Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2016 Table of Contents

  • Display Type:
  • Text List
  • Abstract List
  • 1  The inhibitory effect of dihydroartemisinin on the growth of neuroblastoma cells
    Ling Qi Yang Yang Yu-Cui Liu Tian-Xin Zhu Song Jin Lin Zang Yu-Ying Zhang Kuang Ren
    2016(4):279-282. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.013
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 527.23 K](277)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of dihydroartemisinin on neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, explore the possible mechanism of dihydroartemisinin against neuroblastoma cells. Methods: The cell viability of dihydroartemisinin treated SH-SY5Y cells was examined by MTT assay and morphology of cells was observed by using inverted microscope. Cell cycle was examined with flowcytometry assay, then cyclin D1 and caspase-3 proteins expression was detected by ELISA and western blotting assay. Results: MTT analysis results showed that cell viability significantly decreased after exposure to 0.05, 0.50, 5.00 and 50.00 μmol/L dihydroartemisinin in a dose-dependent manner, and the lower density of cells was observed in treated groups. The number of cells in sub-G1 phase was increased after treatment with different doses of dihydroartemisinin compared with the control group. The expression of cyclin D1 protein was decreased, while the expression of caspase-3 protein was increased in treated group. Conclusions: Dihydroartemisinin could inhibit the proliferation through stopping the cell cycle and inducing the apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
    2  Optimal control application to an Ebola model
    Ebenezer Bonyah Kingsley Badu Samuel Kwesi Asiedu-Addo
    2016(4):283-289. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.012
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.00 M](130)
    Abstract:
    Ebola virus is a severe, frequently fatal illness, with a case fatality rate up to 90%. The outbreak of the disease has been acknowledged by World Health Organization as Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The threat of Ebola in West Africa is still a major setback to the socioeconomic development. Optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equations which is modeling Ebola infection through three different routes including contact between humans and a dead body. In an attempt to reduce infection in susceptible population, a preventive control is put in the form of education and campaign and two treatment controls are applied to infected and late-stage infected (super) human population. The Pontryagins maximum principle is employed to characterize optimality control, which is then solved numerically. It is observed that time optimal control is existed in the model. The activation of each control showed a positive reduction of infection. The overall effect of activation of all the controls simultaneously reduced the effort required for the reduction of the infection quickly. The obtained results present a good framework for planning and designing cost-effective strategies for good interventions in dealing with Ebola disease. It is established that in order to reduce Ebola threat all the three controls must be taken into consideration concurrently.
    3  Larvicidal efficacy of monoterpenes against the larvae of Anopheles gambiae
    Eliningaya J. Kweka Tamires Cardoso Lima Chrian M. Marciale Dami?o Pergentino de Sousa
    2016(4):290-294. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.03.001
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 388.57 K](140)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of eight volatile components of essential oils against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Methods: Larvicidal effects of each compound were evaluated in both laboratory and semi-field trials. Stock solution was prepared and serial dilutions were made in six concentrations for each compound. A total of 20 larvae were exposed to larvicides for each replicate and monitored at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Larvae monitoring was done on basis of dead and live larvae in all intervals. Results: All assayed compounds were larvicides and presented varying degrees of larval toxicity, with LC50 values ranging from 1.28 to 1 938.92 mg/L depending on the treatment time (12, 24, 48 or 72 h). (−)-Perillyl alcohol presented the strongest larvicidal activity towards Anopheles gambiae larvae, with LC50 values of 73.60, 18.36, 1.72 and 1.28 mg/L after 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure, respectively. The next strongest were (−)-isopulegol (LC50 = 135.10, 49.39, 34.39 and 20.22 mg/L) and (−)-carvone epoxide (LC50 = 168.86, 124.74, 80.84 and 23.46 mg/L). After 12, 24 and 48 h of treatment, hydroxydihydrocarvone was the least toxic compound, with LC50 values of 1 938.92, 1 172.18 and 401.03 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: The data obtained in this study suggest that all evaluated monoterpenes, especially (−)-perillyl alcohol, have remarkable larvicidal effects and may be considered as potential sources for the development of suitable natural larvicides for mosquito management programs. Further small-scale field trials should be conducted.
    4  Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis
    Ahmad Mohiddin Asmalia Md Lasim Wan Fatma Zuharah
    2016(4):295-300. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.006
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 343.05 K](137)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two selected larvicides, temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) which are commonly used by Penang Health Department for vector control. Methods: The mosquito larvae were tested against two types of larvicides: (1) temephos (Abate®) with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) and (2) Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (VectoBac® WG) with operational dosage ranging from 6 000 international toxic units per L to 24 000 international toxic unit per L. A total of 20 late third and early forth instar larvae were selected and transferred into paper cup sized 300 mL using wide-mouthed pipette. The larvae were distributed into each 300 mL paper cup containing 50 mL of aged tap water. The experiment was replicated five times for each concentration tested. Each test was repeated three times. The mortality was recorded after 24 h of exposure and recorded lethal time was based on 2 h for temephos and 6 h for Bti. The control consisted of ethanol for temephos and only seasoned water for Bti. Results: The result showed that Aedes albopictus from Flat Hamna, Kampung Sungai Gelugor and Kampung Tanjung Tokong were still susceptible to Bti and temephos. However, higher lethal time and resistance ratio were detected in strain from Flat Hamna which was a known dengue hot spot area in northeast of Penang. Conclusions: The application of temephos and Bti in vector control activity in these selected localities is still relevant in the control of Aedes larvae populations.
    5  Neutrophil extracellular traps in the intestinal mucosa of Eimeria-infected animals
    Tamara Mu?oz-Caro Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva Zaída Rentería-Solis Anja Taubert Carlos Hermosilla
    2016(4):301-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.001
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.70 M](130)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in vivo by analysing intestinal sections from experimentally Eimeria bovis- and naturally Eimeria arloingi-infected animals. Methods: Intestinal samples of Eimeria arloingi- and Eimeria bovis-infected animals were analysed by using immunohistochemical and fluorescence approach by using monoclonal antibodies. Results: Classical NET components were confirmed by co-localization of extracellular DNA being decorated with neutrophil elastase and histones in Eimeria-infected tissue samples. Here, extrusion of NETs was exclusively detected in intestinal polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating Eimeria-infected sites. In vivo NETs were either found in close proximity or in direct contact to different Eimeria stages suggesting a stage-independent process. NETs were also found within the gut lumen driven by polymorphonuclear neutrophils that were contacting released oocysts. Conclusions: We postulate that NETs might play an important role in innate defence reactions in coccidiosis therefore significantly altering the outcome of infection.
    6  In vitro antibacterial activity and major bioactive components of Cinnamomum verum essential oils against cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus
    Okhee Choi Su Kyung Cho Junheon Kim Chung Gyoo Park Jinwoo Kim
    2016(4):308-314. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.007
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 846.03 K](126)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum verum (C. verum) from 32 different essential oils against cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). Methods: The antibacterial activities of each essential oil were individually investigated against S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The essential oil of C. verum was selected for further evaluation against S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to determine the major constituents of C. verum essential oil. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of the most effective constituent was investigated. Results: The essential oil from C. verum exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major components of C. verum essential oil were cinnamaldehyde (56.3%), cinnamyl acetate (7.1%) and β-phellandrene (6.3%). The MIC of cinnamaldehyde was measured using broth dilution assays. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde was 0.02% (v/v) against both bacterial strains tested. The minimum bactericidal concentration of cinnamaldehyde against S. mutans and S. sobrinus were 0.2% and 0.1% (v/v), respectively. Conclusions: The essential oil of C. verum and its major component cinnamaldehyde possessed considerable in vitro antibacterial activities against cariogenic bacteria, S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains. These results showed that the essential oil of C. verum and its bioactive component, cinnamaldehyde, have potential for application as natural agents for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.
    7  Luís Rodrigues Silva
    Okhee Choi Mafalda Queiroz
    2016(4):315-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.015
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 528.64 K](152)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To improve the knowledge on the metabolite profile of five red grapes from Dão region (Portugal), concerning to the phenolic characteristics (coloured and non-coloured phenolics) and organic acid composition. Methods: Five red grapes collected from Dão region were studied. The profiles of phenolic compounds and organic acids were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector, respectively. Results: Totally 24 phenolic compounds were identified, and distributed by several classes: 8 anthocyanins, 1 hydroxybenzoic acid, 4 hydroxycinnamic acids, 1 stilbene, 4 flavan-3-ols, 6 flavonols. Additionally, 10 organic acids were detected in all samples. Total contents of each phenolic class and organic acids amounts varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. The principal components analysis differentiates the Touriga Nacional from the other varieties due to their high contents in anthocyanins, non-coloured phenolics and organic acids. Touriga Nacional is an important red grape cultivar, highly esteemed in Dão region for its ability to produce high quality wines. Conclusions: The results suggest that the red grapes from Dão region present a good composition in bioactive compounds, being important for the production of wines with superior quality.
    8  In vitro inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase level and antioxidant potential of seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L.
    Shah Alam Khan Amira Rashid Al Kiyumi Manal Saif Al Sheidi Tagreed Salim Al Khusaibi Noura Mohammed Al Shehhi Tanveer Alam
    2016(4):322-329. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.008
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 430.91 K](141)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents (TPCs) and in vitro antidiabetic activity of various pits extracts obtained from five Omani date cultivars. Methods: Sun-dried mature fruits of five Omani date varieties, namely, Fardh, Naghal, Khalas, Khinazi and Khasab were purchased from the local market in Muscat, Oman in the month of September 2014. Four seed extracts viz. water, ethanol, methanol and acetone were prepared for each date variety and their antioxidant activities were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide scavenging method and reducing power assay method, respectively. In vitro antidiabetic activity of the date pit extracts was evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and α-amylase level. TPCs were also quantified colorimetrically. Results: The results indicated that TPC of date seeds was solvent dependent. Acetone, ethanol and methanol were found to be significantly better solvents than water in extracting phenolic compounds from the date seeds. Pit extracts exhibited moderate to good in vitro antioxidant activity and increased reducing power. Among all date pit extracts, water extract exhibited significant in vitro antidiabetic activity in comparison to standard drug, acarbose. Conclusions: The present study confirms that disposed waste of Omani dates is a rich source of dietary antioxidant because of its high TPC. The pits due to their inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase level could be used as a monotherapy along with an appropriate diabetic diet and exercise or might be in conjunction with antidiabetic therapy to manage and prevent progression of diabetes.
    9  Role and recruitment of Th9 cells in liver cirrhosis patients
    Shan-Yu Qin Jia-Xu Wang Mei Chen Xian-Wen Yang Hai-Xing Jiang
    2016(4):330-334. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.010
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 997.94 K](137)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the role of T helper 9 (Th9) cells in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and whether chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)/chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) axis is involving in the recruitment of Th9 cells into liver. Methods: Peripheral blood and liver tissue from 30 LC patients and 18 normal controls were recruited. The frequency of Th9 cells and CCR4, CCR6 in the peripheral blood was tested by flow cytometry. Serum interleukin (IL)-9 and CCL20 levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect α-smooth muscle actin, CCR6 and CCL20 expression in liver tissue. Results: The frequency of Th9 cells in LC patients was significantly increased compared with controls (P < 0.05). The serum IL-9 level and CCL20 level increased markedly in LC patients compared with controls (P < 0.05), and IL-9 was positively correlated to Th9 cells and CCL20. Furthermore, the frequency of Th9 cells was correlated to prothrombin time, total bilirubin level, hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen in LC patients. We also found that Th9 cells in LC patients expressed higher frequency of CCR4+ , CCR6+ (P < 0.05). Compared with normal controls, the expression of CCR6 and CCL20 in LC tissue were significantly elevated (P < 0.05). The expression of α-smooth muscle actin was correlated to the CCR6 and CCL20 in liver tissue of LC patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that Th9 cells may participate in the pathogenesis of LC, and the recruitment of Th9 cells into liver tissue might be through CCL20/CCR6 axis.
    10  Salivary leptin concentrations in Bruneian secondary school children
    Adi Idris Ahmed Gharib Khamis Nur Basirah Ghazali Michael Steele David Koh Nik Ani Tuah
    2016(4):335-337. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.003
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 370.45 K](134)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels and body mass index in Bruneian secondary school students. Methods: The body mass index of Bruneian secondary school students (aged 11–18 years) was determined before collecting their saliva using the passive drool technique. Salivary leptin concentration was determined by ELISA. Results: Correlation and partial correlation (controlled for age) analyses showed no significant differences between the levels of salivary leptin of normal weight and overweight students. Conclusions: No significant increase in the salivary leptin concentration was observed in overweight compared with normal weight Bruneian secondary school students.
    11  Characteristics of obese or overweight dogs visiting private Japanese veterinary clinics
    Shiho Usui Hidemi Yasuda Yuzo Koketsu
    2016(4):338-343. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.011
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 456.47 K](184)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To characterize obese or overweight dogs that visited private Japanese veterinary clinics located in humid subtropical climate zones. Methods: Dogs were categorized into four body condition score groups and five body size groups based on their breed. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data. A Chi-squared test was used to examine whether the percentage of obese or overweight dogs differed between breeds. Results: There were 15.1% obese dogs and 39.8% overweight dogs. Obese dogs were characterized by increased age and female sex, whereas overweight dogs were characterized by increased age and neuter status (P < 0.05). Peak probabilities of dogs being either obese or overweight were between 7 and 9 years of age, with the probabilities then declining as the dogs got older. For example, in toy sized dogs, the probability of dogs being overweight increased from 33.4% to a peak of 55.1% as dog age rose from 1 to 8 years old. Also, in medium, small and toy sized dogs, neutered dogs were more likely to be overweight than intact dogs, whereas neutered small sized dogs were more likely to be obese than intact small sized dogs (P < 0.05). Additionally, the percentages of obese or overweight dogs differed between the 10 selected breeds with the highest percentage of obese or overweight dogs. Conclusions: By taking age, body size, sex and neuter status into account, veterinarians can advise owners about maintaining their dogs in ideal body condition.
    12  Risk factors from HBV infection among blood donors: A systematic review
    Giuseppe La Torre Rosella Saulle
    2016(4):344-349. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.008
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 610.32 K](171)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To perform a systematic review of the scientific literature to identify risk factors associated with hepatitis B viruses (HBV) infection among blood donors. Methods: The literature search was carried out on PubMed and Scopus databases using the keywords “risk factors” “HBV infection” and “blood donors”. No date or language restrictions were applied to the search. This literature review was completed in March 2014. The selection process and the reporting of the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement. The Newcastle Ottawa scale was using to evaluate the quality of each single primary study. Results: Out of 172 records resulted in the search, 5 papers were included in the final analysis because they are within acceptance criteria. Two of the selected studies were cross-sectional and three of them were case-control studies. Significant association resulted with some demographic and behavioral risk factors, such as marital status, dental treatment/procedure history, no stable relationship or multiple partners and family history of HBV infection. Conclusions: The systematic review performed encourages to conduct further research among blood donors in order to fully understand risk factors among donors in more extensive thus to provide valuable information about surveillance.
    13  Computational intelligence in tropical medicine
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016(4):350-352. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.009
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 288.56 K](133)
    Abstract:
    The application of computational technology for medical purpose is a very interesting topic. Knowledge content development and new technology search using computational technology becomes the newest approach in medicine. With advanced computational technology, several omics sciences are available for clarification and prediction in medicine. The computational intelligence is an important application that should be mentioned. Here, the author details and discusses on computational intelligence in tropical medicine.
    14  Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles: A newer and safer tool against mosquito-borne diseases?
    Giovanni Benelli
    2016(4):353-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.015
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 260.39 K](150)
    Abstract:
    Prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases is a key challenge of huge public health importance. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has recently gained attention as a cheap, rapid and eco-friendly method to control mosquito vector populations, with special reference to young instars. Furthermore, plant-fabricated nanoparticles have been successfully employed as dengue virus growth inhibitors. In this Editorial, parasitologists, entomologists and researchers in drug nanosynthesis are encouraged to deal with a number of crucial challenges of public health importance.
    15  The African Moringa is to change the lives of millions in Ethiopia and far beyond
    Solomon Habtemariam
    2016(4):355-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.016
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 538.86 K](134)
    Abstract:
    16  Sudden death in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta) with arterial medial and myocardial calcification
    Laura Bongiovann Nicola Di Girolamo Leonardo Della Salda Marcella Massimi Mariarita Romanucci Paolo Selleri
    2016(4):357-359. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.009
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 776.24 K](142)
    Abstract:
    A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner. The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus. Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium, pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy. All the other organs, including gross vessels, were macroscopically normal. The heart showed histologically large, multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery. Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes. The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media. In veterinary medicine, arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification, as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia. However, today, the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis, rather than a mere passive process.
    17  Knowledge, attitude and recommendations for practice regarding dengue among the resident population of Queensland, Australia
    Narayan Gyawali Richard Stewart Bradbury Andrew William Taylor-Robinson
    2016(4):360-366. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.002
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 398.62 K](135)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate levels of awareness of dengue among the inhabitants of Queensland (QLD), a dengue-prevalent state in the north east of Australia. Methods: A computer-assisted telephone interviewing survey was conducted in mid 2014. A total of 1 223 randomly selected respondents (≥ 18 years) across QLD completed a structured questionnaire covering all aspects of dengue. Results: 97.55% had heard of dengue and participated further. Among them, 54.70% had travelled overseas (48.11% to dengue-risk countries) in the last five years. A total of 94.47% said transmission is by mosquito bite. In addition, 84.83% knew of current transmission of dengue in QLD, while 80.97% knew the focus is Far North and North QLD. Furthermore, 2.35% and 8.97% had experienced an infection in their life or that of their immediate family/partner, respectively. 85.03% identified correctly at least one means of prevention. A total of 69.72% advised to use insect repellent, wear covered clothing and avoid visiting mosquito-prone areas while 20.93% advised fumigation and clearing water containers around residences. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between residents of South East QLD and the rest of QLD regarding knowledge of prevention. However, such awareness was not affected significantly by overseas travel (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Although many people throughout QLD have heard of dengue, about 15% appear unaware of local transmission, its symptoms and of methods to reduce risk of infection. A lack of knowledge regarding prevention of mosquito breeding is evident in South East QLD, where dengue is not currently reported. The study suggests that future dengue awareness campaigns should target communities in both endemic and potentially endemic areas throughout Queensland.
    18  Pediculosis capitis among primary and middle school children in Asadabad, Iran: An epidemiological study
    Mansour Nazari Reza Goudarztalejerdi Mostafa Anvari Payman
    2016(4):367-370. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.03.002
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 439.06 K](139)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of head lice in primary and middle school children in Asadabad, Iran. Methods: This study is an analytical descriptive cross-sectional one conducted among primary and middle school children in Asadabad during the academic year of 2013–2014. Data were collected at baseline via questionnaire, checklist and head examination. Results: A total of 600 students were examined (412 girls and 188 boys), and 14 students showed pediculosis. And the total prevalence rate was 2.3% (3.2% girls and 0.5% boys). The infestation was equal in public and private schools. The rate of pediculosis was higher in students of primary schools (4.0%) than those in middle schools (0.7%). The age of the students ranged from 6 to 14 years. The total number of infected group was 14 with mean age of 8.93 ± 2.43 years, and it was 586 with mean age of 10.98 ± 2.82 years for the uninfected group who were enrolled in the study (P < 0.01). This study showed significant differences between students with curly hair (5.5%) and those with straight hair (1.9%) when compared in terms of head lice infestation (P < 0.05). The relations of pediculosis and other socioeconomic factors such as sharing common comb and a room with other people, frequency of bathing, and parents' profession and education were analyzed, and Chi-square test did not show a statistically significant relationship between head lice contamination and the abovementioned socioeconomic factors (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It is necessary to find the risk factors of the infection in order to understand how to control or decrease infection in students, considering the important role of health education in reduction of head lice infections.

    Current Issue


    Volume , No.

    Table of Contents Archive

    Volume

    Issue

    Most Read

    Most Cited

    Most Downloaded

    Academic misconduct statement

      Peer review

      WeChat

      Mobile website

      Close