Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Emerging Rift Valley fever in China: What should be known?
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016(9):727-729. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.013
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 302.27 K](84)
    Rift Valley fever is an important viral infection that is rarely reported in Asia. The recent emergence of this infection in China is a big global interest. In this short article, the author reviewed and presented important information on this disease.
    2  Fauna and some biological characteristics of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kalaleh County, Golestan Province, northeast of Iran
    Aioub Sofizadeh Hamideh Edalat Mohammad Reza Abai Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd
    2016(9):730-734. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.005
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 458.64 K](87)
    Objective: To determine fauna and some ecological aspects of Anopheles mosquitoes in northeast of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 3 villages in Kalaleh County were selected in different geographical zones. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected biweekly from May to October using standard dipping method for larvae, and hand catch, total catch, artificial pit shelter as well as night-biting collections on human and animal baits for adults. Results: Totally 399 larvae and 2 602 adults of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected and identified as 2 species: Anopheles superpictus s.l. (An. superpictus s.l.) and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. The dominant species was An. superpictus s.l. (92.1%). Activity of these mosquitoes found to be started from middle of May and extended till September with two peaks of activity in July and August. Conclusions: An. superpictus s.l. as one of the main malaria vectors in Iran as well as some other parts of the world is the dominant species in the study area. This species has high potential for transmission and possibility of establishing a transmission cycle with low abundance. Other species, Anopheles maculipennis s.l. also has introduced as a malaria vector in northern parts of Iran. As this Anopheles is a complex species, genetic studies are recommended to determine the members of this complex in the study area.
    3  Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis and coccidiosis in goats from three selected farms in Terengganu, Malaysia
    Afzan Mat Yusof Muhammad Lokman Md Isa
    2016(9):735-739. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.001
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 338.43 K](86)
    Objective: To reveal the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis, Trichostrogylus, Haemonchus, Strongyloides and Trichuris and coccidiosis, mainly Eimeria in kids, yearlings and adult goats. Methods: A total of 287 goat faecal specimens were randomly collected from three farms in Kuala Terengganu, Setiu and Besut. Results: Prevalence of coccidiosis (89.2%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than gastrointestinal nematodiasis (52.3%). Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) were found in 37.0% kids, 63.5% yearlings and 53.3% adults. Identification of GINs revealed the predominance of Strongyloides (45.6%) followed by Trichostrogylus (12.9%), Haemonchus (11.8%) and Trichuris (8.7%) in all groups whereby the adult goats recorded the highest infections of Trichostrogylus (20.5%), Haemonchus (10.6%), Strongyloides (51.5%) in all groups. The age-specific intensity for Eimeria was in following order: kids (92.6%), adults (86.6%) and yearlings (51.5%) and the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The concurrent infections between GINs and Eimeria were 67.94% in all groups. Polyparasitisms of Trichostrongylus (17.4%), Haemonchus (15.15%) and Strongyloides (40.4%) with Eimeria had infected most adult goats. Dual infections of Trichostrongylus with Eimeria and Trichuris with Eimeria were significantly higher in adults than yearlings and kids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: GINs and Eimeria were widely distributed in the goats leading to higher risk of morbidity and mortality.
    4  Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis
    Rosella Camere-Colarossi Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar Dyanne Medina-Flores Stefany Caballero-García Frank Mayta-Tovalino Juana del Valle-Mendoza
    2016(9):740-744. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.008
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 417.51 K](90)
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) (M. dubia) methanol extract, against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of M. dubia were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and pulp. Ten independent tests were prepared for each type of extract, using 0.12% chlorhexidine solution as positive control. Agar diffusion test was used by preparing wells with the experimental solutions cultivated in anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 ℃. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the cytotoxic effect over MDCK cell line was found. Results: A higher antibacterial effect was observed with the methanol seed extract with an inhibitory halo of (21.36 ± 6.35) mm and (19.21 ± 5.18) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The methanol extract of the pulp had an effect of (16.20 ± 2.08) mm and (19.34 ± 2.90) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the pulp extract was 62.5 μg/mL for both strains, whereas for the seed antibacterial activity was observed even at low concentrations. The CC50 of the seeds extract was at a higher concentration than 800 μg/mL and 524.37 mg/mL for the pulp extract. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanol extract of M. dubia against S. mutans and S. sanguinis. These extracts were not cytotoxic at high concentrations.
    5  In vitro interference of cefotaxime at subinhibitory concentrations on biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
    Sudarat Baothong Sutthirat Sitthisak Duangkamol Kunthalert
    2016(9):745-750. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.003
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 658.34 K](84)
    Objective: To investigate the in vitro interference of cefotaxime at subinhibitory concentrations [sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC)] on biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Methods: The interference of subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime on biofilm formation of the clinical strong-biofilm forming isolates of NTHi was evaluated by a microtiter plate biofilm formation assay. The effect of sub-MIC cefotaxime on bacterial cell-surface hydrophobicity was determined using a standard microbial adhesion to n-hexadecane test. Additionally, the effects on bacterial adherence to human fibronectin and expression of bacterial adhesins were also investigated. Results: Subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime, both at 0.1× and 0.5× MIC levels, efficiently reduced the NTHi biofilm formation, and this effect was independent of decreasing bacterial viability. Sub-MIC cefotaxime also decreased bacterial cell-surface hydrophobicity and reduced adherence to human fibronectin. Inhibition in the P2 and P6 gene expressions upon exposure to sub-MIC cefotaxime was also noted. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that sub-MIC cefotaxime interferes with the formation of NTHi biofilm, and this effect is feasibly related to the interference with cell-surface hydrophobicity, fibronectin-binding activity as well as alteration of the P2 and P6 gene expression. The findings of the present study therefore provide a rationale for the use of subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime for treatment of NTHi-related diseases.
    6  Bioprospecting for anti-Streptococcus mutans: The activity of 10% Sesbania grandiflora flower extract comparable to erythromycin
    Azis Saifudin Alfian Mahardika Forentin Arini Fadhilah Kuswandi Tirtodiharjo Witri Dyah Melani Devita Widyasari Tri Agus Saroso
    2016(9):751-754. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.004
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 591.68 K](81)
    Objective: To search an herbal material, capable of inhibiting plaque producing bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Methods: Twenty materials comprising 10 flowers and 10 rhizomes were extracted with 70% ethanol. Their activity was then examined at a concentration of 10% (w/v) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro on Mueller–Hinton media. Erythromycin (Oxoid, 20 μg disc) was used as a positive control. Meanwhile, to establish a fingerprint guide for authentication or quality control, the most potent material was further analyzed regarding its chemical constituents by means of reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Results: Of the tested samples, Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) flower and Costus speciosus rhizome extracts showed the most potent activity with inhibited zone diameters of 18.5 and 14.8 mm, respectively. On the other hand, other extract plants showed a diameter zone in the range of 0.5–10.6 mm or being inactive (diameter = 0 mm). The activity of S. grandiflora was comparable to that of erythromycin (diameter = 18.0 mm). The best separation was achieved on HPLC system with acetonitrile-water with a ratio of 2:8, and a flow rate at 0.5 mL/min. TLC, meanwhile, was featured on chloroform– methanol (8.5:1.5) as a mobile system. Conclusions: S. grandiflora flower is a promising material to be developed as the active ingredient of anti-plaque toothpaste as well as mouthwash solution. The developed HPLC and TLC system can be used for a further standard in its material authentication as well as for a fingerprinting of quality control during the manufacturing process.
    7  Evaluation of phytochemical properties and in-vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts of leaf, seed and root of Abrus precatorius Linn. against Salmonella and Shigella
    Ojo Joseph Sunday Shola Kola Babatunde Adeyinka Elizabeth Ajiboye Racheal Majekodunmi Adedayo Mufutau Adeyemi Ajao Busayo Isreal Ajuwon
    2016(9):755-759. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.002
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.47 K](80)
    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical components of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius) and the in-vitro susceptibility of Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae to the aqueous extracts of A. precatorius leaf, seed and root. Methods: The leaf, seed and root of A. precatorius were collected and homogenized separately after drying at 40 ℃ for seven days in hot-air oven. The aqueous extracts of each of the parts were prepared and subjected to phytochemical screening. Dilutions of 400, 300, 200, 100 mg/mL, of each of the extracts were used for broth dilution in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae, while 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10 mg/mL dilutions were used for the agar diffusion test and 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL of gentamycin were used as controls for broth dilution in MIC determination and agar diffusion test, respectively. Results: Qualitative study reveals that tannin, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and phenols were present in all of the plant parts. The leaf has the highest quantities of tannin and phenol. The root generally showed the lowest quantity of all the compounds. The pathogens were susceptible to aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem and root of A. precatorius at 50 mg/mL. At concentrations of 40, 30 and 20 mg/mL, all the aqueous extracts of A. precatorius showed variation in MIC, but produced no minimum bactericide effect upon subculture. There were variations in diameter of zone of inhibition against the organisms at lower concentrations. Conclusions: These findings suggest that A. precatorius is a valuable source of phytochemicals with promising antibacterial activity. Considering this bioactivity, A. precatorius could be probed further for toxicity, and to obtain some novel antibacterial molecules.
    8  Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of six wild Mentha species (Lamiaceae) from northeast of Algeria
    Amina Benabdallah Chaabane Rahmoune Mahieddine Boumendjel Oumayma Aissi Chokri Messaoud
    2016(9):760-766. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.016
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 935.25 K](87)
    Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content and the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of six wild Mentha species which are Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa. Methods: The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. To evaluate tannins content, vanillin and HCl were added to methanolic extracts. The antioxidant potential was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating and the inhibition of β-carotene bleaching assays. Results: The methanol extracts of Algerian mints were rich in phenolic compounds and exhibited powerful antioxidant activity ranging from 7.5 μg/mL to 44.66 μg/mL, which varied significantly among species. Mentha aquatica stood out with efficient antioxidant ability which was correlated to the high total phenolics content, followed by Mentha arvensis and Mentha piperita with very close values, comparing to Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa with lowest values. Conclusions: These results show that methanolic extracts of Mentha species from Algeria have a great potential of polyphenols which can be used as a natural food preservative and antioxidant source.
    9  Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia
    Marwa Awad Abdelrhman Abdelwahab
    2016(9):767-770. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.010
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 446.96 K](84)
    Objective: To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R. epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia, through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers, leaves and stems. Methods: Aerial parts of R. epapposum were collected in April 2014. Air dried flowers, leaves, and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils was carried out using an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph equipped with an Agilent 5973 mass spectrometric detector. Results: A total of 51 compounds representing 76.35%–94.86% of flowers, leaves and stems oils composition were identified. The chemical profiles of the studied fractions revealed the dominance of monoterpenes, regardless of qualitative and quantitative differences observed. Limonene, linalool, 4-terpineol and α-cadinol represented the major constituents of flowers oil. Leaves oil was dominated by limonene, sabinene, α-pinene and β-myrcene whereas linalool, ionole, α-cadinol, β-eudesmol, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol were the major constituents of stems oil. Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.
    10  Free radical scavenging activity of three different flowers-Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Quisqualis indica and Senna surattensis
    Abd El-Moneim Mohamed Radwan Afify Hazem Mohamed Mahmoud Hassan
    2016(9):771-777. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.006
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 368.09 K](82)
    Objective: To evaluate three flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa-sinensis), Quisqualis indica (Q. indica) and Senna surattensis (S. surattensis) for their antioxidant activity by different methods in addition to total phenolic, flavonoid and pigment contents. Methods: Antioxidant activity of water, ethanol and absolute ethanol extracts of three flowers; H. rosa-sinensis, Q. indica and S. surattensis was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating activity, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as well as total antioxidant capacity. Total flavonoids, total phenols and total pigments including chlorophylls and carotenoids were measured for the three flowers. Results: The results showed that the highest total antioxidant capacity at concentration of 500 mg/L was found in S. surattensis as 0.479 ± 0.001. Scavenging activity of H. rosasinensis, Q. indica and S. surattensis flower extracts against 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical showed the highest activity of (90.20 ± 0.29)% with 500 mg/L. Phytochemical screening of the three flowers extracts were carried out for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids, amino acid and mucilages. H. rosa-sinensis showed the total phenolic in water extract of (235.77 ± 14.31) mg/100 g, the other two flowers Q. indica and S. surattensis had the total phenolic in ethanol extracts of (937.70 ± 25.06) and (850.30 ± 13.81) mg/100 g, respectively. On the other hand total flavonoids were identified in absolute ethanol extracts in the three flowers [(32.83 ± 1.34), (49.24 ± 4.87) and (2.79 ± 0.23) mg/100 g, respectively]. Conclusions: The extracts in the constituents of the three flowers could be used as additives as supplement fractions in foods.
    11  Vasoprotective effects of rice bran water extract on rats fed with high-fat diet
    Narongsuk Munkong Pintusorn Hansakul Bhornprom Yoysungnoen Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich Seewaboon Sireeratawong Noppamat Kaendee Nusiri Lerdvuthisopon
    2016(9):778-784. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.009
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 797.89 K](83)
    Objective: To elucidate the protective effects of rice bran water extract on the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and a cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) in the vasculature of high-fat diet-fed rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group Ⅰ served as control, Group Ⅱ was treated with high-fat diet, and Group Ⅲ was treated with high-fat diet and rice bran water extract at 2 205 mg/kg/day. After four weeks, the metabolic parameters, malondialdehyde as a marker of oxidative stress, and histological features of the aorta were evaluated. The levels of transcripts and proteins in aorta were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results: In comparison with the Group Ⅱ, rice bran water extract administration resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, visceral fat tissue weights, blood glucose levels, and serum total-cholesterol and free fatty acid levels in Group Ⅲ. Serum triglyceride levels tended to decrease in the Group Ⅲ. Also, rice bran water extract administration obviously decreased malondialdehyde levels in both serum and aorta. Interestingly, rice bran water extract treatment demonstrated a significant up-regulation of eNOS expression and down-regulation of NF-κB p65 and CD36 expressions. Nonetheless, all groups showed normal histology of aorta. Conclusions: Rice bran water extract exhibited vasoprotective effects in the high-fat diet-induced obesity condition by modulating the expression of eNOS, NF-κB, and CD36 and metabolic parameters.
    12  Purification, characterization and antiproliferative activity of L-asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae CCT 3940 with no glutaminase activity
    Fernanda Furlan Gon?alves Dias Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois Ruiz Adriana Della Torre Helia Harumi Sato
    2016(9):785-794. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.007
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.32 M](83)
    Objective: To explore the anti-proliferative activity of purified L-asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae CCT 3940 (A. oryzae). Methods: L-asparaginase was produced by submerged fermentation and purified to electrophoresis homogeneity by ionic exchanged chromatography in a fast protein liquid chromatographic system. The purified enzyme was characterized and used for the antiproliferative assay against nine tumor cell lines and one non-tumor cell line. Results: The free glutaminase L-asparaginase was purified 28.6 fold. L-asparaginase showed high stability under physiological condition, remaining stable in the pH range 7.0–8.0 after 1 h incubation at temperature range 30–45 ℃. The Km and Vmax values of purified L-asparaginase were estimated as 0.66 mmol/L and 313 IU/mL, respectively. The purified enzyme could inhibit the growth of a broad range of human tumor cell lines at the concentrations studied. Also, the enzyme from A. oryzae CCT 3940 could inhibit tumor growth of leukemia cell line (K562) with a total growth inhibition value of (3.2 ± 2.5) IU/ mL and did not inhibit the non-carcinogenic human cell line growth at the concentrations studied. Conclusions: The sensitivity of the cells lines to purified ʟ-asparaginase from A. oryzae CCT 3940 appeared to be concentration dependent affording a more significant decrease in cell growth than that observed for the commercial L-asparaginase from Escherichia coli. The L-asparaginase from A. oryzae CCT 3940 has a high potential for pharmaceutical exploitation in the treatment of leukemia.
    13  Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam
    Thu Dang Kim Hai Nguyen Thanh Duong Nguyen Thuy Loi Vu Duc Thu Vu Thi Hung Vu Manh Patcharee Boonsiri Tung Bui Thanh
    2016(9):795-800. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.013
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 344.49 K](88)
    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin– phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, for 30 days. Results: Our data showed that saponin–phospholipid complex had stronger anticancer effect compared to saponin extract. The IC50 values of saponin–phospholipid complex and saponin extract for NCI-H460 cell lines were 28.47 μg/mL and 47.97 μg/mL, respectively and these values for BT474 cells were 53.18 μg/mL and 86.24 μg/mL, respectively. In vivo experiments, administration of saponin, saponin–phospholipid complex and paclitaxel (positive control) effectively suppressed 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced breast cancer evidenced by a decrease in tumor volume, the reduction of lipid peroxidation level and increase in the body weight, and elevated the enzymatic antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in rat breast tissue. Conclusions: Our study suggests that saponin extract from Panax notoginseng and saponin–phospholipid complex have potential to prevent cancer, especially breast cancer.
    14  Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) in Algeria
    Ouarda Ayadi Mohamed Gharbi Mohamed Cherif Benchikh Elfegoun
    2016(9):801-802. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.014
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 324.63 K](82)
    The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria) during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$)/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further studies are needed to improve these estimations of financial losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis in Algeria.
    15  Tuberculosis in the mines of Zambia: A case for intervention
    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata Doris Osei-Afriyie Connrad Mwansa Nathan Kapata
    2016(9):803-807. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.06.015
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 417.26 K](82)
    Zambia is among the sub-Saharan countries highly burdened with tuberculosis (TB) and has an estimated prevalence rate of 638 per 100 000 population in those aged 15 years and above. The mining industry is the main contributor to the country's gross national product, although it is associated with public health challenges, with TB in the mines being among the occupational health diseases having a negative economic impact and threatening to delay the control of TB in the country. We reviewed available evidence on the extent of the burden of TB in the mines so as to inform the development of targeted interventions for the post-2015 End TB Strategy. This was a review of published data from Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Embase, including unpublished “grey” literature on the burden of TB and the risk factors of TB in the mines of Zambia. There is limited research in Zambia to fully understand the burden of TB and risk factors associated with TB in the mines. However, the few studies and data available have shown that TB is a significant health problem requiring interventions to improve the quality of life of miners, ex-miners and surrounding communities. TB is a potential problem in the mines of Zambia and the actual burden needs to be determined. Exposure to silica as a risk factor needs further investigation.
    16  Toxicology, biosynthesis, bio-control of aflatoxin and new methods of detection
    Mohamed Amine Gacem Aminata Ould El Hadj-Khelil
    2016(9):808-814. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.07.012
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 857.83 K](79)
    Mycotoxins and their derivatives since their discoveries and until the present time are behind unspecified economic and medical damages. Aflatoxins are classified according to their physical–chemical and toxicological characters in the most dangerous row of the mycotoxins. These aflatoxins are in part responsible, of irreversible medical disasters that are not easily manageable such as cancer of the liver and kidneys, and in the other part, of losses in the stored cereal products. Based on these crucial findings, monitoring of this toxin became imperative in post-harvest food products, during storage, during transformation chain and even during the long phases of conservation. Vigilance of this toxin is delivered by detection methods using very advanced technologies to respond in the shortest possible times. In addition, the knowledge of factors supporting the biosynthesis of aflatoxins such as the temperature, moisture content, concentration of nitrogen and carbon, and the molecules responsible for the genetic control of the synthesis will be reflected later in the choice of bio-control techniques. This control is currently based on new strategies using the bioactives substances of the plants, the lactic bacteria and some strains of actinomycetes that have good inhibiting activity against aflatoxins with fewer side effects on Man. On the other hand, this brief review summarizes the results of new studies demonstrating the toxicity of the toxin, new detection methods and bio-control.

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