Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Acquisition of naturally acquired antibody response to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1-DBLα and differential regulation of IgG subclassesin severe and uncomplicated malaria
    Natharinee Horata Kiattawee Choowongkomon Siriluk Ratanabunyong Jarinee Tongshoob Srisin Khusmith
    2017(12):1055-1061. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.017
    [Abstract](95) [HTML](0) [PDF 363.15 K](224)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore whether individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) develop antibodies directed against PfEMP1-DBLα, and to assess their IgG subclass distribution in severe and uncomplicated malaria. Methods: The anti-PfDBLα IgG and their IgG subclass distributions in plasma of severe(SM) and uncomplicated malaria (UCM) were assessed by enzyme-linked immuno absorbent assay. The antibody profiles to P. falciparum blood stage antigens were evaluated. CD36 binding ability was determined by static receptor-binding assays.Rosette formation was performed by staining with acridine orange. Results: Significantly higher number of UCM (86.48%) than SM (57.78%) plasma contained total acquisition of specific IgG to P. falciparum antigens (P= 0.000). Similarmanners were seen in response to P. falciparum DBLα with significant difference (UCM,59.46%vsSM, 40.00%;P=0.014). Anti-PfDBLα-IgG1 and -IgG3 were the predominant subclasses. Similar percentage of UCM (31.82%) and SM (33.33%) plasma containedonly IgG1, while 13.64% of UCM and 27.78% of SM plasma contained only IgG3. Anti-PfDBLα-IgG1 coexpressed with more than one subclass was noted (UCM, 27.27%; SM,16.67%). Obviously, IgG1 coexpressed with IgG3 (9.09%) was observed in only UCM plasma. IgG1 was coexpressed with IgG2 in UCM (9.09%) and SM (11.11%) plasma,while IgG1 was coexpressed with IgG4 only in UCM plasma (4.55%). IgG subclasses to P. falciparumantigens were distributed in a similar manner. Only the levels of IgG1, butnot IgG3 were significantly higher in UCM than in SM. Conclusions: These data suggest that individuals infected with P. falciparum candevelop the anti-PfEMP1 antibodies with the major contribution of specific IgG subclasses. The balance and the levels of anti-PfDBLαIgG subclasses play a crucial role inantibody mediated protection against severe malaria.
    2  Bioactive compounds fractionated from endophyte Streptomyces SUK 08 with promising ex-vivo antimalarial activity
    Noraziah Mohamad Zin Juwairiah Remali Mohd Nazir Nasrom Shafariatul Akmar Ishak Mohd Shukri Baba Juriyati Jalil
    2017(12):1062-1066. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.006
    [Abstract](64) [HTML](0) [PDF 245.76 K](236)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine ex vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytic Streptomyces SUK 08 as well as the main core structure fractionated from its crudeextract. Methods: The activities of SUK 08 crude extract were evaluated by using the Plas-modium lactate dehydrogenase assay and synchronization test against rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, instead of human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract was determined by MTT assay. The crudeextract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry. Results: The ethyl acetate crude extract showed very promising antimalarial activitywith IC50 of 1.25 mg/mL. The synchronization tests showed that ethyl acetate extractioncould inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle, but it was most effective at the Plasmodium ring stage. On the basis of a MTT assay on Chang Liver cells, ethyl acetateand ethanol demonstrated IC50 values of>1.0 mg/mL. The IC50 of parasitemia at 5% and 30% for this extract was lower than chloroquine. Thin-layer chromatography, with 1: 9 ratio of ethyl acetate: hexane, was used to isolate several distinct compounds. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analysis, three core structures were identified as cyclohexane, butyl propyl ester, and 2,3-heptanedione. Structurally, the secompounds were similar to currently available antimalarial drugs. Conclusions: The results suggest that compounds isolated from Streptomyces SUK 08 are viable antimalarial drug candidates that require further investigations.
    3  First investigation of deltamethrin pyrethroid susceptibility and resistance status of Anopheles labranchiae (Falleroni, 1926), potential malaria vector in Tunisia
    Jabeur Daaboub Ahmed Tabbabi
    2017(12):1067-1070. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.007
    [Abstract](86) [HTML](0) [PDF 243.86 K](204)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticides against Anopheles labranchiae , potential malaria vector in Tunisia. Methods: Sixfield populations of Anopheles labranchiae mosquitoes were collected from six localities in Northern and Central Tunisia between October and November 2016.Different bioassays were performed to estimate the level of resistance in each collected population. Two synergists were used to estimate the involvement of detoxification enzymes in insecticide resistance. Results: All studied strains were resistant and the RR50 ranged from 12.5 in sample #1 to 72.5 in sample #6. Synergist tests using piperonyl butoxide indicated the involvement of monoxygenases enzymes in the recorded resistance. In contrast, the increase of deltamethrin mortality was not significant in presence of S,S,sributyl phosphorothioate(0.850 of deltamethrin insecticide indicated an insensitive sodium channel affected by Kdr mutation(Spearman rank correlation,r=-0.59,P<0.01). Conclusions: These results should be considered in the current mosquitoes control programs in Tunisia. The use of pesticides and insecticides by both agricultural and publichealth departments in Tunisia should be more rational to reduce the development of resistance in populations. Different insecticide applications should be implemented alternately.
    4  Phytochemical and antioxidant activities of Rumex crispus L. in treatment of gastrointestinal helminths in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
    Oladayo Amed Idris Olubunmi Abosede Wintola Anthony Jide Afolayan
    2017(12):1071-1078. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.008
    [Abstract](58) [HTML](0) [PDF 494.56 K](251)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and phytochemical content of the leaf and root extracts of Rumex crispusis using the solvents extraction; methanol extract,ethanol extract, acetone extract (ACE), and water extract. Methods: To talflavonoids content, total phenolic content, and total proanthocyanidin were evaluated using spectrophotometric equivalents of the standards, quercetin, gallic acid and catechin respectively. The antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were determined using ABTS, DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. Results: The flavonoids and phenols contents of the extracts were in the range of(19.39 ± 4.08) to (526.23 ± 17.52) mg QE/g and (16.95 ± 12.03) to (240.68 ± 3.50) mg GAE/g, respectively. ACE of the leaf has the highest value of total flavonoids content(526.23 ± 17.52) mg QE/g while ACE of the root has the highest value of total phenolic content (240.68 ± 3.50) mg GAE/g. The highest content of total proanthocyanidin(645.38 ± 1.33) mg CE/g was in ACE of the root. Significant amounts of saponin and alkaloid were also present in the root and leaf extracts. All solvent fractions showed significant antioxidant activities (P<0.05) with ACE of the root having the highest scavenging value as shown in DPPH, ABTS, total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50= 0.014 mg/mL,<0.005 mg/mL, 0.048 mg/mL,0.067 mg/mL, and 0.075 mg/mL, respectively). Conclusions: In this study, the mean phytochemical content of the root of Rumex crispusis higher than that of the leaf and this may have contributed to its high antioxidant activities. This may also justify the frequent use of the root more than the leaves intraditional medicine for the cure of helminthic infections.
    5  Mobola plum seed methanolic extracts exhibit mixed type inhibition of angiotensinI-converting enzyme in vitro
    Olamide Olajusi Crown Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju Ayodele Oluwaseyi Kolawole Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun Mary Tolulope Olaleye Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi
    2017(12):1079-1084. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.009
    [Abstract](89) [HTML](0) [PDF 413.43 K](245)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the possible inhibitory potentials and mechanism by Mobola plum(Parinari curatellifolia) seeds crude methanol (CE) and flavonoid-rich (FE) extracts onangiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACEI). Methods: The sensitivity and kinetic model of inhibition of CE and FE on ACEI usingN-[3-(2-furyl)-acryloyl]-Phe-Gly-Gly as enzyme substrate for ACEI was evaluated by Michealis Menten approach. The inhibition mechanism was explored from Lineweaver–Burk model and IC50 was determined from Cheng–Prusoff empirical analysis. Results: The IC50 of CE and FE were 13.54 and 39.38 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition with the inhibitory constant (Ki) of CE was between 0.38 and 0.37 μg/mL while that of FE showed a two-fold increase (1.62 μg/mL and0.28 μg/mL). FE on ACEI demonstrated positive cooperativity with a Hill's coefficient of1.89. Conclusions: The study reveals the superior ACEI inhibitory potential of CE over FE and suggest that mixed inhibition pattern of the enzyme might be the underlying mechanism of antihypertensive activity.
    6  Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Triognella foenum graecum Linn seeds:Determination of bioactive compounds and pharmacological analysis
    Ola Basa'ar Samreen Fatema Ali Alrabie Mohammed Mohsin Mazahar Farooqui
    2017(12):1085-1091. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.010
    [Abstract](77) [HTML](0) [PDF 355.49 K](229)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on supercritical CO2 extraction of Triognella foenum graecum Linn seeds, to determine the optimal condition which leads to highest percentage of the accumulative yield and revealing the chemical composition of supercritical CO2 extract. Methods: Temperatures in the range of 40–60℃ and pressures in the range of 10–25 MPa were used. FTIR and GC–MS analysis were used to detect the bioactive compounds present in the extract. The broth dilution method and slope method were used to evaluate the anti-microbial and anti-tuberculosis activities and the in vitro anti-malarialassay was carried out according to the micro assay protocol of Rieckmann and his coworkers. Results: The temperature was more affected than the pressure on the extraction performance and the highest yield of the extract (3.111%) was attained at 60℃ and 10 MPa.FTIR and GC–MS showed that the chemical composition of the extract included conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester as the major active principle (with concentration of 72.28%), followed by saturated fatty acid methyl esters (16.03%), steroids (8.09%) and organic siloxane compound (3.61%). The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity with MIC values 100, 250, 125 μg/mL towards Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenus respectively. It exhibited high inhibition effect towards the fungi Candida albican with MFC value (250 μg/mL). The extract had low anti-tuberculosis activity with MIC value (100 μg/mL) and comparable MIC value(0.29 μg/mL) towards Plasmodium flaciparum. Conclusions: Supercritical CO2extraction as alternate and green technology is per-formed successfully to extract the bioactive compounds from the seeds of T. foenum graecum Linn and it is concluded that this extract can be used as an alternate source of synthetic anti-biotic drugs.
    7  Determination of hydrophilic–lipophilic balance value and emulsion properties ofsacha inchi oil
    Kiattiphumi Saengsorn Ampa Jimtaisong
    2017(12):1092-1096. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.011
    [Abstract](108) [HTML](0) [PDF 359.29 K](374)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value, stability of formulate emulsion and properties of sacha inchi oil. Methods: The physiochemical characteristics of sacha inchi oil were first investigated.Free radical scavenging property was studied by DPPH assay. HLB value of sacha inchi oil was experimentally determined by preparing the emulsion using emulsifiers at different HLB value. Sacha inchi oil emulsion was prepared using the obtained HLB andits stability was conducted by centrifugation, temperature cycling, and accelerated stability test. The efficiency of the prepared emulsion was clinically investigated by 15volunteers. The primary skin irritation was performed using closed patch test. Subjective sensory assessment was evaluated by using 5-point hedonic scale method. Results: Peroxide value of sacha inchi oil was 18.40 meq O2/kg oil and acid value was 1.86 KOH/g oil. The major fatty acids are omega-3 (44%), omega-6 (35%) and omega-9(9%). The vitamin E content was 226 mg/100 g oil. Moreover, sacha inchi oil (167 ppm)and its emulsion showed 85% and 89% DPPH inhibition, respectively. The experimental HLB value of sacha inchi oil was 8.5. The sacha inchi oil emulsion exhibited good stability after stability test. The emulsion was classified as non-irritant after tested by primary skin irritation method. The skin hydration value significantly increased from38.59 to 45.21 (P<0.05) after applying sacha inchi oil emulsion for 1 month and the over all product satisfaction of volunteers after use was with score of 4.2. Conclusions:This work provides information on HLB value and emulsion properties of sacha inchi oil which is useful for cosmetic and pharmaceutical application.
    8  Evaluation of L-dopa, proximate composition with in vitro anti-inflammatory andantioxidant activity of Mucuna macrocarpa beans: A future drug for Parkinson treatment
    Chetan Aware Ravishankar Patil Swaroopsingh Gaikwad Shrirang Yadav Vishwas Bapat Jyoti Jadhav
    2017(12):1097-1106. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.012
    [Abstract](193) [HTML](0) [PDF 697.58 K](329)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa, anti-Parkinson drug),anti-inflammatory activity, proximate nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of Mucuna macrocarpa(M. macrocarpa) beans. Methods: L-dopa content was determined and quantified by high performance thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by in vitro protein denaturation inhibition and human red blood cell membrane stabilisation activity. Proximate composition and elemental analysis were also investigated. The antioxidant potential(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, N-N-dimethyl-phenylenediamine and ferric-reducingantioxidant power) of M. macrocarpa beans were evaluated by using different extraction solvents. The RP-HPLC analysis also quantified significant phenolics such as gallicacid, tannic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. Results: RP-HPLC quantification revealed that M. macrocarpa beans contain a high level of L-dopa [(115.41 ± 0.985) mg/g] which was the highest among the Mucuna species from Indian subcontinent. Water extract of seed powder showed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. Proximate composition of M. macrocarpa beans revealed numerous nutritional and anti-nutritional components. RP-HPLC analysis of major phenolics such as tannic acid (43.795 mg/g), gallic acid (0.864 mg/g),p-coumaric acid (0.364 mg/g) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.036 mg/g) quantified successfullyfrom M. macrocarpa beans respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that M. macrocarpa is a potential source of L-dopawith promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and nutritional benefits.
    9  Influence of biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA S547)
    Laavanya M. Kumar Wan Zuhainis Saad Rosfarizan Mohamad Raha Abdul Rahim
    2017(12):1107-1115. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.013
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](0) [PDF 663.93 K](234)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB)biofilms on the planktonic and biofilm population of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) (S547). Methods: In this study, biofilm-forming LAB were isolated from tairu and kefir. Isolate Y1 and isolate KF were selected based on their prominent inhibition against test pathogens (using spot-on-agar method and agar-well-diffusion assay) and efficient biofilm production (using tissue culture plate method). They were then identified as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) Y1 and Lactobacillus plantarum( L. plantarum) KF, respectively using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The influence of incubation time, temperature and aerationon the biofilm production of L. casei Y1 and L. plantarum KF was also investigated using tissue culture plate method. The inhibitory activity of both the selected LAB biofilms was evaluated against MRSA (Institute for Medical Research code: S547) using L. plantarum ATCC 8014 as the reference strain. Results: L. casei Y1 showed the highest reduction of MRSA biofilms, by 3.53 log at 48h while L. plantarum KF records the highest reduction of 2.64 log at 36 h. In inhibiting planktonic population of MRSA (S547), both L. casei Y1 and L. plantarum KF biofilms recorded their maximum reduction of 4.13 log and 3.41 log at 24 h, respectively. Despite their inhibitory effects being time-dependent, both LAB biofilms exhibited good potentialin controlling the biofilm and planktonic population of MRSA (S547). Conclusions: The results from this study could highlight the importance of analysing biofilms of LAB to enhance their antibacterial efficacy. Preferably, these protective biofilms of LAB could also be a better alternative to control the formation of biofilms by pathogens such as MRSA.
    10  Feasibility of iFISH patterns in hematologic malignancies among Congolese patientsat Kinshasa University clinics
    Mireille Solange Nganga Nkanga Benjamin Longo-Mbenza Peter Vandenberghe Fons Verdonck Venant Tchokonte-Nana Nkama Claude Nlandu Roth Laure Mapapa Miakassissa Paul Roger Beia Kazadi Antoine Lufimbo Katawandja Jacques Bikaula Ngwidiwo Ntolo Jean-Pierre Mufuta Kuanda Thomas Solo Mbombo Aurore Cecilia Orphee Beia
    2017(12):1116-1119. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.014
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 238.32 K](227)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze the feasibility of detecting Ph1 in leukemia patients in the Kinshasa University Clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo, at KU Leuven, Belgium. Methods: Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples with chronic myeloid leukemia,acute myeloid leukemia or acute leukocytes leukemia were obtained from 32 patients in Kinshasa University clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo and transferred to KULeuven in Belgium for iFISH feasibility. Ph1was detected by using a remote analysis of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Results: Out of the 32 patients involved in this study, 65.6% (n= 21) of the cases were successfully tested, of which 52.4% (n= 11) were iFISH positives for the variant t(9;22)(presence of Ph1) in chronic myeloid leukemia samples and 47.6% (n= 10) negatives inall subtypes of hematological malignancies. However, there was a female predominancein chronic myeloid leukemia samples Ph1-positives by iFISH, whereas no sexual influence was observed on acute subtypes of leukemia. Conclusions: iFISH analysis is feasible on samples obtained from remote sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, the optimization of the sample storage is necessary to further improve iFISH's performance.
    11  Activity of a lipid synthesis inhibitor (spiromesifen) in Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera:Culicidae)
    Hayette Bouabida Fouzia Tine-djebbar Samir Tine Noureddine Soltani
    2017(12):1120-1124. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.015
    [Abstract](74) [HTML](0) [PDF 256.74 K](215)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the activity of spiromesifen against the most abundant and investigated mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Aitken, 1954 (Diptera, Culicidae). Methods: Culiseta longiareolata larvae were collected from untreated areas located at Tebessa (Northeast Algeria). A commercial formulation of spiromesifen (Oberon®240SC) was tested at different concentrations ranging between 238 and 1428μg/L on newlymolted fourth-instar larvae under standard laboratory conditions according to Word Health Organization recommendations. The effects were examined on the mortality, the morphometric measurements, two biomarkers (catalase and malondialdehyde), and the biochemical composition of larvae, respectively. Results: The compound exhibited insecticidal activity. Moreover, it disturbed growth and several morphological aberrations were observed. It also affected body volume,biomarkers and contents of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. A marked effect on lipidsand malondialdehyde was noted, confirming its primary mode of action on lipidsynthesis. Conclusions: Spiromesifen appears less potent than other insecticides tested such as the insect growth disruptors.
    12  Evaluation of teaching-in-English reform in five-year clinical tropical medicine program–Case analysis of curriculum reform of clinical medicine in Hainan Medical University
    Shi-Jiao Yan Yun-Qiang Chen Jiao Chen Chuan-Zhu Lv
    2017(12):1125-1128. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.017
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 201.49 K](225)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the model, quality as well as effect of teaching-in-English in five-year clinical medicine program of Hainan Medical University. Methods: The questionnaire was carried out among clinical medicine undergraduates of 2012–2015 grades in Hainan Medical University, to investigate studying time, studying habits and the impact of teaching in English. Additionally results of CET-4, CET-6 and overseas internship from undergraduates of 2012–2015 grade, as well as the result of phased medical licensing examination and post-graduate entrance examination from under graduates of 2012 were accordingly collected from the Teaching Management Department. Results: For the Chinese students in international classes, the average time of self-study was 161.49 min, 58.3% had preview before classes, and 90.7% had habit of review after classes. Thus the first time pass rate, total pass rate,first time excellent rate and total excellent rate of CET-4 and CET-6 of international classes were significantly higher than those of regular classes. The result of post-graduate entrance examination in 2016 showed that the score, pass rate and acceptance rate of international classes of 2012 grade were significantly higher those of regular classes (P<0.01). Conclusions: Teaching-in-English reform in Hainan Medical University has achieved initial success. Chinese students from international classes are superior to those from regular classes in many aspects. However, there are still many problems, and effective measures should be implemented to promote teaching quality continuously.
    13  Plant-derived anticancer agents: A green anticancer approach
    Javed Iqbal Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi Tariq Mahmood Sobia Kanwal Barkat Ali Sayed Afzal Shah Ali Talha Khalil
    2017(12):1129-1150. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.016
    [Abstract](129) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.21 M](363)
    Abstract:
    Cancer is a frightful disease and represents one of the biggest health-care issues for the human race and demands a proactive strategy for cure. Plants are reservoirs for novel chemical entities and provide a promising line for research on cancer. Hitherto, being effective, chemotherapy is accompanied by certain unbearable side effects. Nevertheless,plants and plant derived products is a revolutionizing field as these are Simple, safer, eco-friendly, low-cost, fast, and less toxic as compared with conventional treatment methods.Phytochemicals are selective in their functions and acts specifically on tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Carcinogenesis is complex phenomena that involves many signaling cascades. Phytochemicals are considered suitable candidates for anticancer drug development due to their pleiotropic actions on target events with multiple manners. There search is in progress for developing potential candidates (those can block or slow down the growth of cancer cells without any side effects) from these phytochemicals. Many phytochemicals and their derived analogs have been identified as potential candidates for anticancer therapy. Effort has been made through this comprehensive review to highlight the recent developments and milestones achieved in cancer therapies using phytomolecules with their mechanism of action on nuclear and cellular factors. Furthermore, drugs for cancer treatment and their limitations have also been discussed.

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