg/mL. L. terminata BPE exhibited antiproliferative activity on both cancer and normal cell lines. The IC50 (concentration of drug that was required for 50% of cell inhibition in vitro) of BPE on MCF-7 was 15 mg/mL whereas in normal cell line L929 was 26 mg/mL. The IC50 for cisplatin on MCF-7 was 20 μmol/L. The combination effect of BPE and cisplatin on MCF-7 cells showed that BPE at 15 mg/mL was able to potentiate the inhibitory effect of cisplatin at all different concentrations (2.5–20.0 mg/mL). The average of cancer cells inhibition which was potentiated by BPE was around 50%. A combination index values of less than 1 reported in the CompuSyn software further proved the synergistic effect between BPE and cisplatin, suggesting that BPE was working synergistically with cisplatin. Conclusions: Our study therefore suggested that BPE of Malaysian stingless bee, L. terminata is a potential chemopreventive agent and can be used as a supplementary treatment for chemotherapy drugs. BPE might be able to be used to potentiate the effect of chemotherapy drugs with the possibility to reduce the required dose of the drugs. The molecular mechanisms of how the BPE exerts antiproliferative activity will be a much interesting area to look for in future studies.
    16  Natural antibacterial remedy for respiratory tract infections
    Reham F. El-Kased
    2016(3):270-274. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.002
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 306.69 K](126)
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Egyptian honey against bacteria causing respiratory tract infections. Methods: Sputum and throat swab specimens were used, from which five bacterial species were isolated, namely, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia were isolated, identified and grown on suitable media for further identification or confirmation. Different concentrations (100%, 75% and 25%) of honey and simulated honey solution were used for activity assay and estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results: All the tested bacterial isolates were completely susceptible to the 75% concentrations of honey and to the 100% concentration of the simulated honey solution. This may be due to the high osmotic pressure exerted by the high sugar content in both honey samples. Moderate susceptibility of the isolated bacteria to honey at 100% v/v concentration, and resistance to honey at 25% concentration and the 75% and 25% concentrations of simulated honey solution, indicated the presence of other antimicrobial components responsible for the activity other than the osmotic pressure. Therefore, it was suggested that honey showed distinguished antibacterial activities against the most common bacteria causing respiratory infections with varied sensitivity. Conclusions: Honey, a non-toxic, nutritious, safe for human consumption and cheap natural antibacterial agent, should be globalized.
    17  Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran
    Fatemeh Shobeiri Khodayar Oshvandi Mansour Nazari
    2016(3):275-278. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.008
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 530.37 K](129)
    Objective: To assess prevalence of cyclical mastalgia and its main determinants in women who attended in health centers of Hamadan City, Iran. Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 400 women (case: cyclical mastalgia, n = 240; control: without cyclical mastalgia, n = 160) who attended family planning clinic for routine follow-up in health centers. The cluster sampling was used. Information was collected by interviewing and using a standardized validated questionnaire. Severity of mastalgia was assessed through using visual analog scaling. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed by using SPSS 19.0. Results: The results revealed that majority of women (60.0%) experienced cyclical mastalgia. Out of these, 22.5% and 37.5% were mild and moderate-to-severe mastalgia, respectively. No association was revealed in experience of depression and anxiety in mastalgia group. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the increasing age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome were main determinants of mastalgia, while use of oral contraceptive and regular exercise was associated with lower incidence of mastalgia. Conclusions: Most of women with breast discomfort suffered cyclical mastalgia which severity can be determined by advanced age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome, but inversely by oral contraceptive use and exercise activity.

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