Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Adulticidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of essential oil from Zanthoxylum limonella Alston (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti(L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)
    Mayura Soonwera Siriporn Phasomkusolsil
    2017(11):967-978. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.019
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.39 M](101)
    Objective:To evaluate adulticidal, larvicidal and oviposition deterrent response of the essential oil from dried Zanthoxylum limonella ( Z. limonella ) fruit against Aedes aegypti ( Ae. aegypti ) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. Quinquefasciatus). Methods: Z. limonella oil was tested by biological assays at 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations in ethanol. Adulticidal efficacy was tested against the 2–3 day old adult females. Larvicidal activity was tested against immature stage of mosquitoes. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females. Results:The adult mortality was observed after 24 h with the LC50of 6.0% for Ae. aegypti, and 5.7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Larvicidal bioassay was carried out with the 10% Z. limonella oil against immature stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus ,which caused 100% mortality after 12 h and 24 h. In the larvicidal experiment, Z. limonella showed effective result at 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations with the values of LT50 Ae. aegypti = 9.78, 5.61, 0.24 h for larvae and LT50= 64.08, 21.23 h for pupae; Cx. quinquefasciatus had LT50= 28.46, 20.25, 1.01 h for larvae and LT50= 67.52, 27.96,4.11h for pupae, respectively. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravidfemales. In the study, 10% Z. limonella showed 100% repellency for Ae. aegypti and 99.53% for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Likewise, oviposition activity indexes of these oil concentrations were all negative values ranging from –0.89 to −1.00 for Ae. aegypti and –0.64 to –0.99 for Cx. quinquefasciatus . The oviposition activity indexes valuesrevealed that Z. limonella oil has deterrent effect, and it caused a remarkable negative response resulting in very few eggs. Conclusions:This result indicates that Z. limonella oil can be used as an effective adulticide, larvicide and oviposition deterrent against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus .
    2  Physicochemical and elemental studies of Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. for standardization as herbal drug
    Manab Mandal Debabrata Misra Narendra Nath Ghosh Vivekananda Mandal
    2017(11):979-986. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.001
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 451.03 K](98)
    Objective:To explore the leaves of Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. as a source of safe andeffective antibacterial herbal medicine. Methods:The standardization was validated by stepwise physicochemical studies,element analysis, determination of ash values, fluorescence analysis, assessment of moisture content, extractive values in different solvent systems and extraction methods. Heavy metal contents, mineral and element contents were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and CHNS/O analyser, respectively. Results:The methanol extract of the folklore medicinal plant having antibacterial efficacy contained flavonoids and phenolic OH groups. The ICP multi standard indicated the presence of three major compounds with molecular mass of 161190 and 221 Da. Heavymetalsviz. lead, mercury and copper content were 4.38 ppm,<0.05 ppm and 24.70 ppm, respectively. Minerals content of calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iron were1190. 94 mg/100 g, 375.57 mg/100 g, 2820 mg/100 g and 340.20 mg/100 g of plant sample, respectively. Elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur contents were38.18%, 5.67%, 2.23% and 0.51%, respectively. Heavy metal profile of the tested plant was within the permissible limits of the regulatory authorities. Conclusions:Hence the present physicochemical and elements studies reveals that the plant Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. could be a potent source of herbal preparation as well as a safe and novel synthetic antibacterial drug.
    3  Molecular study of astrovirus, adenovirus and norovirus in community acquired diarrhea in children: One Egyptian center study
    Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Nermen Abo El Kheir
    2017(11):987-990. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.003
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 228.77 K](86)
    Objective:To determine the prevalence of astrovirus, norovirus, adenovirus in childrenbelowfive years old with diarrhea by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR) along with rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay. Methods:The study was conducted on children below five years old complaining of acute diarrhea. The study included stool examination by molecular method for detection of norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus by multiplex RT-PCR. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the stool by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. Results:The study included 100 children below 5 years old with acute diarrhea.Multiplex RT-PCR was positive in 34% of the children. The most frequently detectedvirus was rotavirus (44%), followed by norovirus (30%), adenovirus (20%) and astrovirus(14%). The clinical symptoms were more significantly associated with viral diarrhea such as fever (P= 0.03), bloody diarrhea (P= 0.025), vomiting (P= 0.0001) and watery diarrheas (P= 0.05). The frequency of diarrhea with viral pathogen was significantly presented in winter season (39.7%). There were significant frequencies of norovirus and adenovirus in age ranging 1–2 years old (P= 0.04,P= 0.01 respectively). Conclusions: The present study spotlights on the prevalence of viral pathogens as an important etiology in diarrhea in children below five years old. Astrovirus, norovirus andadenovirus are common along with rotavirus in this group of patients. Multiplex PCR leads to improve the laboratory diagnosis of these viruses along with antigen detection method. Further longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the epidemiological data associated with these viruses and for proper management of such drastic infection.
    4  Antifouling evaluation of extracts from Red Sea soft corals against primary biofilm and biofouling
    Yosry Abdel Aziz Soliman Ahmed Mohammed Brahim Ahmed Hussein Moustafa Mohamed Abdel Fattah Hamed
    2017(11):991-997. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.016
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 552.68 K](88)
    Objective:To evaluate anti-fouling property of extracts from Red Sea soft corals against primary bio-film and bio-fouling. Methods:Seven species of soft corals Sarcophyton glaucum(a),Sinularia compressa,Sinularia cruciata(a),Heteroxenia fuscescens(a),Sarcophyton glaucum(b),Hetero-xenia fuscescens(b) and Sinularia cruciata(b) were chosen to test their extracts as antibacterial and anti-fouling agents in Eastern Harbour of Alexandria, Mediterranean Sea.Bio-active compounds of soft corals were extracted by using methanol and concentrated under vacuum. The residues of extracts were mixed in formulation of inert paint which consisted of rosin, chlorinated rubber and ferrous oxide against micro and macro fouling organisms. The formulated paints were then applied on PVC panels twice by brush,hanged in a steel frame and immersed in Eastern Harbour of Alexandria Mediterranean Sea followed by visual inspection and photographic recordings. Results:After 185 days of immersion in seawater, the anti-fouling results agreed with the antibacterial results where extracts of Sinularia compressa and Heteroxenia fuscescens (b) gave the best activity against marine fouling tube worms and barnacles. The inhibition activity was correlated with the major functional groups (hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl,aliphatic (fatty acids), C]C of alkene or aromatic rings and CeCl of aryl halides) of the extracts. Conclusions:The strong anti-fouling activity makes them promising candidates for new anti-fouling additives. After the screening and application of natural organic compounds from soft corals, marine organisms show activity against micro and macro fouling organisms.
    5  Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity
    Piman Pocasap Natthida Weerapreeyakul Waraporn Tanthanuch Kanjana Thumanu
    2017(11):998-1004. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.022
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 684.29 K](91)
    Objectives: To evaluate the concentration differences of sulforaphene and sulforaphaneat various ages and in different parts of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus with respect totheir potential cancer preventive effect on HCT116 colon cancer cells. Methods: FTIR–ATR and GC–MS were used to characterize the isothiocyanates in theplant extracts followed by HPLC for quantification. Antiproliferation and apoptosis inductionwere determined by using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: The respective rank of anticancer activity of Raphanus sativus were as follows:vegetative (3 week) < older rosette (4 week) < early-bolting (5 week) < senescence (7week) < late-bolting (6 week). The low to high concentration of sulforaphene and sulforaphaneoccurred in the same stage order. Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed) of Raphanus sativushave the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentrationhigher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the mostappropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.
    6  Anti-inflammatory properties of oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanol extract and epigallocatechin gallate in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells
    Arina Novilla Dedi Somantri Djamhuri Betty Nurhayati Dwi Davidson Rihibiha Ervi Afifah Wahyu Widowati
    2017(11):1005-1009. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.002
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 231.68 K](89)
    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of oolong tea ethanol extract(OTEE) and epigalloatechin gallate (EGCG) on lipopolysacharide-induced murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Methods:A cytotoxic assay using MTS tetrazolium was conducted to find a nontoxic level of OTEE and EGCG toward RAW 264.7 cells. Interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β), tumornecrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) levels were measured by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) levels measured by a nitrate/nitrite colorimetric assay todetermine the inhibition activity of OTEE and EGCG. Results:Lipopolysaccharide induction increases NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels compared with the untreated cell (negative control). The positive control,lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 without treatments showed the highest level of all pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulators tested in this study. The positive control was used as standard to obtain OTEE and EGCG inhibition activity toward NO, COX-2,IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. OTEE had a higher inhibition activity toward NO, COX-2, IL-6,and IL-1β than EGCG; the reverse was seen for TNF-α. However, both OTEE and EGCG suppressed production of NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Conclusions:OTEE and EGCG have the potential for use as anti-inflammatory drugs,which is shown by their ability to reduce the production of NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in active macrophages.
    7  Impact of maternal HBsAg carrier status on pregnancy outcomes in Duhok city, Iraq
    Amira S. Khalil Nawfal R. Hussein Maida Y. Shamdeen
    2017(11):1010-1013. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.023
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 211.56 K](94)
    Objective:To investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Also, the association between HBV-related risk factors and HBV status was studied.Methods:A total of 100 HBV positive pregnant women were recruited and the pregnancy outcomes were compared with 301 HBV negative women. Blood samples were collected and tested for HBV by HBsAg ELISA. Data were collected for recruited subjects using interview questionnaire.Results:Data analysis showed that 51/100 (51%) of the HBV-positive subjects gave a history of HBV in the family which was significantly higher than that of HBV-negative patients [41/301 (13.6%)P= 0.001]. A significant association was found between pos-itive history of surgery and HBs Ag positivity (P= 0.009). Then, pregnancy outcomes were stratified according to the HBV positivity. No significant association was found between HBV status and pregnancy outcomes (P>0.05 for all). Conclusions:Positive family history of HBV and previous surgical procedures are associated with higher rate of HBV positivity. No association is found between HBV positivity and pregnancy outcomes.
    8  Anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of conventional and supercritical extracts of black cumin (Nigella sativa)
    Muhammad Jawad Iqbal Masood Sadiq Butt Mir Muhammad Nasir Qayyum Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
    2017(11):1014-1022. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.005
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 1017.18 K](98)
    Objective:To explore the hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of conventional and super critical extracts of black cumin. Methods:Purposely, rat modelling was carried out for 2 months by designing three studies i.e. study I (normal rats), study II (hyperglycaemic rats) and study III (hyper-cholesterolemic rats). Each study was further divided into three groups based on diet i.e. control, functional diet (contained extract of black cumin prepared by using conventional solvent) and nutraceutical diet (contained extract of black cumin prepared by super critical fluid extraction system).Results:During whole trial, an abating trend was observed in the level of serum cholesterol with maximum reduction (12.8%) in nutraceutical group of study III. Low density lipoprotein and triglyceride level was also lowered maximum in study III as17.1% and 11.6%, respectively. Whereas, highest decline in glucose level was in nutraceutical group of study II as 11.2%. Conclusions:Inclusion of black cumin extracts in diet significantly lowers the occurrence of hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Furthermore, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of nutraceutical diet is more prominent as compared to functional diet.
    9  Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Are we targeting old devil with new problems?
    Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda Kanchan Choudhary Vijay Kranti Matety
    2017(11):1023-1024. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.025
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 172.47 K](82)
    10  Fern extracts potentiate fluconazole activity and inhibit morphological changes in Candida species
    Maria A. Freitas Antonia T.L. Santos Antonio J.T. Machado Ana Raquel P. Silva Fabia F. Campina Maria S. Costa Gioconda M.A.B. Martins Maria Flaviana B. Morais-Braga Saulo R. Tintino Irwin R.A. Menezes Jaime Ribeiro-Filho Altevir P. Medeiros Adeliana S. Oliveira Patrício B. Maracaja Henrique D.M. Coutinho
    2017(11):1025-1030. DOI: 0.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.018
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.87 M](92)
    Objective:To investigate the anti-fungal activity of the fern species Lygodium venustum(L. venustum) and Pityrogramma calomelanos(P. calomelanos) against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. Methods:The micro dilution method was used to evaluate the anti-fungal activity, as well as the modulating effects of ethanolic extracts of these plants in combination with fluconazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicide concentration and morphological changes were also determined. Results:The extract obtained from L. venustum presented a MIC>8192μg/mL, while the extract obtained from and P. calomelanos presented a MIC = 8192μg/mL, indicating that they present weak anti-fungal activity. However, combination of the extracts with Fluconazole potentiated the anti-fungal activity of this drug. At different experimental conditions, such as concentration of the extract and type of strain, the extracts inhibited hyphae and pseudohy-phae formation, indicating that these fern species can affect the morphology of the fungi. Conclusions:The extracts obtained from the fern species L. Venustum and P. calomelanos dose not present significant anti-fungal activity. However, P. calomelanos potentiates the activity of fluconazole and both extracts inhibits the morphological changes in Candida species, indicating that they have potential pharmacological activity as modulators of fungal biology. Therefore, novel studies are required to characterize the interference of these extracts in the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida species as well as the potential of fern species to treat fungal infections.
    11  Differential effect of aqueous Desmodium gangeticum root extract mediated TiO2 nanoparticles on isolated mitochondria, cells and Wistar rats
    Mahalakshmi Ansari Gino A. Kurian
    2017(11):1031-1035. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.020
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 734.22 K](90)
    Objective:To study the renal toxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiNPs) prepared by chemical and green route. Methods:TiNPs were prepared by chemical (sol gel technique) and green route (using aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root by using titanium tetraisopropoxide asprecursor). Thus prepared TiNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and evaluated its renal toxic impact in different experimental models viz., Wistar rats (100 mg/kg b.wt.; oral), LLC-PK1 cells (100 mg/mL) and isolated renal mitochondria (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL). Results:Compared to the chemically synthesized TiNPs, Desmodium gangeticum synthesized nanoparticles showed less nephrotoxicity, determined by elevated serum renal markers like urea (62%), creatinine (35%), aspartate aminotransferase (61%) and alaninetransaminase (37%) and the result was in agreement with cellular toxicity (measured by MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase activity). Further toxicity evaluation at the level ofmitochondria showed not much significant difference in TiNPs effect between two synthetic routes. Conclusions:The biochemical findings in renal tissue and epithelial cell (LLC-PK1) supported by histopathology examination and isolated mitochondrial activity showed minor toxicity with TiNPs prepared by green route (TiNP DG) than TiNP Chem.
    12  Anti-hyperglycemic property of Hericium erinaceus-A mini review
    Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
    2017(11):1036-1040. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.024
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 252.78 K](84)
    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is one of the widely used edible mushrooms around the world, primarily in Asian countries. H. erinaceus is used in traditional medicines, and mushroom based foods. The fruiting body and mycelia of H. erinaceus are extracted using the solvents, and several bio-active compounds were identified. Several studies have reported that those bio-active compounds exhibit many health benefits such as hemag-glutinating, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-aging activities, etc. This manuscript consciously updated the information about the composition of H. erinaceus, H. erinaceus based foods, and anti-hyperglycemic property of H. erinaceus.
    13  Adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy can serve as a model for diabetic cardiomyopathy–a hypothesis
    Kaviyarasi Renu V.G. Abilash P.B. Tirupathi Pichiah Thabassum Akthar Syeda Sankarganesh Arunachalam
    2017(11):1041-1045. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.021
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 269.86 K](82)
    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the life threatening complications of diabetes. A number of animal models are being used for studying diabetic cardiomyopathy. In lab-oratory animal models, induction of cardiomyopathy happens in two stages: first being the induction of diabetic condition and the second being the induction of cardiomyopathyby prolonging diabetic condition. It takes a longer time to develop diabetes with the limited success rate for development of cardiomyopathy. Adriamycin is an effective anti-cancer drug limited by its major side-effect cardiomyopathy. A number of features of Adriamycin treatment mimics diabetes. We postulate that Adriamycin-induced cardio-myopathy might be used as a model system to study diabetic cardiomyopathy in rodents since a number of features of both the cardiomyopathies overlap. Left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, myofibrillar loss, and fibrosis are hallmarks of both of the cardiomyopathies. At the molecular level, calcium signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress, advance glycation endproduct activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, lipotoxicity and oxidative stress are similar in both the cardiomyopathies. The signature profile of both the cardiomyopathies shares commonalities. In conclusion, we suggest that Adriamycin induced cardiomyopathic animal model can be used for studying diabetic cardiomyopathy and would save time for researchers working on cardiomyopathy developed in rodent using the traditional method.
    14  An updated review on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of evening primrose (genus Oenothera)
    Rebecca Munir Nabil Semmar Muhammad Farman Naseem Saud Ahmad
    2017(11):1046-1054. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.004
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 330.16 K](88)
    Genus Oenothera includes medicinal plants that are distributed throughout the world andare known since ancient times. Popular indications of different species of this genus include treatment of inflammations, diabetes, microbial infections, ulcers, tumors, kidney and liver problems. The plants of this genus are a botanical source for various pharma-ceutically active components like sterols, alkaloids, phenolic acids,flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, biflavonols and tocopherols. This review article is a compilation of chemical composition and biological activities of the various species of the genus Oenothera.

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