Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 8,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Problem of presently available diagnostic tests for Zika virus infection: View from Thailand
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016(8):639-639. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.03.015
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 238.27 K](138)
    2  Comparison of sucrose intake and production of elimination spots among adult Musca domestica, Musca autumnalis, Phormia regina and Protophormia terraenovae
    Ghada Mohamed El-Bassiony John George Stoffolano Jr
    2016(8):640-645. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.002
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 527.41 K](141)
    Objective: To compare the differences in intake and excretion between Musca domestica and other three species from families Muscidae and Calliphoridae which may help explaining the significance of house fly in the transmission of pathogens. Methods: The four adult species were supplied with two concentrations of sucrose via modified capillary feeder assay system. The two sucrose concentrations were applied to one adult male/each experiment and the elimination spots were counted. Using 0.25 mol/ L sucrose + 0.25% bromophenol blue, one active non-starved male/cup was observed carefully for 1 h to record its behavior. As a growing medium used in bacterial transmission experiments, undiluted trypticase soy broth was used to feed 3-day-old females and males of Musca domestica following two different diets upon emergence and the frequency of elimination spots was estimated. Results: The two Musca species have half the weight of the two Phormia species. Comparing the volume of intake per hour, house fly took as much as the other species, all of which were larger. House fly produced twice, or more, the number of elimination spots/h than the other three species. Feeding the flies a sugar liquid diet resulted in producing more fecal spots than regurgitation spots. The male house flies produced less elimination spots/h when fed with trypticase soy broth than with the two sucrose solutions. Conclusions: House flies eliminated more than the other examined fly species and most of these elimination events were defecation which implicates the fecal route for pathogen transmission by this important vector.
    3  Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria
    Loeki Enggar Fitri Agustin Iskandar Teguh Wahju Sardjono Ummu Ditya Erliana Widya Rahmawati Didi Candradikusuma Utama Budi Saputra Eko Suhartono Bambang Setiawan Erma Sulistyaningsih
    2016(8):646-650. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.003
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 513.47 K](129)
    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the pH of 4.1. Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/ GSSG in the two groups (P = 0.373; P = 0.538; and P = 0.615, respectively, independent ttest). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients (P = 0.000, Mann Whitney U test). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated malaria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range, there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.
    4  Isolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast
    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah Mohammed Ismail Youssef Elmallah Usama Wahid Hawas Lamia Taha Abou El-Kassema Mennat Allah Gamal Eid
    2016(8):651-657. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.004
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 841.74 K](142)
    Objective: To isolate and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different actinomycetes species isolated from the Red Sea coast in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. Methods: Forty actinomycetes strains were isolated from different sediments and seawater samples collected from the Red Sea coast in Egypt. Actinomycetes were recognized by morphological and microscopic examinations. Cell viability and cytotoxicity induced by the crude extracts on breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were assessed using methylene blue assay. The strains with promising cytotoxic activity were identified by sequencing and amplifying the 16S rRNA genes. The antibacterial activities of the crude extracts were performed using Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The results indicated that five ethyl acetate extracts exhibited cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231. The highest cytotoxic activity was found for the ethyl acetate extracts of EGY2 and EGY39. The isolate EGY3 was identified as a new Streptomyces species, while the actinomycete EGY22 was found to be a member of the genus Nocardiopsis sp. The crude extract of the isolate EGY8 showed slightly high antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms. Conclusions: The results of the present study reveal that marine sediments of the Red Sea are a potent source of novel species of actinomycetes. The isolates may be useful in discovery of novel bioactive compounds and an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.
    5  Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells
    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan Rameshkumar Santhanam Sunghyun Hong Jin-Woo Jhoo Songmun Kim
    2016(8):658-664. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.005
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 782.43 K](141)
    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production. Methods: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in a concentration dependent manner (25, 50 and 75 μg/mL). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components. Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.
    6  Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory potentials and phytochemical profile of Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. (Burseraceae) and Loeseneriella africana (Willd.) (Celastraceae) stem leaves extracts
    Moussa Compaore Roland Nag-Tiero Meda Sahabi Bakasso Laurian Vlase Martin Kiendrebeogo
    2016(8):665-670. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.001
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 497.27 K](172)
    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as to determine the flavonoids and phenolic acids content of active fractions. Methods: Two medicinal plant samples were extracted successively in Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol and n-butanol. Five methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was done through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2). Polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by using a spectrophotometrical and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: The data showed that the stem leaves extracts of Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana possessed significant in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polar extracts had radical scavenging effects and they reduced iron (Ⅲ). The prostaglandin production was significantly stopped by acetonitrile and methanol extracts. These biological activities were supported by some bioactive compounds quantified by using the HPLC-MS. p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol and apigenin were the most metabolites quantified. Conclusions: The present study may explain the effectiveness of plants in traditional medicine of Burkina Faso, singularly Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana. The next investigation was to sub-fractionate the methanol fraction in order to isolate new antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory compounds.
    7  Anti-infective, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata
    Rizwan Ahmad Niyaz Ahmad Atta Abbas Naqvi Paul Cos Louis Maes Sandra Apers Nina Hermans Luc Pieters
    2016(8):671-676. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.012
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 503.74 K](163)
    Objective: To search for the most active antimicrobial and antioxidant sub-fractions related to traditional use of Ziziphus oxyphylla (Z. oxyphylla) and Cedrela serrata (C. serrata) in Pakistan against infectious and liver diseases. Methods: Factions of different polarity were tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal, antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity against different pathogens. Cytotoxicity on MRC-5 cell lines (human lung fibroblasts) as well as, in vitro radical scavenging activity was evaluated using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Results: The highest antiprotozoal activity was observed for the CHCl3 fractions of Z. oxyphylla roots and leaves, and C. serrata bark. The CHCl3 and EtOAc fractions of Z. oxyphylla roots, the CHCl3 fraction of Z. oxyphylla leaves, the EtOAc and the residual MeOH: H2O fraction of C. serrata bark showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The same residual MeOH: H2O fraction of C. serrata bark was active against Candida albicans. The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the more hydrophilic EtOAc fractions of Z. oxyphylla leaves, C. serrata bark and leaves, and the residual MeOH: H2O fraction of C. serrata bark. Conclusions: This study supports at least in part the traditional uses of these plants for antimicrobial purposes and against liver diseases.
    8  Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat
    Christiane Takayama Felipe Meira de-Faria Ana Cristina Alves de Almeida Ricardo Jose Dunder Luis Paulo Manzo Eduardo Augusto Rabelo Socca Leonia Maria Batista Marcos Jose Salvador Alba Regina Monteiro Souza-Brito Anderson Luiz-Ferreira
    2016(8):677-681. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.027
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 353.99 K](149)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in vivo. Methods: The antioxidant properties of the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis were evaluated against gastric injury induced by absolute ethanol. Gastric tissues were prepared to enzymatic assays. The levels of glutathione, lipid peroxides, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured. Results: Ethanol produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in the stomach with ulcerative lesion of (140.2 ± 37.2) mm2 . In animals pretreated with essential oil of R. officinalis (50 mg/kg, p.o.), a significant inhibition of mucosal injury of (21.2 ± 7.1) mm2 (84% inhibition) was observed. The essential oil of R. officinalis protected the gastric mucosa probably by modulating the activities of the enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and increasing or maintaining the levels of glutathione. In addition, lipid peroxides levels were reduced. The essential oil of R. officinalis was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer and the main constituents were cineole (28.5%), camphor (27.7%) and alpha-pinene (21.3%). Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.
    9  Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems
    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian Raquel Orejudos Rubio Demetrio Lim Valle Jr. Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon
    2016(8):682-685. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.006
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 332.89 K](132)
    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. (M. calabura). Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95% ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively. Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans (C. albicans), with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract, triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract. Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.
    10  Standardized bioactive fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Proliverenol) prevents ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via down-regulation of NF-κB-TNFα-caspase-8 pathway
    Guntur Berlian Olivia Mayasari Tandrasasmita Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata
    2016(8):686-691. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.007
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 948.85 K](145)
    Objective: To verify that Proliverenol has a potential ability in protecting cells from ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Activity of Proliverenol against ethanol-induced apoptosis was evaluated at mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cell exposed to Proliverenol for 1 and 3 h. Results: Proliverenol conferred hepatoprotective activity through increasing cell survival up to 53%–69% via up-regulation of APEX1 DNA repair enzyme for 3.0–4.7 fold and down-regulating of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factorα and caspase-8 expression, allowing them to prevent 4.5–6.9 fold of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage in HepG2 cells. Our finding revealed that Proliverenol repressed expression of ALT, which is significantly important as possible alternative mechanism for increased blood transaminase activities. In addition, the result also showed that caspase-8 pathway seemed to be involved in the molecular pathway rather than directly inducing mitochondrial damage. Conclusions: The data support our hypothesis that Proliverenol has a potential ability in protecting cells from ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. We propose that Proliverenol provides hepatoprotective activity through up-regulating expression of APEX1 that repress DNA fragmentation, and down-regulating expression of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factorα and caspase-8, which therefore repress ALT leakage and its expression.
    11  Regulation of osteoprotegerin expression by Notch signaling in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line
    Jeeranan Manokawinchoke Thanaphum Osathanon Prasit Pavasant
    2016(8):692-697. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.012
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 618.39 K](140)
    Objective: To investigate the influence of Notch signaling on osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Methods: Activation of Notch signaling was performed by seeding cells on Jagged1 immobilized surfaces. In other experiments, a γ-secretase inhibitor was added to the culture medium to inhibit intracellular Notch signaling. OPG mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Finally, publicly available microarray database analysis was performed using connection up- or down-regulation expression analysis of microarrays software. Results: Jagged1-treatment of HSC-4 cells enhanced HES1 and HEY1 mRNA expression, confirming the intracellular activation of Notch signaling. OPG mRNA and protein levels were significantly suppressed upon Jagged1 treatment. Correspondingly, HSC-4 cells treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of HES1 and HEY1 mRNA levels, and a marked increase in OPG protein expression was observed. These results implied that Notch signaling regulated OPG expression in HSC-4 cells. However, Jagged1 did not alter OPG expression in another human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-5) or a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HN22). Conclusions: Notch signaling regulated OPG expression in an HSC-4 cell line and this mechanism could be cell line specific.
    12  Phenolic compounds affect production of pyocyanin, swarming motility and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Aylin Ugurlu Aysegul Karahasan Yagci Seyhan Ulusoy Burak Aksu Gulgun Bosgelmez-Tinaz
    2016(8):698-701. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.008
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 583.13 K](131)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of plant-derived phenolic compounds (i.e. caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid) on the production of quorum sensing regulated virulence factors such as pyocyanin, biofilm formation and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates. Methods: Fourteen clinical P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from urine samples and P. aeruginosa PA01 strain were included in the study. The antibacterial effects of phenolic compounds were screened by well diffusion assay. Pyocyanin and biofilm activity were measured from culture supernatants and the absorbance values were measured using a spectrophotometer. Swarming plates supplemented with phenolic acids were point inoculated with P. aeruginosa strains and the ability to swarm was determined by measuring the distance of swarming from the central inoculation site. Results: Tested phenolic compounds reduced the production of pyocyanin and biofilm formation without affecting growth compared to untreated cultures. Moreover, these compounds blocked about 50% of biofilm production and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa isolates. Conclusions: We may suggest that if swarming and consecutive biofilm formation could be inhibited by the natural products as shown in our study, the bacteria could not attach to the surfaces and produce chronic infections. Antimicrobials and natural products could be combined and the dosage of antimicrobials could be reduced to overcome antimicrobial resistance and drug side effects.
    13  Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre
    Norhayati Moktar Nor Liyana Ismail Phoy Cheng Chun Mohamad Asyrab Sapie Nor Farahin Abdul Kahar Yusof Suboh Noraina Abdul Rahim Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail Tengku Shahrul Anuar
    2016(8):702-705. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.011
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 314.69 K](117)
    Objective: To investigate the presence of trichomoniasis among women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Methods: A total of 139 high vaginal swabs were taken from the subjects and sent to the laboratory in Amies gel transport media. The specimens were examined for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using wet mount, Giemsa staining and cultured in Diamond's medium. Sociodemographic characteristics and gynaecological complaints were obtained in private using structured questionnaire applied by one investigator. Results: The median age was 32 years, with an interquartile interval of 9.96. Most of the subjects were Malays (76.9%) and the remaining were Chinese (15.1%), Indians (2.2%) and other ethnic groups (5.8%). One hundred and thirty eight (99.3%) of the women were married and 98.6% had less than 6 children. More than half (75.5%) of the women's last child birth was less than 6 years ago. Forty seven percent of them were involved in supporting administrative work and 64.7% of the women gave a history of previous or current vaginal discharge. Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.
    14  Molecular characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis of slaughtered livestock in Upper Egypt governorates
    Mosaab Adl Eldin Omar Layla Omran Elmajdoub Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody Ahmed Mahmoud Elsify Ahmed Osman Elkhtam Abdelnasser A. Hussien
    2016(8):706-708. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.009
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 308.32 K](130)
    Objective: To present the molecular characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis) of Taenia hydatigena (T. hydatigena) from livestock isolates in Egypt, and to introduce a detailed image of C. tenuicollisinfection in ruminant animals in Upper Egypt. Methods: The prevalence rates of C. tenuicollis infections among the slaughtered animals from different organs were determined using the amplification of sequencing of the MT-CO1 gene. Results: In the present study the infection rates of C. tenuicollis were found to be 16% and 19% in sheep and goat samples respectively. Firstly we report one larval stage of T. hydatigena detected in the camel liver in Egypt. C. tenuicollis infection manifested a higher prevalence in females than in males. Those above two years of age manifested a higher infection rate than younger animals. The preferred site for the infection was the omentum: a 70% preference in sheep and a 68% preference in goats. The molecular characterization using the MT-CO1 gene of isolates from sheep, goats and camels corresponded to T. hydatigena. For this study, molecular characterizations of T. hydatigena were done for the first time in Egypt. Molecular tools are of great assistance in characterizing the C. tenuicollis parasite especially when the morphological character cannot be detected, because the metacestodes are frequently confused with infection by the hydatid cyst, especially when these occur in the visceral organs. In the present study, C. tenuicollis manifested high identity in the goat and sheep samples, while differences were found more frequently in the camel samples (10 base pair). Conclusions: Clearly molecular diagnosis for C. tenuicollis infection significantly helps to differentiate it from such other metacestodes as hydatidosis, which manifests a completely different pathogenicity and requires different control programs.
    15  Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food
    Jose Manuel Lorenzo Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata
    2016(8):709-719. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.010
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 506.18 K](132)
    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.
    16  Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults
    Amina Hoceini Nihel Klouche Khelil Ilhem Ben-Yelles Amine Mesli Sara Ziouani Lotfi Ghellai Nadia Aissaoui Fatima Nas Mounia Arab
    2016(8):720-726. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.011
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 383.33 K](127)
    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups. Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Organization. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 50 caries-free adults (CF) and 50 caries-active adults (CA). Standard procedures of culture and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: A total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from supragingival plaques in CF group subjects, 76 (64.96%) of them belonged to 9 aerobic genera, and 41 (35.04%) to 9 anaerobic genera (P < 0.05). While in the second group, 199 strains were isolated, 119 (59.80%) of the strains belonged to 10 aerobic genera and 80 (40.20%) to 10 anaerobic bacteria (P < 0.05). Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecium, Aerococcus viridans, Actinomyces meyeri, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Eubacterium limosum showed a significantly higher prevalence in the CA group (P < 0.05). The findings revealed that CA group had a high sugar intake (80%). A significantly higher frequency of tooth brushing (P < 0.000) and a significantly less self-reported oral malodor (P < 0.000) and tooth pain (P < 0.000) were found in CF group, while there was no association of socioeconomic levels and intake of meal snacks with dental caries. Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

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