Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Synthesized flavanoid-derived ligand reduced dengue virus type-2 replication in vitro
    Mudiana Muhamad Yean Kee Lee Noorsaadah Abd. Rahman Rohana Yusof
    2017(2):91-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.013
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 718.21 K](98)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antiviral property of a lead ligand, YK51 that was synthesized based on the flavanoid of a natural product toward dengue virus type-2 (DENV2) replication. Methods: cRNA was isolated from HepG2 cells inoculated with 1000 median tissue culture infective dose of DENV2 and treated with different doses of the ligand followed by RT-PCR to quantify the virus gene copies. Confocal microscopy of actin and tubulin redistribution was also performed. Results: The quantitative RT-PCR result showed reduction of the DENV2 gene copies as the ligand concentration was increased. The confocal microscopy result showed increase in the tubulin intensity (79.6%) of infected BHK21 cells treated with the ligand, compared with the non-treated cells (54.8%). The 1.5-fold increase in the intensity of tubulin suggested that the ligand inhibitory effect stabilized the cellular microtubule structure. Conclusions: The synthesized ligand YK51 reduced DENV2 viral load by inhibiting virus replication thus is highly potential to be developed as antiviral agent.
    2  Assessment of co-segregated TLR4 genotypes among Nigerian children with asymptomatic and clinical malaria
    Bamidele Abiodun Iwalokun Senapon Olusola Iwalokun Bernice Enobong Udoh Modinat Balogun
    2017(2):96-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.015
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 337.19 K](96)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the occurrence and pattern of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) co[1]segregated genotypes among children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nigeria. Methods: In this case-control study, a total of 79 Plasmodium falciparum infected children aged 2–7 years and 105 age-matched uninfected controls of Yoruba descents in Lagos were studied. The extracted DNA samples were used for TLR4 genotyping at codons 299 (Asp > Gly) and 399 (Thr > Ile) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Malaria infection was diagnosed by blood smear microscopy and infected children were stratified into asymptomatic, uncomplicated and severe malaria sub-groups. Malnutrition was determined by measuring the mid upper arm circumference and anemia was defined as hemoglobin < 11 g/dL. Results: The proportions of children with acute malnutrition and severe anemia were 12.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Parasitemia and malnutrition were not correlated and four distinct patterns of TLR4 genotypes were found in the study population: Asp299Asp/ Thr399Thr (90.2%), Asp299Gly/Thr399Thr (4.3%), Gly299Gly/Thr399Thr (3.8%) and Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile (1.6%). These genotypes did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in frequency between infected and non-infected children. However, low and high occurrences of the TLR4 Asp299Asp/Thr399Thr and Asp299Gly/Thr399Thr genotypes were observed in the severe malaria subgroup. Conclusions: This study reveals a protective role for TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile and Asp299Asp/Thr399Thr genotypes against severe malaria in Nigerian children.
    3  Multiplex PCR assay for discrimination of Centrocestus caninus and Stellantchasmus falcatus
    Thapana Chontananarth
    2017(2):103-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.018
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 305.41 K](98)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To develop the multiplex PCR method based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 to discriminate the intestinal trematodes, Centrocestus caninus (C. caninus), and Stellantchasmus falcatus (S. falcatus). Methods: Four species of heterophyid trematodes including C. caninus, S. falcatus, Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchoides sp. were amplified and the specific primer was designed based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 region. Two specific primers were used to validate the optimized PCR conditions: the specificity test and the sensitivity test. Results: Both of these specific primers confirmed the specificity through multiplex PCR reaction which generated both PCR products (231 and 137 bp) in the mixed DNA template of C. caninus and S. falcatus with no cross-reaction with other heterophyid trematodes. The optimum annealing temperature of both primers was 54–59 C. The sensitivity test used the two-fold serial dilution DNA template, which was concentrated between 10 and 0.312 5 ng/μL. The lowest concentration of the DNA template of this multiplex PCR was 2.5 ng/μL. Conclusions: The technique described here proved to be a species-specific technique and was found to be a rapid method for the diagnosis of C. caninus and S. falcatus in terms of the larval and adult stages in intermediate and/or definitive hosts in the endemic area.
    4  The level of chemerin and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein in Toxoplasma gondii seropositive obese individuals
    Agustin Iskandar Karomah Sriwedari Indah Adhita Wulanda Muhammad Rasjad Indra Hartojo Novi Khila Firan Ery Olivianto
    2017(2):107-109. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.017
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 280.93 K](96)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To know the difference between chemerin and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) levels in obese individuals with positive Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) immunoglobulin G (IgG) compared with negative T. gondii IgG. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study by using consecutive sampling methods conducted from January to April 2013. The subjects were 57 obese individuals who were divided into obese group of positive and negative T. gondii IgG. The level of chemerin, AFABP and T. gondii IgG was done by ELISA. The data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: The results showed that the level of chemerin of positive T. gondii IgG group was significantly higher than the negative T. gondii IgG group [(70.0 ± 16.5) vs. (64.4 ± 16.1) pg/mL; P = 0.003], but there was not significant AFABP difference between seropositive and negative IgG groups [(83.6 ± 41.9) vs. (74.2 ± 36.7) pg/mL; P = 0.598]. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the level of chemerin of seropositive T. gondii IgG was higher than that in the negative T. gondii IgG group.
    5  Antioxidant compounds produced by Pseudocercospora sp. ESL 02, an endophytic fungus isolated from Elaeocarpus sylvestris
    Amalia Indah Prihantini Sanro Tachibana
    2017(2):110-115. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.020
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 621.33 K](108)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate endophytic fungi from Elaeocarpus sylvestris (E. sylvestris) and to isolate antioxidant compounds from a potential source fungus. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from fresh leaves and stems of E. sylvestris and identified based on DNA analysis. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the fungi. The po-tential antioxidant fungus was further studied to isolate antioxidant compounds. The isolated compounds were identified by melting point analysis, optical rotation, spectral analysis using a UV spectrophotometer, high resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography analysis, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated with DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Results: Seven endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from E. sylvestris and identified as Pestalotiopsis sp. EST 01, Pestalotiopsis sp. EST 02, Diaporthales sp. EST 03, Meyerozyma sp. EST 04, Diaporthales sp. EST 05, Pestalotiopsis sp. ESL 01, and Pseudocercospora sp. ESL 02. Of the seven fungi, Pseudocercospora sp. ESL 02 had the highest antioxidant activity [IC50= (30.54 ± 0.88) μg/mL]. From that fungus, two compounds identified as terreic acid (1) and 6-methylsalicylic acid (2) were isolated with an IC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activity of (0.22 ± 0.02) mmol/L and (3.87 ± 0.27) mmol/L, respectively. The compounds also had good activities from the reducing power and b-carotene bleaching assays. Conclusions: The Pseudocercospora sp. ESL 02 fungus isolated from E. sylvestris looks promising as a novel source of terreic acid.
    6  Comparison of total immunoglobulin A levels in different samples in Leghorn and broiler chickens
    Ruben Merino-Guzman Juan David Latorr Ramiro Delgado Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco Amanda Desha Wolfenden Kyle Dean Teague Lucas Elzie Graham Brittany Danielle Mahaffey Mikayla Francis Ann Baxter Billy Marshall Hargis Guillermo Tellez
    2017(2):116-120. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.021
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 302.85 K](99)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To standardize an ELISA protocol to quantify total immunoglobulin A (IgA) from different biological samples. Methods: Two independent experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, total IgA levels were quantified from the lachrymal fluid, tracheal swab, and cloacal swab at various time points from Days 30 to 89 in white Leghorn chickens. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effect of 50 or 500 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on total IgA quantified in samples from the lachrymal fluid, tracheal swab, gut content and cloacal swab in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Results: Lachrymal fluid contained the highest level of IgA; however, the sampling procedure was time consuming and stressful to the bird, and the sample volume depends largely on the size of the chicken. Cloacal swabs also contained a high concentration of IgA; this sampling procedure was faster than lachrymal fluid sampling and was not affected by the age of the bird. Tracheal sampling was more difficult than cloacal sampling; the age of the bird limited the sampling, and the IgA concentration was the lowest detected at all sampling ages. 500 ppb of AFB 1 significantly reduced total IgA concentration in the gut content compared with control or 50 ppb of AFB 1 treated groups. Interestingly, a significant reduction in total IgA was also observed in those chickens that received 50 ppb of AFB 1 in gut rinse when compared with cloacal swabs. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cloacal swab is an easy and reliable way to evaluate mucosal IgA concentration in both Leghorn and broiler chickens.
    7  Antioxidant, anti-alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic beta-cell protective effects of methanolic extract of Ensete superbum Cheesm seeds
    Solomon Habtemariam George Kabakasseril Varghese
    2017(2):121-125. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.10.012
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 619.57 K](90)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase and pancreatic β-cell protective potential of Ensete superbum (E. superbum) seeds. Methods: A variety of in vitro assays including radical scavenging, reducing power potential, phenolic content determination, α-glucosidase assay and pancreatic β-cell (1.4E7 cells) viability were employed for assessing the effect of methanolic extract of E. superbum seeds. Results: The radical scavenging and reducing power effects comparable with the standard rutin were obtained while the enzyme inhibitory activity of the extract was 68-fold better than the standard antidiabetic drug, acarbose. The seed extract of E. superbum was packed-full of polyphenols with mean percentage gallic acid equivalent value of (38.2 ± 1.8) (n = 3). The protection of pancreatic cells from massive onslaught of hydrogen peroxide was far superior to that obtained for rutin. Conclusions: The reputed antidiabetic therapeutic uses of the seeds extract of E. superbum may be justified on the basis of inhibition of carbohydrate enzymes, antioxidant effects and pancreatic β-cell protection.
    8  Cardio- and hepato-protective potential of methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels seeds: A diabetic rat model study
    Sumaiya Nahid Kishor Mazumder Zillur Rahman Saiful Islam Md. Humayun Rashid Philip Grey Ker
    2017(2):126-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.025
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.58 M](118)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (S. cumini) seeds on the major organs in an animal model of diabetes through biochemical and histopathological studies. Methods: The methanolic extracts of S. cumini seeds (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats daily, with fasting blood glucose levels being measured by glucometry at one-day interval for a duration of two weeks. Biochemical assays to evaluate changes in the functions of the heart, liver, pancreas and kidney were carried out. Histopathological changes in the diabetic rat organs (pancreas, liver, heart, kidney and spleen) were also observed after the 14 days of treatment with the extracts. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extracts of S. cumini seeds (100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight), with gliclazide as a positive control (25 mg/kg), showed beneficial effects including lowering blood glucose levels (P < 0.001), improved heart and liver functions, and hyperlipidemia due to diabetes. At 200 mg/kg, the extracts reversed cardiac and liver damage caused by alloxan. Conclusions: In addition to the anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of S. cumini seeds, the extracts demonstrates potential to minimize cardiac and hepatic complications.
    9  Elaborate evaluation of serum and tissue oxidized LDL level with darapladib therapy: A feasible diagnostic marker for early atherogenesis
    Teuku Heriansyah Aditya Angela Adam Titin Andri Wihastuti Mohammad Saifur Rohman
    2017(2):134-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.014
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 682.70 K](90)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in serum and vascular wall of Sprague-Dawley rats, identify their patterns in 8 weeks and 16 weeks of dyslipidemia induced by high fat diet, compare foam cells in aorta of each group and investigate lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) role in atherosclerosis by darapladib administration. Methods: This study generated in twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups, which were received normal diet (normal group), high fat diet and high fat diet plus darapladib therapy for both 8 weeks and 16 weeks. Surgeries were performed at Week 8 and Week 16 to take the blood serum and aortic tissue. Level of oxLDL in serum, oxLDL aortic tissue, foam cell amount in aortic tissue, and Lp-PLA2 expression in aortic tissue were measured. Results: There were significant differences in oxLDL level in serum, aortic tissue and foam cell amount (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in Lp-PLA2 expression in aortic tissue. OxLDL in serum and aortic tissue had a very strong correlation (r 2 > 0.9, P < 0.05). This study also composed an equation for oxLDL level in aortic tissue prediction. Factorial ANOVA found that there was a significant difference of oxLDL level in the interactions between duration and location, location and treatment, and also duration, location and treatment (P < 0.01). Administration of darapladib was able to reduce levels of oxLDL in serum, aortic tissue and foam cell significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, subsequently). Conclusions: OxLDL level is location-dependent and duration-dependent. As a feasible early diagnosis, we can predict oxLDL level in aortic tissue by its level in serum. Though Lp-PLA2 expression was unsignificant, Lp-PLA2 inhibition by darapladib can reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in atherogenesis.
    10  Chromatographic fingerprinting and free-radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts of Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems
    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian Raquel Orejudos Rubio Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon
    2017(2):139-143. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.016
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 990.47 K](92)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprint profiles and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Muntingia calabura (M. calabura) leaves and stems. Methods: The leaves and stems were extracted using ethanol as solvent. The TLC separation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaf and ethanol extracts was carried out in ethyl acetate: n-hexane and chloroform: ethyl acetate mobile phase systems. Distinct spots were visualized under visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 nm and after spraying with vanillin-sulfuric acid. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results: Both the leaf and stem ethanol extracts at 4 mg/mL exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl inhibition of more than 90%, relative to gallic acid. The results of TLC showed that the degree of resolution between the constituent spots was comparable between the two mobile phase systems using the different visualization wavelengths. Under the 254 nm visualization, few spots were observed in leaf and stem extracts. Visualization at 366 nm yielded the greatest number of observable spots of various colors in both leaf and stem extracts. More spots were visualized upon post-derivatization with vanillinsulfuric acid in the TLC chromatograms using chloroform: ethyl acetate mobile phase, compared to those in ethyl acetate: n-hexane mobile phase. Conclusions: M. calabura exhibited very high antioxidant activity in its leaves and stems ethanol extracts, both of which are used in traditional medicine. The TLC results demonstrated the presence of diverse secondary metabolites in the leaf and stem ethanol extracts, indicating that the antioxidant activity, including other bioactivities may be attributed to these phytochemical constituents. This paper has reported for the first time the TLC fingerprinting of M. calabura using visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 and postderivatization with vanillin-spray to visualize separate spots on TLC plates.
    11  Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract and chemical composition of the essential oil of Eremostachys laciniata collected from Zagros
    Iman Bajalan Masoumeh Zand Masoud Goodarzi Mahin Darabi
    2017(2):144-146. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.022
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 290.38 K](97)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the chemical component of the essential oil of Eremostachys laciniata and evaluate antioxidant activity of the extract. Methods: The hydrodistillated essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Also, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric method, respectively. Results: The major components of the essential oil were p-cymene (21.64%), linalool (17.93%), and α-pinene (11.42%). Also, the extract obtained by methanol showed a good antioxidant activity. The same extract also exhibited high phenolic and flavonoid contents. Conclusions: These results indicate that Eremostachys laciniata can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.
    12  Chemical composition of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris collected from Saudi Arabian market
    Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari Md Tanwir Athar Ahmed Abdullah Al-Faraidy Mohammed Salim Almuhaiza
    2017(2):147-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.023
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 384.08 K](89)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To focus on the analysis of chemical constituents of the Thymus vulgaris L. (locally known as “Zaitra” or “Za'atar”; Family: Lamiaceae) which is available in the market of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Zaitra oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were compared with the standard spectra available in National Institute Standard and Technique library. Results: The results indicated that the Thymus oil is composed of many chemical compounds including α pinene, thymol and caryophyllene which are biologically active and also used in various diseases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the Thymus vulgaris due to presence of many bioactive compounds can be used as a new potential source of medicine for the treatment of various types of illness.
    13  The effects of different strength of MS media in solid and liquid media on in vitro growth of Typhonium flagelliforme
    Nur Inani Rezali Norrizah Jaafar Sidik Azani Saleh Nurul Izzati Osman Nurul Athirah Mohd Adam
    2017(2):151-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.019
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.23 M](98)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effects of different strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) media (full, 1 / 2 and 1 / 4 ) in solid and liquid media on in vitro growth of Typhonium flagelliforme (T. flagelliforme), whereby an optimum media composition can be provided for mass propagation of T. flagelliforme. Methods: Rhizome bud of T. flagelliforme was obtained from the axenic in vitro established T. flagelliforme plantlets in Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam. Rhizome bud was used as explant and cultured onto shoot proliferation medium under different strength of MS media (full, 1 / 2 , 1 / 4 ) in solid and liquid culture media. Results: After 6 weeks of culture, the number of shoot, number of leaf, number of root, height of shoot, fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll content of T. flagelliforme were analyzed. A comparison was made between liquid and solid culture media. The results revealed that the liquid culture media were more effective for all the growth parameters (shoot height, shoot number, leaf number, root number, fresh weight, dry weight, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content) compared to solid culture media. Apart from that, this study revealed the positive relationship between strength of MS media and type of culture media (solid and liquid media) to the growth of T. flagelliforme. Growth of T. flagelliforme was improved when MS strength was increased in liquid media. In contrast, growth of T. flagelliforme was improved when MS strength was decreased in solid media. Conclusions: Through this study, an optimum media composition for mass propagation of T. flagelliforme had been established by observing effects of MS media strength and type of culture media (solid and liquid media) on the growth of T. flagelliforme.
    14  Antioxidant activity of water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from Eucalyptus cultivated in Lebanon
    Marianne Haddad Salam Zein Hawraa Shahrour Kamar Hamadeh Nadine Karaki Hussein Kanaan
    2017(2):157-160. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.024
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 664.27 K](97)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To extract and identify the chemical composition of the polysaccharide isolated from the Eucalyptus cultivated in Lebanon and to evaluate its antioxidant activity. Materials: The water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Eucalyptus leaves, and its structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. The antioxidant activity of the active ingredient was screened for its radical scavenging ability using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) test. Results: The results of the DPPH test have shown that fucoidan, the polysaccharide isolated from Eucalyptus, exhibited almost the same antioxidant activity against DPPH$ as the ascorbic acid did at 100 μg/mL. Conclusions: This natural molecule extracted from a medicinal plant has a promising antioxidant activity and could be used in pharmaceutical and medical applications.
    15  Clinical correlations between chronic hepatitis C infection and decreasing bone mass density after treatment with interferon-alpha
    Vahid Babaei Masoud Ghorbani Nastaran Mohseni Hojjat Afraid Yassaman Saghaei Shahram Teimourian
    2017(2):161-165. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.027
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 317.38 K](93)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the bone mass density in chronic hepatitis patients before and after interferon- α treatment. Methods: A total of 70 patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with interferon- α and were evaluated. The treatment dosage was three million IU three times a week for one year. All the patients underwent bone mass density detection at lumbar spine and femoral neck before and after the interferon- α treatment. All the necessary information such as age, sex, and laboratory test, history of occurrence of fractures, lifestyle, and menopause status was collected by interviewers face-to-face from participants at the research visit. Smoking was categorized by whether participants were nonsmokers or smokers. Menopause was designated if there had been complete cessation of menses for more than 12 months. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 14 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Among 70 patients, 52% were male, 48% were female and the mean age was (57.0 ± 9.6) years (range: 24–79). Twenty-nine percent of the patients had a history of smoking. The mean body mass index was (24.4 ± 3.6) kg/m2 (range: 18.4–35.3). Of the 70 cases, 21 had high fibrosis-4. The prevalence of overall fracture history was 2.9% (two patients). Conclusions: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection did increase the risk of development of metabolic bone disease in this cohort. Indeed, greater reduction of bone mass density occurs in advanced liver fibrosis. The bone loss in earlier stages of chronic hepatitis C infection is likely to result from increased bone reduction rather than decreased bone formation. Overall, these observations suggest an important role for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in increased bone turnover in osteodystrophy pathogenesis.
    16  Anticonvulsant effects of medicinal plants with emphasis on mechanisms of action
    Zahra Rabiei
    2017(2):166-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.028
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 378.63 K](97)
    Abstract:
    Epilepsy is a disorder in brain in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, occasionally signal abnormally and cause strange emotions, sensations, and behavior, or sometimes muscle spasms, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. Neurotransmitters in central nervous system greatly affect and play a very important part in neuronal excitability. Traditional treatments are still a component of health care system in many communities despite the fact that well-established alternatives are available. In this review article, we addressed epilepsy and its treatments with emphasis on medical plants and introduction of antiepileptic plants and their action mechanisms. Relevant articles published since 2010 were retrieved using the search terms including epileptic seizure, anticonvulsant, medicinal plants, and oxidative stress. Most plants/herbal preparations that are ethnomedically used to treat epilepsy or those which have been tested for anticonvulsant activity were reported. Overall, the results of the published articles show that the symptoms of epilepsy seizure can be inhibited or treated by active ingredients derived from medicinal plants.
    17  Ethnobotanical review and pharmacological properties of selected medicinal plants in Brunei Darussalam: Litsea elliptica, Dillenia suffruticosa, Dillenia excelsa, Aidia racemosa, Vitex pinnata and Senna alata
    May Poh Yik Goh Aida Maryam Basri Hartini Yasin Hussein Taha Norhayati Ahmad
    2017(2):173-180. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.026
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.32 M](91)
    Abstract:
    The aim of the current study is to review the medicinal properties of the plants found in Brunei Darussalam namely Litsea elliptica, Dillenia suffruticosa, Dillenia excelsa, Aidia racemosa, Vitex pinnata and Senna alata. The known phytochemical constituents of these plants and their ability to bring about a range of biological activities are included in this review. These plants have been used traditionally for a multitude of diseases and illnesses. There is a lot of untapped potential in these medicinal plants which could cure multiple diseases.

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