Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 6,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Publication process involving the discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu) before 1985
    Man-Yuan Wang
    2016(6):461-467. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.009
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.08 M](77)
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    2  Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control
    Giovanni Benelli
    2016(6):468-471. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.03.012
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 303.94 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the “lure and kill” approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.
    3  Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Balamurugan Chandramohan Kadarkarai Murugan Pari Madhiyazhagan Kalimuthu Kovendan Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar Chellasamy Panneerselvam Devakumar Dinesh Jayapal Subramaniam Rajapandian Rajaganesh Marcello Nicoletti Angelo Canale Giovanni Benelli
    2016(6):472-476. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.11.013
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 318.31 K](90)
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    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies). Methods: Neem cake fractions' total methanol extract (NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate extract (NTAcOEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRAcOEt), butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after repartition of NTMeOH (NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar larvae and adults. Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with the exception of NTAcOEt and NRAcOEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and 3.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.
    4  Cross-sectional study and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis among children in Northeastern Nigeria
    Robert Soumay Houmsou Sam Mao Panda Sambo Obadiah Elkanah Liatu Columbus Garba Binga Emmanuel Wama Elizabeth Une Amuta Santaya Larit Kela
    2016(6):477-484. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.003
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.13 M](77)
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    Objective: To determine schistosomiasis level and risk factors that exposed school-aged children to infection as well as to model schistosomiasis map in relation to altitude and rainfall in Gashaka Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods: The study was conducted between January 2014 and June 2014. Urine and faecal samples were collected from 1 080 school-aged children and processed using the filtration and formol–ether concentration techniques, respectively. Results: Irrespective of the schistosomes species, a point prevalence of 10.18% was reported out of the 1 080 children examined. Males were significantly infected than their female counterparts (11.75% vs. 8.43%) (χ2 = 4.86; P = 0.027), as well as children aged 6–10 (11.65%, 72/618) and 11–15 years (10.29%, 35/340) than the other age groups (χ2= 9.274; P = 0.026). No significant difference was observed in schistosomiasis between children whose parents were educated (11.11%, 57/513) and not educated (9.88%, 53/536) (χ2 = 1.342; P = 0.247) and those whose parents are farmers (9.74%, 53/544) and non-farmers (10.63%, 57/536) (χ2 = 0.787; P = 0.375). Proximity to water bodies (distance < 500 m) (odds ratio = 1.809, confidence interval = 1.057–3.094; P = 0.003 1) and fishing (odds ratio = 2.632, confidence interval = 1.397–4.958; P = 0.003) were the risk factors exposing children to infection. The spatial distribution pattern of schistosomiasis showed that the infection was significantly higher in Serti A (22.2%, 26/180) and Mayo-Selbe (21.1%, 38/180) than the other localities (χ2 = 92.99; P = 0.000). Conclusions: This study reported a moderate level of infection among school-aged children with proximity to water bodies and fishing as the main risk factors. The spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in the area will guide in efficient and effective control programmes at local level. It is recommended that continued efforts be made to scale-up distribution of praziquantel to high risk areas so as to curb the progression of the disease.
    5  Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Gul Zamin Khan Inamullah Khan Imtiaz Ali Khan Alamzeb Muhammad Salman Kalim Ullah
    2016(6):485-491. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.008
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 532.88 K](126)
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    Objective: To test the relative efficacy of pyriproxyfen and methoprene on mortality, deformity, inhibition and emergence to adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Serial dilutions (0.01–0.05 mg/L) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules (WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each concentration and control was replicated four times in completely randomized design. Data on larval mortality, growth inhibition, deformities and adult's emergence was recorded weekly. On the basis of best comparative performance, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG at 0.1 g/m3 was also tested in the field by collecting treated water samples monthly for 1–6 months after field application. Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of Aedes and Culex spp. of the same cohorts were used for bioassays and compared with larvae in control cups containing 1 L of untreated tap water. Results: Results revealed variations in fatality of different insect growth regulators (IGRs) to the 3rd instar larvae of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. Among the IGRs, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG was found best that exhibited significantly high emergence inhibition against Culex and Aedes spp. Based on the results, the IGRs were classified in terms of the tested parameters in order of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG > pyriproxyfen 0.5 WDG > methoprene. In case of field studies, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG, pool data of the entire target treated sites showed minimum adult emergence from water sampled of habitats treated with 0.1 g/m3 of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG. Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.
    6  Inhibition of glucose- and fructose-mediated protein glycation by infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices
    Jugjeet Singh Ramkissoon Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally Anwar Hussein Subratty Nessar Ahmed
    2016(6):492-500. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.016
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 783.25 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory activity of ten culinary herbs and spices namely on glucose-mediated glycation (GMG) and fructose-mediated glycation (FMG) of bovine serum albumin. Methods: Fluorescence was used as an index of albumin glycation using glucose and fructose as substrates in the presence of infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using reducing power, metal ion chelating and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals profile was analysed using 13 standard methods. Results: FMG was found to be significantly higher than GMG (95 and 84 AU, respectively; P < 0.05). Infusions and ethanolic extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory activity on both GMG and FMG when compared to appropriate controls. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in the percentage glycation inhibitory activity of infusions compared to ethanolic extracts. The mean percentage inhibitory activity of the extracts for GMG (45.9%) and for FMG (45.1%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids, reducing sugars, proteins, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins, and cardiac glycosides. Conclusions: The higher rate of fluorescence generation by fructation suggests that glycation by fructose deserves much attention as a glycating agent. Data herein showed that the extracts inhibited GMG and FMG. Thus, these edible plants could be a natural source of antioxidants and anti-glycation agent for preventing advanced glycation endproducts-mediated complications.
    7  Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin
    Emmanuel Randrianarivo Filippo Maggi Marcello Nicoletti Philippe Rasoanaivo
    2016(6):501-505. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.017
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 303.16 K](83)
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    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus (M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses (0.1–0.8 mL/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route. Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded. Results: The essential oil at 0.8 mL/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pentylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100% within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100% died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil. Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.
    8  Preliminary studies of acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J. Leonard stem barks (Caesalpiniaceae) in mice and rats
    Noreen Orianna Koumba Madingou Aristide Traore Alain Souza Marlaine Michelle Boukandou Mounanga Raissa Reine Aworet Samseny Sylvin Ouedraogo Alfred Sababenedyo Traore
    2016(6):506-510. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.001
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 311.82 K](84)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J. Leonard (G. tessmannii) and evaluate its safety. Methods: NMRI mice were used to determine the acute toxicity of G. tessmannii. Increasing concentrations of the plant extracts were administered intraperitoneally or by force-feeding. General behavior and death were monitored and recorded daily for 7 days. In order to determine the sub-acute toxicity of the extract, several doses were administered by oral gavage daily for 28 days in adult Wistar rats. Different parameters were assessed including body weight, food and water intake, biochemical parameters and several vital organ weights. Results: LD50 of 328.78 mg/kg was obtained by i.p. route and more than 5 000 mg/kg was obtained in acute toxicity by oral route. In sub-acute toxicity, no significant alteration was observed in body weight or vital organs, food and water intake, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: The results showed that the aqueous extract of G. tessmannii has low toxicity intraperitoneally and no sub-acute toxicity via oral intake.
    9  Prevalence of latent eosinophilia among occupational gardeners at Babcock University, Nigeria
    Ayodele Olushola Ilesanmi Ginnikachi Jennifer Ekwe Rosemary Isioma Ilesanmi Damilola Temitope Ogundele Jacob Kehinde Akintunde Oluwasogo Adewole Olalubi
    2016(6):511-515. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.022
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 482.00 K](84)
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    Objective: To determine the level of eosinophils present in the blood and sputum samples, presumably as a result of continual occupational exposure to allergens while on duty, as gardeners at Babcock University, Nigeria. Methods: Haemocytometer and Olympus microscope were utilized to estimate eosinophils population in 44 blood samples and 21 sputum samples respectively. Results: Relationship between the occurrence of eosinophil in blood and the exposure period among Babcock University gardeners had a positive correlation (r = + 0.08, t = 4.55, P < 0.05). It was found that blood eosinophil count in these workers correlated with the length of exposure period. Conclusions: The nature and the gardening activities are not a risk factor that signifi- cantly affect eosinophil level but duration of exposure to allergens. However, all safety precautionary kits and wears should be enforced and embraced by the concerned occupational gardeners so as to avert and subvert its pre-disposing deleterious effect on them.
    10  New sepsis biomarkers
    Dolores Limongi Cartesio D'Agostini Marco Ciotti
    2016(6):516-519. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.005
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 310.18 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes. Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.
    11  Zika threatens to become a huge worldwide pandemic
    Alcides Troncoso
    2016(6):520-527. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.004
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 384.52 K](79)
    Abstract:
    The Aedes aegypti mosquito which transmits Zika virus (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever) represents a high risk for global transmission. This virus comes from Africa, the Zika forest in Uganda, where it was discovered in 1947 in a rhesus monkey. In May 2015, the first local cases were recorded in Brazil, surpassing 1.5 million cases in December of the same year. By March 2016, local transmission of Zika was recognized in 34 countries. Its clinical condition is similar to dengue febrile illness, although milder. The final geographical distribution area is constantly expanding. Recently, it has been associated with cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela and Suriname. Microcephaly was documented in Brazil. This article discusses some factors that contributed to the spread of Zika virus in South America. Climate change associated with the events of the phenomenon of “El Niño” is also analyzed. The biggest concern is how quickly Zika is spreading around the world and that it could be far more dangerous than previously thought. Zika virus infection, by its explosive potential, has every chance of becoming a global pandemic.
    12  Biofilm formation in clinical isolates of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii and its relationship with multidrug resistance
    Ebrahim Babapour Azam Haddadi Reza Mirnejad Seyed-Abdolhamid Angaji Nour Amirmozafari
    2016(6):528-533. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.006
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 802.95 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Methods: This study was performed on clinical samples collected from patients with nosocomial infections in three hospitals of Tehran. Samples were initially screened by culture and biochemical tests for the presence of different species of Acinetobacter. Identifications were further confirmed by PCR assays. Their susceptibilities to 11 antibiotics of different classes were determined by disc diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The ability to produce biofilm was investigated using methods: culture on Congo red agar, microtiter plate, and test tube method. Results: From the overall clinical samples, 156 specimens were confirmed to contain A. baumannii. The bacteria were highly resistant to most antibiotics except polymyxin B. Of these isolates, 10.26% were able to produce biofilms as shown on Congo red agar. However, the percentage of bacteria with positive biofilm in test tube, standard microtiter plate, and modified microtiter plate assays were 48.72%, 66.66%, and 73.72%, respectively. At least 92% of the biofilm forming isolates were multidrug resistant. Conclusions: Since most of the multidrug resistant strains produce biofilm, it seems necessary to provide continuous monitoring and determination of antibiotic susceptibility of clinical A. baumannii. This would help to select the most appropriate antibiotic for treatment.
    13  Potential drug–drug interactions in pediatric wards of Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia: A cross sectional study
    Henok Getachew Mohammed Assen Feser Dula Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
    2016(6):534-538. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.002
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 386.68 K](86)
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    Objective: To determine the prevalence, level of severity of potential drug–drug interactions (PDDIs) and the associated factors for PDDIs in hospitalized pediatric patients of Gondar University Hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 3 months from March to May 2014 in pediatric wards of Gondar University Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select charts from all pediatric patients' charts with every 7th interval to get sample size of 384. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to compute crude odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio respectively. Statistical significance was set at P value < 0.05. Results: A total of 176 (45.8%) patients had at least one PDDI. A total of 393 PDDIs, which were comprised of 283 types of interacting combinations, were identified. Of the total of 393 PDDIs, most were of moderate severity [201 (51%)] followed by minor [152 (39%)] and major severity [40 (10%)]. The most common interacting pairs of major severity were gentamicin + furosemide (6), cotrimoxazole + methotrexate (4) and phenytoin + artemether (4). The occurrence of PDDIs was significantly associated with age and polypharmacy. Conclusions: The study showed that most of the interactions had moderate severity followed by minor severity. Age and polypharmacy were found to show statistically significant association with the occurrence of PDDIs. Due to sensitive nature of pediatrics population, close monitoring is recommended for the detection and management of PDDIs to prevent its negative consequences.
    14  Epidemiological situation and molecular identification of cercarial stage in freshwater snails in Chao-Phraya Basin, Central Thailand
    Sothorn Anucherngchai Thanawan Tejangkura Thapana Chontananarth
    2016(6):539-545. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.015
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 789.01 K](81)
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    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of cercarial trematode infection in snails and to examine the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationship to explain the molecular system of cercarial stage trematodes to estimate the infection rate of in the definite host from the Chao-Phraya Basin. Methods: The snails were collected from 10 provinces of the Chao-Phraya Basin, Thailand by stratified sampling method. The snails were examined for cercarial infection by the crushing method. All DNA specimens were amplified with internal transcribed spacer 3 (ITS3) and ITS4 primer based on PCR technique. The sequence data were aligned and used to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means with 10 000 bootstraps. Results: The overall rate of cercarial infection was found to be 5.90% (122/2 067). Snails in the family Thiaridae were found to be in the highest prevalence followed by Lymnaeidae, Bithyniidae, Planorbidae, Viviparidae, and Ampullariidae, respectively, while the Buccinidae family (Clea helena) did not reveal any infections. The frequently found species of cercariae were parapleurolophocercous cercariae, cercariae and megarulous cercariae. The monophyletic tree separated the snails into five groups comprised of Heterophyidae, Strigeidae, Lecithodendriidae, Philophthalmidae and Echinostomatidae using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This study was the first to report on cercarial infection in the Chao-Phraya Basin, Thailand. This revealed that a high variety of freshwater snails were infected by cercariae stage trematodes with a high prevalence. The sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of trematodes at the family level and in each clade of different families separated by the definitive hosts.
    15  Knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare workers concerning Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Western Iran
    Mojtaba Salimi Abbas Aghaei Afshar Mojtaba Limoee Soraya Babakhani Omid Chatrabgoun Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Gidiglo Godwin Nutifafa
    2016(6):546-550. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.007
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 527.00 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare workers in Kermanshah Province about Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). Methods: This study was conducted in 2014 on healthcare personnel in different job categories including physicians, nurses, midwives, laboratory staff and network health staff of Kermanshah Province by direct interview. Results: A total of 367 respondents who had more than 5 years of experience in their jobs were interviewed. Among them 91% of physicians and nurses, 97% of midwives and health workers and 96% of laboratory staff stated that they had not been confronted with CCHF patients so far. Regarding knowledge, 76% of physicians, 78% of nurses, 77% of midwives and 58% of laboratory staff believed that the disease is remediable. Most of the interviewed participants stated that the disease pertains to people who are in close contact with domestic animals, but they did not consider their own occupations as one of the risk factors. More than 70% of the respondents believed that the disease may exist in the province or their work field. Generally, the knowledge about CCHF was inadequate, with nurses having the lowest level of knowledge. Conclusions: Knowledge of Kermanshah healthcare staff about CCHF was poor, especially nurses in a high risk job category. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct specific training programs for the disease identification, transmission, prevention, and treatment as well as the use of personal protection and safety devices.

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