Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The road towards sustainable control of schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Pre-assessment of staff performance and material resources in endemic regions
    Sylvie Linsuke Liliane Mpabanzi Sabin Nundu Faustin Mukunda Pascal Lutumba Katja Polman
    2017(4):275-279. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.026
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 393.44 K](103)
    Objective: To improve knowledge and practice of health staff as well as the availability of material resources for diagnosis and management of schistosomiasis in two endemic provinces of DRC (Kinshasa and Bas-Congo). Methods: Structured interviews were performed using questionnaires with staff from 35 healthcare facilities in 9 health zones (HZ) of Kinshasa and 2 HZ in Bas-Congo. Results: Schistosomiasis was reported to be present in all the included HZ. Health staff knew the most important symptoms of schistosomiasis, but advanced symptoms were more accurately reported in Bas-Congo. Knowledge of symptoms related to schistoso- miasis such as anemia (P = 0.0115) and pollakiuria (P = 0.0260) was statistically different in both two provinces. Kato-Katz technique and urine filtration were unavailable in both provinces. Parasitological diagnosis was mostly performed using the direct smear method. PZQ was available in 70% of the health facilities, all situated in Bas-Congo. Diagnosis and treatment mostly relied on symptoms and cost more in urban area than in rural. Conclusions: Though knowledge on schistosomiasis among health staff appears suffi- cient, substantial efforts still must be made to improve the availability of diagnostic tools and treatment in the health facilities in DRC.
    2  Inhibition of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) bioactive fraction on proliferation of human retinoblastoma tumor cells Y-79 through suppression of mRNA level of cyclin E
    Nugroho Trilaksana Ignatius Riwanto Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata Reki Winarto
    2017(4):280-287. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.001
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 663.12 K](94)
    Objective: To prove the molecular mechanisms of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) in suppressing proliferation of human retinoblastoma cells through suppression of cell cycle's gene-regulators expression. Methods: In this study, the molecular mechanism of anti-tumor effect of fractioned extract of Phaleria macrocarpa (DLBS1425) in human retinoblastoma cells Y-79 was investigated by measuring the tumor cells viability, the assessment of population profiles of tumor cells in the cell cycle, and the mRNA concentration of p16, p21, p53, cyclin D, cyclin E, and E2F. Results: DLBS1425 showed an inhibition effects towards proliferation of Y-79 cell line. Inhibition of proliferation was shown by suppression of cell cycle progression. DLBS1425 downregulated cyclin E, a G1 phase regulator gene of cell cycle, in dose- dependent manner without affecting p53–p21 pathway. In the other word, DLBS1425 inhibits cell proliferation through suppression of cyclin E independently towards con- ventional proliferation pathway. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DLBS1425 is a potential anticancer agent which targets genes involved in cell proliferation in human retinoblastoma cells which make it pharmacologically ideal for the prevention and/or treatment of retinoblastoma cancer.
    3  Laboratory efficacy of mycoparasitic fungi (Aspergillus tubingensis and Trichoderma harzianum) against tropical bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
    Zulaikha Zahran Nik Mohd Izham Mohamed Nor Hamady Dieng Tomomitsu Satho Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid
    2017(4):288-293. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.021
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 763.13 K](92)
    Objective: To test the effectiveness of conidial spore formulations [Aspergillus tubin- gensis (A. tubingensis) and Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum)] against tropical bed bugs, Cimex hemipterus. Methods: Spore formulations were made from two fungal strains, T. harzianum and A. tubingensis. The bed bugs were exposed to the conidial spores placed soaked onto a fabric cloth for 1 h and the mortality counts were recorded daily until 14 days. Results: Mean survival times based on Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no significant differences between all the concentrations in both the fungal isolates: T. harzianum and A. tubingensis. However, the evaluation of both the isolates in terms of virulence resulted in low lethal hours in all the concentrations except for the high con- centration of A. tubingensis (LT 50 = 44.629 h) at the conidial exposure of 1 × 10 6 spores/ mL. Rapid mortality of the bed bugs was observed from Day 6 to Day 12, ranging from 13% to 90% in all three concentrations of A. tubingensis. With reference to the T. harzianum exposure, the concentration of 1 × 10 4 spores/mL displayed a gradual increase in the percentage mortality of 90 on Day 14. Conclusions: Approaches to the bed bugs treatment should be explored in-depth using a natural biological agent like fungus especially A. tubingensis to reduce this pest population, in order to replace chemical methods.
    4  Nigella sativa protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction by alleviating oxidative stress, biochemical alterations and histological damage
    Md. Quamrul Hassan Mohd. Akhtar Sayeed Ahmed Aftab Ahmad Abul Kalam Najmi
    2017(4):294-299. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.020
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.32 M](97)
    Objective: To evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa) in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Groups were treated with different doses of ethanol extract of N. sativa (EENS) and N.sativa oil alone and along with enalapril for28 days.MI was induced by subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg) in two consecutive doses. Levels of cardiac bio- markers and antioxidant enzymes such as creatine kinase–N-acetyl- L -cysteine, lactate dehy- drogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase were evaluated along with gross histopathological examination. Results: Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg) induced MI by causing the significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the activity of cardiac biomarkers (creatine kinase–N-acetyl- L -cysteine, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase) and antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione) along with significant (P < 0.01) increase in the level of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, histopathological evaluation also confirmed the isoproterenol-induced MI. Pretreatment with EENS (800 mg/kg) and combination of EENS (800 mg/kg) with enalapril (1 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) prevented the development of these alteration and restored activity of cardiac biomarkers as well as antioxidant markers almost near to normal levels. Histopathological evaluation of cardiac tissue further confirmed the restoration of biochemical activity. Conclusions: Experimental findings thus indicate that EENS (800 mg/kg) demonstrated cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol-induced MI by restoring cardiac biomarkers and antioxidant status.
    5  Isolation and identification of compounds from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerlfruit extract
    Emanuel Dani Ramdani Ujiatmi Dwi Marlupi James Sinambela Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata
    2017(4):300-305. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.018
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 335.83 K](104)
    Objective: To identify and isolate the chemical compounds of Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpa) fruit ethanolic extract. Methods: Dried fruit of P. macrocarpa was extracted with 90% ethanol and partitioned between n-hexane/H 2 O and ethyl acetate/H 2 O. The organic layer was fractionated by various stationary phase and identified by using combined data of 1D [(proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR)], 2D-NMR (heteronuclear multiple- quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation), and mass spectrum. Results: Purification of n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions from ethanolic extract of P. macrocarpa fruit resulted in isolation of nine compounds. Conclusions: A new compound was isolated and identified as glyceryl pentacosanoate. Also, two xanthones, which are 1,7-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyxanthone and 1,6,7- trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, are firstly reported to be isolated from P. macrocarpa.
    6  In vitro assessment of the synergism between extracts of Cocos nucifera husk and some standard antibiotics
    Taiwo Adesola Akinyele Etinosa Ogbomoede Igbinosa David Ayinde Akinpelu Anthony Ifeanyin Okoh
    2017(4):306-313. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.022
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 350.54 K](108)
    Objective: To evaluate the interactions between the crude extracts of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) and six front line antibiotics (ampicillin sodium salt, penicillin G sodium, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline hydrochloride), against some bacterial pathogens linked with human infection. Methods: The pulverized husk of C. nucifera was dissolved in 95% n-hexane and extracted using Soxhlet extraction method and sterile distilled water (aqueous). The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude extracts of C. nucifera was tested against envi- ronmental and clinical strains (6) obtained from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS), Vibrio (6) and Listeria pathogens (6). The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory con- centration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts were determined. Time-kill assay was used to evaluate bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic activity. The synergistic effect of the crude extracts and antibiotics was assessed and evaluated by adopting the checkerboard methods. Results: With the time-kill assay, the highest bactericidal activity was observed on Vibrio fluvialis EL041 with a −5.6 ± 0.2 log 10 CFU/mL decrease in cell density as a result of the combination of the extracts and chloramphenicol at two-fold minimum inhibitory concentrations. Synergisms using the time-kill assay constituted about 72%, while indifference constituted about 28%. The checkerboard method revealed synergistic interaction in 67% of the combinations, and indifference in 33%. There was no specificity in the observed synergy to a particular class of antibiotics. Conclusions: This investigation suggests the crude extracts of C. nucifera to be a po- tential broad spectrum antimicrobial compound. Therefore, further study is needed to isolate the pure compounds from these crude extracts.
    7  The synergistic effect of honey and cinnamon against Streptococcus mutans bacteria
    Mohammad Bagher Rezvani Mohammad Niakan Mohammad Kamalinejad Fateme Sadat Ahmadi Faeze Hamze
    2017(4):314-320. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.11.029
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 318.22 K](94)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Iranian honey, cinnamon and their combination against Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Methods: Nine experimental solutions were examined in this study, including two types of honey (pasteurized and sterilized), two types of cinnamon extract (dissolved in distilled water or dimethyl sulfoxide) and five different mixtures of cinnamon in honey (prepared by admixing 1%–5% w/w of cinnamon extract into 99%–95% w/w of honey, respec- tively). Meanwhile, each of mentioned agent was considered as the first solution while it was diluted into seven serially two-fold dilutions (from 1:2 to 1:128 v/v). Therefore, eight different concentrations of each agent were tested. The antibacterial tests were performed through blood agar well diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Ultimately, the data were subjected to statistical analysis incor- porating Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests ( α = 0.01). Results: The highest zone of inhibition was recorded for the mixtures of honey and cinnamon while all the subgroups containing 95%–99% v/v of honey were in the same range (P < 0.01). The MIC for both honey solutions were obtained as 500 mg/mL whereas it was 50 mg/mL for both cinnamon solutions. Moreover, the MIC related to all honey/cinnamon mixtures were 200 mg/mL. Conclusions: A profound synergistic effect of honey and cinnamon was observed against Streptococcus mutans while there was no significant difference among extracts containing 99%–95% v/v of honey admixing with 1%–5% v/v of cinnamon, respectively.
    8  Caffeic acid and quercetin exert caspases-independent apoptotic effects on Leishmania major promastigotes, and reactivate the death of infected phagocytes derived from BALB/c mice
    Radia Belkhelfa-Slimani Bahia Djerdjouri
    2017(4):321-331. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.022
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.74 M](88)
    Objective: To investigate the leishmanicidal effects of two antioxidants, caffeic acid and quercetin on Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes in vitro, and their immuno- modulatory effects on infected phagocytes derived from susceptible BALB/cmice.Methods:Caffeicacidandquercetin-inducedcelldeathwasexaminedbyPi-Hoechstdouble staining of L. major promastigotes and MTT assay, in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors in vitro. Caffeic acid or quercetin were administered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice infected with L. major promastigotes through a dorsal air pouch. Nitric oxide and su- peroxide anion production by phagocytes infiltrating the air pouch and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS),tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α )and nuclear factor kappa B in the air pouch membrane were therefore evaluated using appropriate methods. Results: Caffeic acid and quercetin displayed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against L. major promastigotes, and induced cell death via caspases-independent pathways. In vivo, L. major promastigotes inoculation into air pouch cavity of BALB/c mice leads to a sequential influx of neutrophils (hours), followed by macrophages (days). Results showed that L. major delayed apoptosis of infected neutrophils and macrophages by the cleavage of the nuclear factor kappa B p65 RelA subunit, and persisted by inhibiting TNF- α and iNOS expression and reactive oxygen species generation. Caffeic acid or quercetin restored reactive oxygen species production and TNF- α -induced iNOS activity, and abrogate apoptosis delay of infected phagocytes. Conclusions: The leishmanicidal effect of caffeic acid and quercetin on promastigotes and amastigotes, as well as reactivation of infected phagocytes apoptosis, suggested a potential therapeutic role against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    9  Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and resveratrol content in five cultivars of peanut sprouts
    Apinun Limmongkon Prachya Janhom Ampika Amthong Muenfan Kawpanuk Patcharaporn Nopprang Jirarat Poohadsuan Thapakorn Somboon Suwaree Saijeen Damratsamon Surangkul Metawee Srikummool Tantip Boonsong
    2017(4):332-338. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.002
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 670.56 K](95)
    Objective: To investigate the change in total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and resveratrol content of five different germinated peanut cultivars. Methods: The germinated sprouts of five peanut cultivars (Kalasin1, Kalasin2, Konkaen, Konkaen4, and Tainan9) were extracted with 80% ethanol and collected as crude extract. The antioxidant capacities were determined with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power method. The total phenolic compound was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The qualification and quantification of resveratrol was performed by high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: Among the five cultivars, a three-day germination of Kalasin1 showed the highest phenolic content [(40.67 ± 2.62) μ g gallic acid/g dry weight], expressed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl antioxidant value [(80.51 ± 1.47) mmol/L Trolox/g dry weight], and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power antioxidant value [(171.33 ± 8.59) mmol/L ascorbic acid/g dry weight]. However, the high performance liquid chromatog- raphy result of Kalasin2 significantly increased to the highest resveratrol content of (6.44 ± 1.26) μ g/g dry weight on the second day of germination. Conclusions: The variation of phytochemical content in the peanut sprout is due to the effect of the peanut cultivar and the germination period.
    10  Purslane protects against the reproductive toxicity of carbamazepine treatment in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model
    Widad Makhdour Al-Bishri Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim Amr Reda Zaki
    2017(4):339-346. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.003
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 668.58 K](96)
    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of purslane with carbamazepine treatment. Methods: Male albino rats were modulated by pilocarpine to be epileptic. Both the normal and epileptic rats were treated with carbamazepine, purslane or carbamazepine plus purslane, with separate non-treated control groups for both normal and epileptic rats. Results: The data from the current study showed amelioration in amino acids and electrolytes in the epileptic rats treated with purslane and carbamazepine, with this amelioration occurring without decreasing the fertility hormones (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone). Purslane treatments also prevented the increase in estradiol. The decreased epileptic hyperexcit- ability with purslane was evidenced by decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein and lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Natural products like purslane could be used with the highly repetitive drugs like carbamazepine to reduce or prevent its side-effects.
    11  Chemical characterization of essential oil from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis (D.R.) and Melaleuca leucadendron (Linn.)
    Rokhaya Fall Saliou Ngom Dienaba Sall Mbacké Sembène Abdoulaye Samb
    2017(4):347-351. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.004
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 307.10 K](96)
    Objective: To isolate and identify the compounds in the essential oils from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis (D.R.) and Melaleuca leucadendron (Linn.) collected in Dakar, Senegal. Methods: The essential oils from the leaves of these two myrtaceaes were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatograph and gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. Results: A total of 34 constituents were identified in the oil of Callistemon viminalis and the major compounds were 1.8-cineole (58.12%), limonene (9.72%), α -terpineol (9.56%), geranial (6.02%), δ -elemene (3.53%), myrcene (2.96%) and α -pinene (2.49%). For the essential oil of Melaleuca leucadendron, 43 constituents were identified, and 1.8-cineole (28.87%), epiglobulol (23.06%), α -pinene (12.22%), limonene (11.65%) and α -terpineol (7.06%) were major compounds. Conclusions: Considering properties of the identified major compounds, essential oils of both studied myrtaceae could be used in the medicine field including the food, phar- maceutical and cosmetic industry.
    12  Comparative assessment of total polyphenols, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties of Bangladesh
    Yead Morshed Nibir Ahmed Faisal Sumit Anwarul Azim Akhand Nazmul Ahsan Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain
    2017(4):352-357. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.005
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 634.88 K](87)
    Objective: To determine the total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of the extracts of different Bangladeshi tea varieties such as flowery broken orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe, red dust and green tea. Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power and phosphomolybdenum method. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method in agar plate and subsequently, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by broth dilution method. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in green tea compared to other three black tea varieties. The green tea also showed a higher free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities than all the other tea varieties tested (P < 0.05). In addition, the extracts of all four tea varieties showed inhibitory activity against several pathogenic bacteria and also the same trend of higher antimicrobial activity of green tea than other tea varieties was observed. Conclusions: Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that Bangladeshi tea, especially the green tea, may act as a substitute for natural antioxidants and as a prom- ising antibacterial agent for beneficial influence in human health.
    13  Plant extracts as natural photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy: in vitro activity against human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells
    Rigo Baluyot Villacorta Kristine Faith Javier Roque Giovanni Alarkon Tapang Sonia Donaldo Jacinto
    2017(4):358-366. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.025
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.28 M](83)
    Objective: To examine three plant extracts [Lumnitzera racemosa (Combretaceae) (L. racemosa), Albizia procera (Fabaceae) (A. procera) and Cananga odorata (Anno- naceae)] for their potential as source of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. Methods: Human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were treated with the plant extracts, which were irradiated with 5.53 mW and 0.553 mW broadband light. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and induction of apoptosis was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling assay. Results: The crude ethanolic extracts, independently, were nontoxic against cancer and non-cancer cells but when irradiated with 5.53 mW broadband light, L. racemosa and A. procera extracts were cytotoxic against MCF-7 with IC 50 of 11.63 μ g/mL and 10.73 m g/mL, respectively. With 0.553 mW broadband light, the IC 50 values were higher at 17.14 μ g/mL and 19.59 μ g/mL, respectively. Photoactivated L. racemosa and A. procera extracts were found to be more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than the non-cancer cell line, human dermal fibroblast-neonatal. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the extracts was mediated by apoptosis. Conclusions: Two of the plant extracts used, L. racemosa and A. procera were toxic and induced apoptosis to mammary cell adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 when photoactivated. These extracts were also more toxic to human cancer than non-cancer cell lines.
    14  The environmental influences on the bacteriological quality of red and chicken meat stored in fridges
    Hossein Masoumbeigi Hamid Reza Tavakoli Valiollah Koohdar Zohreh Mashak Ghader Qanizadeh
    2017(4):367-372. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.006
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 441.57 K](90)
    Objective: To investigate the environmental influences on the bacteriological quality of red and chicken meats on fridges. Methods: The environmental health status was determined by reliable and valid researcher-made checklist. Then 264 samples were gathered in two phases (at the entrance and three months later) and examined for total bacteria count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Results: The result revealed that the mean of total bacteria count, E. coli and S. aureus densities had significant differences in two steps on chicken and the red meat samples (P < 0.05). Among the environmental factors, sanitary status, temperature and personal hygiene had significant effects on total bacteria count and S. aureus densities in chicken samples (P < 0.05), and between wastewater and solid waste disposal with E. coli density in red meat samples (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results implied that the bacteriological quality of red and chicken meat fluctuates with environmental status (especially temperature, sanitary status and personal hygiene). Regular control, improving of sanitary health, and staff training are necessary for elimination of bacterial contamination.
    15  Clinical assessment of demineralization and remineralization surrounding orthodontic brackets with FluoreCam
    Bora Korkut Duygu Korkut Funda Yanikoglu Dilek Tagtekin
    2017(4):373-377. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.007
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 328.24 K](85)
    Objective: To determine quantitatively the amount of demineralization and the ability of commercially available products and an experimental cream to inhibit or reverse orthodontic related demineralization. Methods: A total of 20 patients who were 25–35 years old and having orthodontic treatment for 6–8 months were chosen. Caries risk assessments were done for each patient and ones with “moderate risk” were included. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances were divided into 4 groups (5 patients each) including one control and 3 study groups. All patients used same toothpaste 2 times a day during the 3 weeks study period. Additional to the toothpaste first study group used MI Paste Plus (GC, Tokyo, Japan), second study group used Remin Pro (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) and third group used an experimental remineralizing cream per day for 3 weeks. Maxillary central and lateral incisors of each patient were examined by FluoreCam (Daraza Therametric Technologies, USA) device. The examinations were performed at baseline and at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks. Results: According to the FluoreCam measurements the control group showed significant amount of demineralization at the end of 3 weeks, moreover the amount of demineralization has gradually increased in time. At the end of the study all 3 study groups showed significant amount of remineralization and the amount of remineralization for all the 3 study groups has gradually increased in time. However the amount of remineralization for 3rd study group was lesser than the 1st and 2nd study groups. The remineralization amounts for the 1st and 2nd study groups were determined to be identical. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that demineralization is measurable around orthodontic brackets and the demineralization can be completely inhibited and/or reversed by the use of commercially available remineralization products.
    16  Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products
    Arunrat Chaveerach Runglawan Sudmoon Tawatchai Tanee
    2017(4):378-384. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.019
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 854.25 K](97)
    Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

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