Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 10,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of the aglycones of phenolic glycosides isolated from Leonurus japonicus
    Agung Nugroho Jae Sue Choi Joon-Pyo Hong Hee-Juhn Park
    2017(10):849-854. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.013
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 562.45 K](96)
    Objective: To find the genuine structure with anti-acetylcholinesterase (anti-AChE) from the phenolic glycosides abundant in Leonurus japonicus (Lamiaceae). The assay for antiAChE activity is often used to lead anti-Alzheimer's drugs. Methods: The five phenolic glycosides, tiliroside, leonurusoside C, 2’’’-syringoylrutin, rutin, and lavanduliofolioside were isolated from L. japonicus. The activities of the glycosides were relatively low. Seven compounds including p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, hydroxytyrosol, salidroside, syringic acid, kaempferol, and quercetin, which are produced by the hydrolysis of the five glycosides, were also assayed for anti-AChE activity. Results: Of those seven compounds, the five compounds other than salidroside and syringic acid exhibited potent anti-AChE activities. In particular, the IC50s of caffeic acid and quercetin were (1.05 ± 0.19) and (3.58 ± 0.02) μg/mL, respectively. Rutin was the most abundant flavonoid in the extract (9.18 mg/g as measured by HPLC). Conclusion: The substances with potent anti-AChE were caffeic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, and hydroxytyrosol that can be produced from their glycosides.
    2  Alginate encapsulation in Glycyrrhiza glabra L. with phyto-chemical profiling of root extracts of in vitro converted plants using GC-MS analysis
    Rakhshanda Akhtar Anwar Shahzad
    2017(10):855-861. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.010
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.17 K](83)
    Objective: To investigate the conversion potential of alginate encapsulated nodes of Glycyrrhiza glabra with phyto-chemical evaluation of root extract of field transferred plants. Methods: The excised axenic nodal segments were encapsulated in alginate matrix planted on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium with different supplementation and formulations of PGRs. The two year old field transferred plants were evaluated for phytocompounds analysis using GC-MS technique. Results: Varied responses were observed during the study, maximum conversion 95.83% ± 2.40% was obtained in these encapsulates when planted on MS medium containing 2.5 μM Kinetin and 0.5 μM α-Naphthalene acetic acid, which eventually developed into complete plantlets in a single step. Further, GC-MS analysis showed the presence of different phyto-compounds in the methanolic root extracts of in vitro converted plants. The results obtained revealed the presence of about 47 phyto-compounds along with various potential bioactive compounds useful for industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. Conclusions: This study investigates high frequency regeneration and conversion of Glycyrrhiza glabra in a single step in short time. Also, the in vitro raised plants are analysed for bioactive compounds after field transfer, which shows the presence of numerous compounds useful for commercial and pharmacological purposes.
    3  Spatiotemporal clustering of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fars province, Iran
    Marjan Zare Abbas Rezaianzadeh Hamidreza Tabatabaee Mohsen Aliakbarpoor Hossein Faramarzi Mostafa Ebrahimi
    2017(10):862-869. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.011
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.45 M](84)
    Objective: To assess the spatiotemporal trait of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Fars province, Iran. Methods: Spatiotemporal cluster analysis was conducted retrospectively to find spatiotemporal clusters of CL cases. Time-series data were recorded from 29 201 cases in Fars province, Iran from 2010 to 2015, which were used to verify if the cases were distributed randomly over time and place. Then, subgroup analysis was applied to find significant sub-clusters within large clusters. Spatiotemporal permutation scans statistics in addition to subgroup analysis were implemented using SaTScan software. Results: This study resulted in statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters of CL (P < 0.05). The most likely cluster contained 350 cases from 1 July 2010 to 30 November 2010. Besides, 5 secondary clusters were detected in different periods of time. Finally, statistically significant sub-clusters were found within the three large clusters (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Transmission of CL followed spatiotemporal pattern in Fars province, Iran. This can have an important effect on future studies on prediction and prevention of CL.
    4  Citrus peel extract and powder attenuate hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia using rodent experimental modeling
    Humaira Ashraf Masood Sadiq Butt Muhammad Jawad Iqbal Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
    2017(10):870-880. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.012
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 917.75 K](85)
    Objective: To investigate hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic potential of citrus peel extract and powder using rodent experimental modeling. Methods: Considering the fact, rat feeding trial was carried out for a period of 56 d to access the prophylaxis of citrus peel flavonoids by employing normal (study Ⅰ), hyperglycemic (study Ⅱ) and hypercholesterolemic (study Ⅲ) rats. Each study was further divided into three groups to ensure the provision of selected diets, i.e., control, functional and nutraceutical diets. Each study was further divided into three groups to ensure the provision of selected diets, i.e., control, functional and nutraceutical diets. Results: Declining trend for total cholesterol was observed in all studies with maximum reduction (8.55%) in rat group fed on nutraceutical diet in study Ⅲ. Likewise, levels of low density lipoproteins and triglycerides reduced 11.39% and 7.89% respectively in hypercholesterolemic rats. Moreover, nutraceutical diet alleviated the sera glucose level by 8.96% in study Ⅱ. Conclusions: Conclusively, inclusion of citrus peel bioflavonoids in dietary therapies is a promising strategy to modulate lipidemic and glycemic attributes without imparting any deleterious effect on hematological parameters.
    5  Chemical profiling and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma glans K. Larsen & J. Mood and Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza Roxb. collected in Thailand
    Nararat Akarchariya Sasithorn Sirilun Jakaphun Julsrigival Sunee Chansakaowa
    2017(10):881-885. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.009
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 239.04 K](83)
    Objective: To investigate chemical constituents and new antimicrobial agents among essential oils from the rhizomes of Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa) Roxb., Curcuma glans K. Larsen & J. Mood and Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza Roxb. Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Agar-well diffusion assay was used to study the antimicrobial activity and also broth-micro dilution techniques were examined for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against four bacterial strains and yeast. Results: The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed monoterpenes predominantly (88.53%) in the rhizome oil of Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza. Sesquiterpenes (50.10%) was the most abundant component in the essential oil of C. glans, while monoterpenes (45.55%) and sesquiterpenes (45.81%) were found in C. aeruginosa with a significant amount. The major components of C. aeruginosa were characterized as camphor (29.39%) and germacrone (21.21%). Germacrone (15.76%), β-pinene (9.97%) and camphor (9.96%) were found as major compounds in the rhizome oils of C. glans while α-terpinolene (24.86%) and p-cymen-7-ol (12.17%) were found as major compositions in Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza. The essential oils were tested against four bacterial strains and yeast. As a result, the rhizome oil of C. aeruginosa exhibited potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus [inhibition zone (21.94 ± 0.24) mm, MIC 125 μg/mL], Bacillus cereus [inhibition zone (20.83 ± 0.36) mm, MIC 125 mg/mL], and Candida albicans [inhibition zone (11.60 ± 0.30) mm, MIC 250 μg/mL]. Conclusions: The essential oils from three Curcuma species possessed greater activity against the gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) than gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The results suggest that the essential oils from the fresh rhizome of Curcuma spp. might be a potential source of natural antimicrobial substances.
    6  Inhibition of two stages of melanin synthesis by sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin
    Montra Srisayam Natthida Weerapreeyakul Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul
    2017(10):886-895. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.013
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 1015.40 K](95)
    Objective: To investigate the antimelanogenesis properties of three sesame compoundssesamol, sesamin and sesamolin via two stages of melanin synthesis vis-a-vis sunscreen function and enzyme inhibition in melanoma cell line in order to search for alternative depigmenting agents. Methods: Antimelanogenic effects of sesame lignans were assessed in SK-MEL2 compared with the reference depigmenting agents, kojic acid and β-arbutin, in order to evaluate: (a) the sunscreen function of sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin by measurement of UV absorbtion property; (b) the inhibition of tyrosinase activity through mushroom and cellular tyrosinase; and (c) the effect on melanin content and melanogenic protein expression (tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2) by Western blot analysis; and (d) the toxicity of sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin to cells using cell cytotoxicity assay. Results: The results showed that sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol exerted satisfiable sunscreen function by absorbed UVB at 290 nm. Sesamol exhibited the highest inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity, but lipophilic sesamolin exhibited the highest cellular tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 of 1.6 μM) followed by sesamin, sesamol, and kojic acid, respectively. The order from high to low inhibition of melanin pigment was detected in the SK-MEL2 treated with sesamolin, sesamin, sesamol, kojic acid, and β-arbutin, respectively. Sesamolin and sesamin successfully inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity and respectively decreased TRP-1/TRP-2 (36%/15%) and TRP-1 levels (16%), thereby inhibiting melanogenesis via antityrosinase activity. No cytotoxicity to SK-MEL2 or Vero (normal) cell lines was observed at the lignan concentrations that exerted an antimelanogenic effect. Conclusions: Three sesame lignans prevent melanin synthesis through 2 stages: (a) by blocking melanin-induction and (b) by interrupting melanogenic enzyme production. This study provides evidence that sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin are potential for antimelanogenesis agents.
    7  Yeast-generated CO2: A convenient source of carbon dioxide for mosquito trapping using the BG-Sentinel® traps
    Dhanique C.T. Jerry Terry Mohammed Azad Mohammed
    2017(10):896-900. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.014
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 371.20 K](84)
    Objectives: To evaluates carbon dioxide (CO2) production from yeast/sugar mixtures and its efficiency as an attractant in BG-Sentinel traps. Methods: The rate of CO2 production was optimized for different yeast/sugar mixtures. The optimized mixture was then used as bait in BG-Sentinel traps. The efficiency of this bait was then compared to octenol baited traps. Results: The yeast/sugar (5 g: 280 g) in 300 mL water generated the highest volume of CO2. The CO2 baited traps caught significantly more mosquitoes than octenol baited traps. Conclusions: Yeast-produced CO2 can effectively replace octenol baits in BG traps. This will significantly reduce costs and allow sustainable mass-application of the CO2 baited traps in large scale surveillance programs.
    8  Phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn
    Jeremiah Oshiomame Unuofin Gloria Aderonke Otunola Anthony Jide Afolayan
    2017(10):901-908. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.008
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 396.25 K](83)
    Objective: To investigate phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Kedrostis africana (K. africana). Methods: Dried tubers of K. africana were extracted in acetone, water and ethanol. The total phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and tannin contents were determined spectrometrically. The antioxidant activity was examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2´ -azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide assays. The antimicrobial activity was determined by agar dilution method using minimum inhibitory concentration against 3 g positive and three gram negative strains while four fungal strains were also investigated. Results: Total phenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidin and tannin contents ranged from (5.32 ± 0.01) to (10.51 ± 0.01) mg GAE/g; (42.58 ± 0.02) to (529.23 ± 0.01) mg QE/g; (15.05 ± 0.00) to (585.64 ± 0.00) mg CE/g and (0.301 ± 0.010) to (0.937 ± 0.000) mg TAE/g, respectively. The IC50 values of the ethanol extract for 2,2´ -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and hydrogen peroxide were 0.054 and 0.057 mg/mL, respectively, aqueous extract had an IC50 value of 0.135 7 mg/mL for nitric oxide while the acetone extract had an IC50 value of 0.300 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The ethanol extract demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic species with minimum inhibitory concentrations values ranging from 2.5– 5.0 mg/mL for bacteria and (0.312 5–5.000 0) mg/mL for fungi, respectively. Conclusions: The tuber of K. africana showed potent free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity.
    9  Phyto-metals screening of selected anti-diabetic herbs and infused concoctions
    Olanrewaju O. Olujimi Olusegun N. Onifade Adeleke T. Towolawi Temilade F. Akinhanmi Adeniyi A. Afolab Kabir A. Olanite
    2017(10):909-914. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.003
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 265.35 K](81)
    Objective: To determine the levels of some selected heavy metals in both the selected anti-diabetic herbal plants and infused concoctions for diabetes treatment. Methods: Ten anti-diabetic plant samples: pawpaw leaves (Carica papaya), bitter melon leaves (Momordica charantia), holy basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), African red pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), negro pepper grain (Xylopia aethiopica), cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale) and onion bulb (Allium cepa) were evaluated for heavy metals. These were digested using standard methods and analyzed for manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, zinc, cadmium and lead using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The infused concoctions (Ⅰ and Ⅱ) prepared from these medicinal herbs administered to diabetic patients were also analyzed for these heavy metals. Concoction Ⅰ contained all the plants and honey with the exception of Momordica charantia and Ocimum sanctum which constituted concoction Ⅱ with water only. The data obtained were subject to descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential (ANOVA and DMRT) statistics. Results: Chromium and nickel levels were below detection limits in concoction Ⅰ while manganese [(0.11 ± 0.01) μg/g] and zinc [(0.09 ± 0.01) μg/g] were detected in concoctionⅡ. Honey contained manganese [(0.10 ± 0.01) μg/g] and nickel [(0.70 ± 0.01) μg/g]. The anti-diabetic medicinal herbs and infused concoctions (Ⅰand Ⅱ) were observed to contain heavy metals below the compared limits. Conclusions: The study thus shows that the herbs and concoctions are safe from the heavy metals considered. However, right dosage of the anti-diabetic concoctions should always be considered to prevent possible chronic side effects from bio-accumulation of heavy metals.
    10  Ameliorating effects of Raphanus sativus leaves on sodium arsenite-induced perturbation of blood indices in Swiss albino mice
    Sayada Dilruba M.M. Hasibuzzaman Mashiur Rahman Nayan Chandra Mohanto Sharmin Aktar Atiqur Rahman Md Imam Hossain Abu Shadat Mohammod Noman Farjana Nikkon Zahangir Alam Saud Khaled Hossain
    2017(10):915-920. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.001
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 261.69 K](89)
    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorating effects of Raphanus sativus leaves (RSL) against sodium arsenite (Sa)-induced adverse effects through mice experiments. Methods: Swiss albino mice were divided into four equal groups: control, Sa, RSL, RSL + Sa. Sa (10 mg/kg body weight/day), and powder form of RSL (50 mg/kg body weight/day) were provided as food supplement orallty. Blood indices were measured using commercially available kits through colorimetric methods. Results: It was observed that lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Sa-treated mice than those in the control group. RSL significantly reduced Sa-induced elevation of the activities of these enzymes in serum significantly (P < 0.05). Serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and high density lipoproteins cholesterol levels in Sa-treated mice were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the control group, and the food supplementation of RSL could significantly (P<0.05) prevent the reduction of Sa-mediated serum butyryl cholinesterase activity and high density lipoproteins cholesterol levels. RSL could also reduce the Sa-induced elevation of serum urea level significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Results of this study suggest the protective or ameliorating effects of RSL on Sa-induced perturbation of blood indices are related to the hepatic, cardiovascular and kidney dysfunction. Therefore, RSL may be useful to reduce arsenic toxicity in human in the future.
    11  Survivability of freeze-dried probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strains GS4, GS17 and Lactobacillus gasseri (ATCC 19992) during storage with commonly used pharmaceutical excipients within a period of 120 days
    Mayur Bagad Ram Pande Vinay Dubey Asit Ranjan Ghosh
    2017(10):921-929. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.005
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 631.34 K](80)
    Objective: To examine the survivability and stability of probiotic strains in presence and absence of pharmaceutical excipients for a long period of time at (4 ± 1) ℃. Methods: The survival rates of probiotic strains, Pediococcus pentosaceus GS4 (MTCC12683) (NCBI HM044322), GS17 (NCBI KJ608061) and Lactobacillus gasseri (ATCC 19992), were evaluated. Probiotic strains were lyophilized individually and in combination of excipients (sorbitol, ascorbic acid, fructose and skim milk). The preparation was monitored for 120 d storing at (4 ± 1) ℃. During storage, all the preparations were evaluated for viability and stability of probiotic properties like lactic acid production, antimicrobial effect, water activity, and adherence to epithelial cells. Results: Sorbitol, ascorbic acid and skim milk favoured the viability of freeze-dried cells and sustained probiotic properties during storage. Without excipients (control group), strains showed percentage of survivability not more than 70% while strains with excipients survived for 73%–93% for a long period of time. Conclusions: Commonly used excipients can be considered as a vehicle for delivering active principle in probiotic formulation and for sustaining the viability and stability of probiotic strains for a period of 120 d.
    12  Lactic acid bacteria mediated fermented soybean as a potent nutraceutical candidate
    Sasithorn Sirilun Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Periyanaina Kesika Sartjin Peerajan Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
    2017(10):930-936. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.007
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 472.09 K](86)
    Objective: To study some soybean cultivars commonly used in Northern Thailand that exhibit high nutritional profile and to investigate the changes in bioactive principles and antioxidant capacity of the fermented soy broth that was prepared using the selected soybean cultivar and Lactobacillus paracasei HII02 mediated fermentation process. Methods: The best soybean cultivar was subjected to fermentation, and then analyzed the phytochemical, antioxidant and nutritional changes by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Sor Jor 2 soybean cultivar showed rich nutritional profile and was subjected to fermentation process. Lactobacillus paracasei HII02 mediated fermentation of Sor Jor 2 soybean exhibited stable physical and chemical characteristics. Lactic acid bacteria mediated fermentation also increased the aglycone forms of isoflavone content, exhibited antioxidant capacity and thereby enhanced the quality of the fermented soy broth. It also prevented the growth of coliforms in fermented soybean. Conclusions: The study results suggest that fermented soybean is rich in nutrition and considered to be safe for consumption for the improvement of health and to treat the malnutrition.
    13  Comparing invasive effects of five foodborne bacterial pathogens in human embryonic intestine 407 cells and human ileocecum HCT-8 cells
    Lan Hu Tint T. Wai
    2017(10):937-944. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.004
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.08 M](86)
    Objective: To refine the infectious doses of enteric bacterial pathogens in animal assays and vaccine clinical trials by studying the invasion kinetics of five bacterial pathogens with human intestinal cells. Methods: Utilizing in vitro cultured cell invasion assays with gentamicin-killing step, the invasive effects were analyzed in foodborne pathogens including Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 and opportunistic pathogens Citrobacter in human embryonic intestine 407 cells and ileocecum HCT-8 cells at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 0.04–4 000.00 E. coli HS served as a noninvasive control. Results: The study results showed that the bacterial invasive efficiency and the average number of internalized bacteria per host cell changed with different starting MOIs. Higher starting MOIs did not always produce more bacterial internalization. The bacterial invasion effects varied with different bacterial strains and host cell lines. E. coli O157:H7 did invade human ileocecum HCT-8 cells. Conclusions: This study shows that these bacteria possess different invasive patterns at various starting MOIs and also in different cell lines. The results could help to figure out the appropriate infectious doses of the bacteria in animal assays and in vaccine clinical trials. The bacterial invasion kinetics is also valuable in evaluating the safety and efficacy of live attenuated bacterial vaccines.
    14  Antibacterial enhancement of antibiotic activity by Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong
    Zildene de Sousa Silveira Nair Silva Macedo Thiago Sampaio de Freitas Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva Joycy Francely Sampaio dos Santos Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga Jose Galberto Martins da Costa Raimundo Nonato Pereira Teixeira Jean Paul Kamdem Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinhot Francisco Assis Bezerra da Cunha
    2017(10):945-949. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.006
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 240.86 K](77)
    Objective: To identify the main chemical classes of compounds from aqueous extract of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (E. contortisiliquum) seed bark and to evaluate its antibacterial activity, as well as its potential to increase the activity of antibiotics against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Methods: Different classes of compounds in the aqueous extract of E. contortisiliquum were evaluated based on the visual changes in the coloration and the formation of precipitate after the addition of specific reagents. The antibacterial activity of the extract and its potential to increase of antibiotic activity of antibiotics drugs, gentamicin and nor- floxacin was determined by using the microdilution method. Results: Our results demonstrated that the following secondary metabolites were presented in E. contortisiliquum seed bark: flavones, flavonols, xanthones, flavononols, chalcones, aurones, flavones and catechins. The extract itself had very low antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains tested (MIC ≥ 1 024 μg/mL), but there was an increase in the antibiotic activity of gentamicin and norfloxacin when combined in the subinhibitory concentration (i.e., MIC/8). Conclusions: Our data suggests that E. contortisiliquum seed bark may be an alternative source for new drugs with the potential to increase antibiotic activity against different strains of bacteria.
    15  Phytopharmacological potential of different species of Morus alba and their bioactive phytochemicals: A review
    Fahad Hussain Zohaib Rana Hassan Shafique Arif Malik Zahid Hussain
    2017(10):950-956. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.015
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 287.24 K](83)
    Medicinal plants of Moraceae family have been well-recognized traditionally due to their versatile applications in various fields including agriculture, cosmetic and food as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Their biomedical and medicinal importance is reflected from their broad range of pharmacological activities for treatment of various inflammatory conditions, cancer, infectious diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. The present review was aimed to summarize and critically discuss the biomedical implications of Morus species, their bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals. Bioactivity guided fractionation of these medicinal plants revealed that different types of bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites such as steroids, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and phenolic compounds including terpenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins were present. The critical analysis of the literature revealed that the aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extracts of Morus species and their bioactive compounds exhibit remarkable anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anticancer, anxiolytic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, immune-modulatory and cholesterol lowering effects. Based on the literature review and bioactivity guided investigation of Morus species and their phytomedicinal effects, we anticipate that these herbal products hold excellent potential for future research.
    16  Protective effect of natural products and hormones in colon cancer using metabolome: A physiological overview
    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
    2017(10):957-966. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.002
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 356.58 K](87)
    Globally, the third cause of males cancer and the fourth cause of females cancer is colon cancer (CC). In Egypt, high CC percentage occurs in children and in individuals below 40 years of age. The complete loss of biological enzyme function is the main cause of CC and consequently CC increased in smoking and pollution exposure. The aim of this review is to focus on the application of metabolome as a physiological tool that can play an important role in preventing CC incidence by natural products and hormones. The dietary factors, intestinal micro-flora and endogenously produced metabolites are the main three causes that produce free radicals in the colon. A correlation occurs between the enzyme activity and CC polymorphisms or property. Nowadays metabolome is applied with the progress of different analytical methods, data bases and tools for cancer predication and stimulation especially in CC cases. Metabolism is defined as intracellular chemical reactions that produce chemical substances and energies sustaining life. Metabolic pathway networks are also composed of links that are defined as transformation of chemical structures between two metabolites and an enzyme reaction. The most important advantage of metabolome is its ability to analyze metabolites from any source, regardless of origin, where the application of liquid chromatography combined with mass spectra in metabolome analysis to a series of cancer cell lines that were progressively more tumorigenic due to the induction of 1,2,3 or 4 oncogenes to cell lines could be a metabolome example application. In conclusion, natural products and hormones are very important in preventing CC in humans and animal models where both natural products and hormones play a significant and important effect in regulating physiological process especially in CC cases. In this situation, metabolome must increase in its application in the future for the diagnosis of CC cases.

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