Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Change in molecular weight due to important pfatp6 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to antimalarial drug: Possible role of epigenetic phenomenon
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2017(3):181-182. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.006
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 261.32 K](92)
    Abstract:
    Malaria is an important tropical mosquito borne infection. It is still the present global public health issue. The management of malaria requires antimalarial drugs. The resis- tance to antimalarial drugs is a very big problem. The genetic variant is proposed to be an important factor affecting susceptibility to antimalarial drug. Here, the authors studied the change in molecular weight due to important pfatp6 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms and further implied the interrelationship with susceptibility to antimalarial drug. The greatest change can be seen in case of G639D (of pfatp6 polymorphism) while the least change can be seen in the case of N1042D (of pfmdr1 polymorphism). The results from some studies imply that there must be other factors that affect the susceptibility to antimalarial drugs. Those factors might be protein conformation factors, epigenetic factors or envi- ronmental factors. Further studies on these aspects should be carried out. It is concluded for possible role of epigenetic phenomenon.
    2  Contribution of public places in proliferation of dengue vectors in Penang Island, Malaysia
    Alhaji Hamisu Maimusa Abu Hassan Ahmad Nur Faeza Abu Kassim Hamdan Ahmad Hamady Dieng Junaid Rahim
    2017(3):183-187. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.017
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 334.45 K](115)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine abundance, distribution and diversity of potential breeding container habitats of the dengue vectors in public places including schools, restaurants, mosques and parks in southwest areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. Methods: Premises at restaurants, schools, parks and mosques were surveyed simultaneously and inspected visually for container habitats and production of immature mosquitoes from March 2015 to March 2016. Abundance (mean ± SE) of breeding containers between sites was compared using One-way ANOVA. Independent sample t- test was used to compare total number of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) surveyed. Results: The surveyed locations yielded a total of 3741 breeding containers and 19537 immature mosquitoes from four areas. Concurrent artificial and natural containers produced 78.4% immature Ae. albopictus and 6.3% Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in wet season, with 14.2% Ae. albopictus and 1.1% Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in dry season. Artificial containers accounted for 98.1% of the total containers recorded, with restaurants being the most productive locations (8012) and schools being the least productive (2234). Conclusions: It was concluded that public places are good sources of potential container habitats of Aedes mosquitoes in Penang Island, Malaysia and Ae. albopictus has exclusively replaced the home-grown Ae. aegypti even in urban areas. Therefore, treatment of artificial containers in such locations is critical in Aedes mosquito control campaigns during dengue outbreaks.
    3  Specific and cross-reactive immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in mice immunized with proteoliposomes from Mycobacterium bovis BCG
    Nadine Alvarez Daymí Serpa Ramlah Kadir Yanely Tirado Reinier Borrero Sonsire Fernández Ruben Cabrera Yolanda Valdes Caridad Zayas Reinaldo Acevedo Luis Izquierdo María Elena Sarmiento Mohd-Nor Norazmi Jose Luis Perez Armando Acosta
    2017(3):188-192. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.013
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 604.26 K](97)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To characterize the immunogenicity and the induction of cross-reactive re- sponses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) of a proteoliposome (PL) from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) with and without alum hydroxide (AL) as adjuvant (PLBCG-AL and PLBCG, respectively) in BALB/c mice. Methods: BALB/c mice were inoculated with phosphate buffer solution, BCG, PLBCG and PLBCG-AL. The humoral immunogenicity was determined by ELISA [immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG2a] and the cellular immunogenicity was evaluated in vivo by delayed type hypersensitivity. The humoral cross-reactive response against M. tuberculosis was determined by Western blot. Results: Sera from animals immunized with PLBCG-AL and PLBCG showed significant increase in specific total IgG and IgG1 antibodies and the presence of cross-reactive antibodies against M. tuberculosis antigens, which were more intense with the use of alum as adjuvant. Mice immunized with PLBCG and PLBCG-AL also showed a specific cellular response in vivo. Conclusions: The cellular and humoral immunogenicity of PLBCG and the capacity to induce cross-reactive responses against M. tuberculosis is in agreement with the protective capacity previously demonstrated by this vaccine candidate and supports the continuation of its evaluation in further stages.
    4  Emergence of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type I with high-level mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Prabhu Raj Joshi Mahesh Acharya Rajan Aryal Kamal Thapa Trishna Kakshapati Rathanin Seng Anjana Singh Sutthirat Sitthisak
    2017(3):193-197. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.002
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 311.29 K](99)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among healthcare workers and patients. Methods: MRSA isolates were recovered from nasal swabs collected at a tertiary care hospital of Nepal and confifirmed on the basis of Gram staining, conventional biochemical tests, and PCR amplifification of mecA gene. PCRs were also used for detection of the different resistance genes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec types. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates were assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by E - test. Results: A total of 29 MRSA were isolated from 536 nasal swabs (5.4%) of health care workers and patients at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, vancomycin (minimal inhibitory concentrations < 2 μg/mL), tigecycline, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, rifampicin, quinupristin - dalfopristin, and linezolid. Among the 29 MRSA isolates, resistance to erythromycin (72%), ciproflfloxacin (75%), co - trimoxazole (62%), clindamycin (10%), and chloramphenicol (10%) was found, and fififteen isolates (51%) exhibited high - level mupirocin resistance (minimal inhibitory concentrations>1 024 μg/mL) . Fourteen isolates were found harboring the mupA gene and one isolate was found carrying the novel mupB gene. High prevalence (68%) of SCCmec I type was found, followed by SCCmec ⅴ(13%) and SCCmec Ⅲ (3%) among all the MRSA isolates. Conclusions: We found the emergence of SCCmec type I with high - level mupirocin resistance among MRSA in Nepal. Data also suggest that MRSA SCCmec type V strain has spread from the community to the hospital.
    5  Generation of antibodies against disintegrin and cysteine-rich domains by DNA immunization: An approach to neutralize snake venom-induced haemorrhage
    Sidgi Syed Anwer Abdo Hasson
    2017(3):198-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.015
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.77 M](97)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore whether a DNA immunization approach targeting the major haemorrhage molecule of a prothrombin activator - like metalloproteinase from Echis ocellatus (E. ocellatus) venom could be conceived to inspire antibodies with more prominent specifificity and equal adequacy to current conventional antivenoms systems. Methods: The isolated DNA EoMP - 6 was used as the template for PCR amplifification using the EoDC - 2 - specifific forward and reverse primers. A PCR product of approximately 700 bp was obtained and cloned into pSecTag - B expression vector where anti - EoDC - 2 antibodies were generated and analysed for their effificacy to neutralise local haemorrhage in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results suggest that the generated anti - EoDC - 2 showed a remarkable effificacy by (a) interfering with the interaction of the recombinant disintegrin “ EoDC - 2 ” isolated from the E. ocellatus as well as other viper species to the α2β1 - integrins on platelets; (b) complete inhibition of the catalytic site of the metalloproteinase moleculesin vitro using an adaptation antibody zymography assay . Furthermore, it has a polyspecifific potential and constitutively expressed signifificant inhibition by cross - reaction and neutralised venom - induced local haemorrhage exerted by different viper species in vivo. The potential characteristic of EoDC - 2 against one part (the non - catalytic domain) as opposed to the whole molecule to neutralise its haemorrhagic activity is of crucial importance as it represents a novel approach with greater immunological specifificity and fewer hazards, if any, than conventional systems of antivenom production, by exposure large animals that usually being used for the current antivenom production to a less injurious than expression of the whole molecule containing the catalytic metalloprotease domain. Hence, we report for the fifirst time that our preliminary results hold a promising future for antivenom development. Conclusions: Antibodies generated against the E. ocellatus venom prothrombin activatorlike metalloprotease and disintegrin - cysteine - rich domains modulated and inhibited the catalytic activity both in vitro and in vivo of venom metalloproteinase disintegrin cysteine rich molecules. Thus, generating of venom specifific - toxin antibodies by DNA immunization offer a more rational treatment of snake envenoming than conventional antivenom.
    6  Identification and quantification of flavonoids in Carica papaya leaf and peroxynitrite- scavenging activity
    Agung Nugroho Hesty Heryani Jae Sue Choi Hee-Juhn Park
    2017(3):208-213. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.009
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 450.91 K](108)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To characterize the types, contents, and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of flavonoids in the leaf of Carica papaya (C. papaya). Methods: Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques along with high performance liquid chromatography quantitative analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging assay were performed to isolate and quantify flavonoid compounds in the flavonoid-rich fraction (BuOH fraction) derived from MeOH extract of C. papaya leaves and evaluate their peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. Results: Seven flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. papaya, including quer- cetin 3-(2 G -rhamnosylrutinoside), kaempferol 3-(2 G -rhamnosylrutinoside), quercetin 3- rutinoside, myricetin 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, quercetin, and kaemp- ferol. All of the substances exhibited potent activities on peroxynitrite scavenging (IC 50 ≤ 4.15 μ mol/L), which were stronger than the positive control, L -penicillamine (6.90 μ mol/L). The content of kaempferol 3-(2 G -rhamnosylrutinoside) was significantly higher than other identified compounds (123.18 mg/g BuOH fraction and 7.23 mg/g MeOH extract). Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate the potent antioxidant flavonoids of C. papaya leaf, with kaempferol 3-(2 G -rhamnosylrutinoside) as the major one.
    7  Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity potential effect of Moringa oleifera in the experimental model
    Fateheya Mohamed Metwally Hend Mohamed Rashad Hanaa Hamdy Ahmed Asmaa Ahmed Mahmoud Ehab Ragaa Abdol Raouf Aboelfetoh Mohamed Abdalla
    2017(3):214-221. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.007
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 754.14 K](101)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the potent anti-obesity effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) ethanolic extract and to clarify the link between these mechanisms and the associated metabolic and vascular risks in the experimental model of visceral obesity. Methods: M. oleifera ethanolic extract was orally administered at 600 mg/kg body weight in obese female rats daily for 12 weeks. At the end of treatment, body weight was determined, and the atherogenic index, coronary artery index, glucose level, insulin resistance status, liver and kidney functions were assessed. Also, the mRNA of leptin, adiponectin and resistin in visceral adipose tissue was determined by quantitative real time-PCR. Results: The results showed that M. oleifera extract down-regulated mRNA expression of leptin and resistin, while it up-regulated adiponectin gene expression in obese rats relative to untreated obese control counterparts. This amelioration of genes expression was paralleled by a reduction in body weight and improvement of the atherogenic index and coronary artery index, as well as glucose level and insulin resistance value without adverse effects on liver or kidney functions, versus the untreated obese control ones. Conclusions: It is reasonable to assume that the anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties of M. oleifera are mechanistically achieved via working directly on the adipokines of the visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, M. oleifera may be a good therapeutic candidate for the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.
    8  Larvicidal activity of endocarp and seed crude extracts of Dracaena loureiri Gagnep against Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito
    Damrongpan Thongwat Supaporn Lamlertthon Urat Pimolsri Nophawan Bunchu
    2017(3):222-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.005
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 371.81 K](100)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the endocarp and seeds of Dracaena loureiri (D. loureiri) against the dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods: Bioassays were performed by exposing late third-stage to early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations of the extracts from D. loureiri. The larval mortality was observed after 24- and 48-h exposure. Results: The larvicidal bioassay in this study demonstrated that the ethanolic endocarp extract was the most effective with the LC 50 value of 84.00 mg/L after 24 h exposure and < 50 mg/L after 48 h exposure. Extracts from the other parts of the plant were significantly less effective as a larvicide. Conclusions: The ethanolic endocarp extract of D. loureiri demonstrated effective larvicidal activity. It is an alternative source for developing a novel larvicide for controlling this mosquito species.
    9  Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) wastages and its antibacterial activity against six bacteria
    Ghodsieh Bagherzade Maryam Manzari Tavakoli Mohmmad Hasan Namaei
    2017(3):227-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.014
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.24 M](91)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) wastages and to test their antibacterial activity against six bacteria. Methods: In this paper, the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous extract of saffron wastage as a green method without any chemical stabilizer and reducer is demonstrated. The synthesized AgNPs were determined by UV–vis spectrum, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy analysis. Results: UV–vis spectrum showed a peak at 450 nm due to excitation of surface plas- mon vibrations. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy showed that nanoparticles were capped with plant secondary metabolites. X-ray diffraction analysis also demon- strated that the size range of the synthesized nanoparticles was 12–20 nm. Transmission electron microscope image illustrated AgNPs with spherical shape and an average size of 15 nm. The result of antibacterial activities showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs had an inhibiting activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri and Bacillus subtilis. Conclusions: The biosynthesized AgNPs showed significant antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri and Bacillus subtilis, so, it can be used in biomedical applications.
    10  Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs
    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona Mohammed Ahmed Qumani Turki Ahmed Alghassab Muath Abdulrahman Alghassab Abdullah Ali Alghabban
    2017(3):234-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.004
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 332.15 K](107)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (T. foenum-graecum) seeds and Punica granatum L. (P. granatum) peel extracts against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male guinea pigs. Methods: Sixty guinea pigs were divided into six groups (10 guinea pigs per group). Group 1 consisted of normal animals. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extract alone, respectively. Group 4 was treated with streptozotocin only; whereas Groups 5 and 6 receiving streptozotocin were treated with Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extract, respectively. All animals were treated for 30 days, and the body weight, blood and liver biochemical parameters were measured. Results: Guinea pigs exposed to streptozotocin showed an alteration in body weight gain, fasting glucose level, kidney function parameters (blood urea nitrogen and creati- nine) as well as decreased serum and hepatic total protein level. In addition, it increased the cholesterol and triglyceride level, while decreasing the hepatic glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity, glycogen, glutathione content and hepatic catalase activity. Oral treatment with T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts revealed sig- nificant protective properties with respect to body weight gain and other biochemical parameters studied. Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.
    11  Anti-angiogenic effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed methanolic extract in ex ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane
    Swastika Oktavia Nastiti Wijayanti Bambang Retnoaji
    2017(3):240-244. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.024
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](90)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the anti-angiogenic potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus) seed extract in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Methods: This study used chicken CAM ex ovo culture to examine the potential anti- angiogenic activity of A. heterophyllus seed methanolic extract. Basic fibroblast growth factor was used to induce the ectopic formation of blood vessels on CAM treated with extract. Blood vessel number was assessed by macroscopic and microscopic observation, and compared and analyzed for all treatments and controls. Results: Macroscopic observation revealed that a dose of 35 μ g/mL of methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus seeds could inhibit basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis by 61% in chicken CAM ex ovo culture. This concurred with micro- scopic observations on the histological structure of blood vessels, which indicated that extract treatment repressed the formation of new blood vessels. Conclusions: This is the first study to report the anti-angiogenic effect of methanolic extract derived from A. heterophyllus seeds and its potential as a candidate for future anticancer therapy.
    12  Effects of interaction Cd-Zn on serum-PSA level and prostate histology in rats
    Abdelkrim Berroukche Mohamed Terras Abdelrahmane Labani Hafsa Dellaoui Wassila Lansari
    2017(3):245-248. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.012
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 780.46 K](104)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 ) and zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) antagonist effects on the prostate specific antigen and prostatic cell organization in rats. Methods: The study included 40 adult male rats, divided into four groups: Group 1 (CdSO 4 ), Group 2 (ZnCl 2 ), Group 3 (CdSO 4 eZnCl 2 ) and Group 4 (control). Animals were treated with CdSO 4 and ZnCl 2 at the same dose (15 mg/L) during 30 days. Results: It was showed a higher body weight and a lowering serum-prostate specific antigen concentration [(1.8 ± 0.6) ng/mL] in animals treated with CdSO 4 . CdSO 4 induced a cyto-nuclear atypia, proliferative lesions, hyperplasia and precancerous foci in prostate tissue. Toxic effects of ZnCl 2 were not recorded in this study. Conclusions: Protective role of zinc was exhibited against toxic effects of cadmium in prostate gland.
    13  Serum E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 level and peroxynitrite related to oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis patients
    Atheer Awad Mehde Faridah Yusof Wesen Adel Mehdi Raha Ahmed Raus Layla Othman Farhan Jwan Abdulmohsin Zainulabdeen Zaima Azira Zainal Abidin Hamid Ghazali Azlina Abd Rahman
    2017(3):249-252. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.008
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 300.69 K](95)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To prove probable relations between serum E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 (NSMCE2) concentration, peroxynitrite related to oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis patients. Methods: A total of 60 patients with nephrolithiasis and 50 healthy volunteers were involved in this study. Colorimetric method was used to detect blood urea, creatinine, uric acid, protein, albumin, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide and oxidative stress index. Glutathione, NSMCE2 and superoxide dismutase were measured by ELISA. Results: A significant increase in level of peroxynitrite, total oxidant status, NSMCE2 and oxidative stress index in patients was observed, while total antioxidant status and glutathione were significantly decreased. Conclusions: The study concluded that serum NSMCE2 significantly correlated with peroxynitrite and oxidative stress in patients with nephrolithiasis.
    14  Characterization, prevalence and antibiogram study of Staphylococcus aureus in poultry
    Yeasmeen Ali Md. Ashraful Islam Nazmul Hasan Muzahid Mohd. Omar Faruk Sikder Md. Amzad Hossain Lolo Wal Marzan
    2017(3):253-256. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.001
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 393.52 K](94)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To reveal the presence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) in poultry samples and to determine the antibiogram pattern against five antibiotics. Methods: Samples from different poultry farm of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were examined for S. aureus by different biochemical tests and confirmed as MRSA by identifying the presence of mecA gene using PCR. Antibiotic resistance pattern in S. aureus was determined by antibiotic disk diffusion method. Results: In this study, a total of 60 samples (30 from nasal swabs and 30 from cloacal swabs) were used, of which 54 were confirmed as S. aureus by different biochemical tests. Among these, 12 were confirmed as MRSA by detecting mecA gene using PCR. During antibiogram study, both nasal and cloacal samples showed the highest resistance against penicillin-G and the lowest resistance was observed against neomycin. Conclusions: Based on the present study, it can be said that different antibiotics are used extensively in poultry that leads to MRSA and is alarming for human health.
    15  Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts prepared from fungal mycelia
    Andriy Synytsya Jutamart Monkai Roman Bleha Anna Macurkova Tomas Ruml Juhee Ahn Ekachai Chukeatirote
    2017(3):257-261. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.011
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 633.66 K](94)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial property of three different partitioned extracts (petroleum ether, ethanol and water) prepared from some fungal mycelia. Methods: Seven fungal mycelia were prepared, initially extracted with acidified ethanol (0.2 mol/L HCl in 80% ethanol), yielding the raw crude extracts. The obtained extracts were then further partitioned with petroleum ether (F1), ethanol (F2) and water (F3). All the fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion assay. Results: Our data showed that all the fractions could inhibit the testing bacteria. However, the inhibitory activity was found to be dependent on (i) the fungal strains used; (ii) the solvent extracted; and (iii) the testing bacteria assayed. In general, the ethanolic extracts (F2) derived from all fungi displayed highest inhibitory activity against the testing bacteria except for Chaetomium sp. Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that the extracts prepared from the fungal mycelia had the bioactive compounds with antibacterial property. This study is a pioneering work and further study should be carried out for development of the new drug leads.
    16  The distribution of HCV in subjects attending hospitals in Duhok City, Iraq
    Nawfal Rasheed Hussein Amer Abdullah Balatay Alpay Turan Sezgin Rana Saadi Jawad
    2017(3):262-264. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.003
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 281.02 K](88)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its genotypes in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of HCV and its genotype. A total of 2109 subjects, who attended the hospital for complaints other than hepatitis, were recruited in this study. Results: First, anti-HCV antibody positivity was examined by ELISA. About 5.2% (111/ 2109) of our samples were tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies. To confirm the positivity, RT-PCR was performed. Amongst all samples, 2.8% (60/2109) was positive by RT-PCR. Then, we genotyped all the RT-PCR positive samples, and it was found that 50.0% (30/60) of our samples were typed as HCV genotype 4, 43.3% (26/60) as genotype 1 and 6.7% (4/60) as genotype 3. Conclusions: The prevalence of HCV was higher than that was reported previously and genotype 4 was the most prevalent. Further population based study is required to investigate the prevalence of HCV.
    17  A lipidomic concept in infectious diseases
    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
    2017(3):265-274. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.010
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 619.47 K](99)
    Abstract:
    Infectious diseases resemble a great threat to the human health according to World Health Organization where about 17% of all deaths (≈9.2 million deaths) in 2013 recorded are related to infectious diseases. The pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are the principle causes of infectious diseases. Ebola, AIDS, dengue, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis are among 216 infectious diseases found where the immunity represents the first line defense in infection. Lipidomic includes examination of different biological lipids in the biological cell. The lipidomic research covers all aspects of individual lipid molecule including its structure, function, connection with other cell constituents such as protein, lipid, and metabolite in both health and disease conditions. Details of cell biology obtained from different pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) provide a great data on molecular structure of host- pathogen relation and consequently on infection process. The lipids here play a very important role in many processes involved in host-pathogen relations. The role of lipid in host-pathogen link includes many processes in (1) structural host constituents, (2) host recognition, (3) intracellular transferring, and (4) energy and resource homeostasis during pathogen duplication. There are many lipid phosphatases, kinases, and lipases molecules that greatly involved in these processes and controlling pathogen expression and infection progress. The cell lipid metabolism depends on an adequate energy stores that push the infection to be accelerated and disease symptoms to be appeared. Consequently, future lipidomics studies are the basic for detecting the lipid role in host-pathogen relations which help in therapy advances and biomarkers development.

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