Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  First molecular identification of Cryptosporidium by 18S rRNA in goats and association with farm management in Terengganu
    Afzan Mat Yusof Najat Hashim Muhammad Lokman Md Isa
    2017(5):385-388. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.008
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 320.78 K](176)
    Objective: To identify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from goats in three types of farm management systems in Terengganu, Malaysia and to determine the Cryptospo- ridium species infecting goats by using 18S rRNA. Methods: A total of 478 fecal samples were randomly collected from goats in three farms; 199 samples were collected from intensive farm, 179 samples from semi-intensive farm and 100 samples from extensive farm. The samples were processed by using formol- ether concentration technique and stained by using modified Ziehl–Neelsen. Positive samples were performed by using nested PCR analysis by using 18S rRNA. Results: Out of 478 goats, 207 (43.3%) were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium. Goats reared under the intensive farm management system reported the highest preva- lence of infection (49.7%), followed by intensive farm management system (41%) and the lowest prevalence was reported in the goats reared under semi-intensive management system (37.4%). Conclusions: The identified species found in goat was Cryptosporidium parvum. Future study on the zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum in goats needs to be done in order to find the source of transmission of this parasite.
    2  Flavonoid chemical composition and antidiabetic potential of Brachychiton acerifolius leaves extract
    Aisha Hussein Abou Zeid Mohamed Ali Farag Manal Abdel Aziz Hamed Zeinab Abdel Aziz Kandil Radwa Hassan El-Akad Hanaa Mohamed El-Rafie
    2017(5):389-396. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.009
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.46 M](168)
    Objective: To evaluate Brachychiton acerifolius leaf extracts as antidiabetic potential agent and to identify the main active constituents using bioactivity guided fractionation. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for B. acerifolius different extracts using DPPH assay and vitamin C as control. Antidiabetic activity was then determined using STZ-induced rats treated daily with ethyl acetate and 70% ethanol leaf extracts for 4 weeks at a dose of 200 g/kg body weight against gliclazide reference drug. Blood glucose, α -amylase, lipid profile, liver function enzymes and oxidative stress markers were assessed along with histopathological study for liver and pancreatic tissues. Isolation and structural elucidation of active compounds were made using Diaion and Sephadex followed by spectral analyses. Results: The results indicated that ethyl acetate and ethanol leaf extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity compared to that of vitamin C (IC 50 0.05, 0.03 and 12 mg/ mL, respectively). Both extracts showed potent anti-hyperglycemic activity evidenced by a significant decrease in serum glucose levels by 82.5% and 80.9% and α -amylase by 45.2% and 53.6%, as compared with gliclazide 68% and 59.4%, respectively. Fraction- ation of ethanol extract resulted in the isolation of 9 flavonoids including apigenin-7-O- α - rhamnosyl(1/2)- β - D -glucuronide, apigenin-7-O- β - D -glucuronide, apigenin-7-O- β - D - glucoside and luteolin-7-O- β - D -glucuronide. Conclusions: This study highlights the potential use of B. acerifolius leaf extract enriched in flavones for the treatment of diabetes that would warrant further clinical trials investigation.
    3  Triterpenoid of avocado (Persea americana) seed and its cytotoxic activity toward breast MCF-7 and liver HepG2 cancer cells
    Andi Nur Fitriani Abubakar Suminar Setiati Achmadi Irma Herawati Suparto
    2017(5):397-400. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.010
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 743.65 K](169)
    Objective: To determine the structure of triterpenoid isolated from avocado seeds and the cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. Methods: The powder sample was macerated with ethanol, followed with separation of the extract by column chromatography. The target compound was monitored on thin layer chromatography plate and reagent Lieberman–Buchard. The isolated compound was characterized by spectral analysis, mainly ultraviolet, infrared, and liquid chromatographymass spectroscopy and their spectroscopic data with those reported in literature were compared. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against Vero, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines using MTT assay. Results: A triterpenoid compound was isolated from ethanol extract. The extracts, fraction (F3), and the isolated compound showed a significant cytotoxic activity against all investigated cell lines. MTT assay showed that the triterpenoid isolate inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 and HepG2 cell line with the IC50 values of 62 μg/mL and 12 μg/ mL, respectively, and was safe to normal cells. Conclusions: The results of the present study reveal that triterpenoid from avocado seeds have the potential for further development as anticancer agents.
    4  Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats
    Supaporn Wannasiri Sunee Chansakaow Seewaboon Sireeratawong
    2017(5):401-405. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.027
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 932.22 K](159)
    Objective: To study the effect of water extract of Solanum torvum (S. torvum) on blood lipid and sex hormone levels in high-fat diet (HFD) fed male rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were maintained on a standard diet or HFD for 10 weeks. During the last 4 weeks, the standard diet groups received distilled water or S. torvum (400 mg/kg) and the HFD groups received distilled water or S. torvum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Body weight, lipid profiles, sex hormone, internal organs weight and liver histopathology were all measured. Moreover, kidney function was evaluated using blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and liver function by the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Results: The result showed that rats in the HFD control group had increased body weight and hyperlipidemia, but had decreased levels of both testosterone and estradiol. When receiving the S. torvum extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg, treated rats had significantly increased sex hormone levels of both types, and decreased total cholesterol levels, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg, treated rats had significantly decreased levels of triglyceride. Long term administration of the S. torvum did not produce any toxic signs in livers and kidneys. Pathological examinations of livers showed lipid accumulation in the HFD group, but the treatment of S. torvum slightly reduced lipid deposition in liver tissue. Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.
    5  In vitro propagation of the endangered medicinal orchid, Dendrobium lasianthera J.J.Sm through mature seed culture
    Edy Setiti Wida Utami Sucipto Hariyanto Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara
    2017(5):406-410. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.011
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 920.30 K](154)
    Objective: To study asymbiotic seed germination and mass propagation of Dendrobium lasianthera which is one of the endangered medicinal orchids using seeds. Methods: The 14 weeks old hand pollinated seeds were sown on Vacin and Went (VW) solid medium supplemented with various concentrations of peptone (1, 2, 3 g/L) and without peptone which was used as control treatment. At the 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the seeds were sown, seed germination and shoot formation were investigated. To evaluate the role of organic nutrient additives on subsequent shoot development and root formation, particular shoots with about 1 cm length contains 1–2 leaves obtained from the seeds germination was cultured on VW medium additives with different of organic nutrient: 15% coconut water, 2 g/L peptone, 150 g/L banana homogenate, and without organic nutrient was used as control. After 16 weeks of culture, the plantlet height, number of leaves, number of roots, leaf length and root length were recorded. Results: The supplementation of 2 g/L peptone in VW medium was proven to be suitable concentration for seed germination (100%) and shoot formation with 84.0% the protocorm development to phase 5 (shoot). VW medium containing 15% coconut water was effectively improved the shoot development, with well developed roots and leaves compared to the other treatment and 95% of acclimatized plantlets survived. Conclusions: This protocol is an efficient way for the in vitro mass propagation of this Dendrobium lasianthera.
    6  Isolation, identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profile of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila isolates from different water sources
    Kannan Subbaram Hemalatha Kannan Majed Mohammad Ahmad Masadeh
    2017(5):411-415. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.12.023
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.15 M](161)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence, isolation, identification, characterization, antibiotic profile and pathogenicity of Legionellae isolated from various set of waters. Methods: A total of 400 water samples were collected from different water sources. Water samples were pretreated using acid treatment followed by concentration and culture on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar. Parameters like ability of Legionella isolates to grow in various pH range, effect of different concentrations of chlorine and effect of different temperature optima were set up. Biochemical tests were performed to separate Legionellae into species. Antibiotic sensitivity tests and test for pathogenicity were also conducted on isolated strains. Results: The rates of isolation of Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) in different water sources were found to be 20% (lakes), 10% (ponds), 8% (water-tanks) and 1% (rivers). Most of the isolates could grow in variable pH 6–8 and it could also survive the normal level of chlorination and even at temperature of 42℃. Isolated species of Legionellae resulted in identification of 5 different species, L. pneumophila being the dominant one. Strains of L. pneumophila were resistant to many antibiotics. Inoculation of Legionellae into intracerebral route of suckling mice revealed that L. pneumophila was the most virulent. Conclusions: Serious and fatal L. pneumophila infections may be transmitted through water. Legionella can survive under various conditions in various water sources. L. pneumophila is the important pathogen causing human disease. Great challenge prevails to health care professionals because these Legionellae acquired antibiotic resistance to many routinely prescribed antibiotics.
    7  The recovery and protective effects of asiatic acid on differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells cytotoxic-induced by cholesterol
    Kanchanat Ternchoocheep Damrassamon Surangkul Sukhgij Ysothonsreekul
    2017(5):416-420. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.012
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 850.16 K](165)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of asiatic acid (AA) on the differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells cytotoxic-induced by cholesterol. Methods: Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were either exposed to different concentrations of AA or treated with different doses of cholesterol to reveal their responding viability by MTT assay. The selective 1 μmol/L concentration of AA was then used to test for either the protective or the recovery effects on the cells treated with 250 μmol/L concentration of cholesterol. Results: AA has a propensity to directly increase the viability of differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cholesterol has significant cytotoxic effect on those cells in a concentration-dependent manner. AA has the ability to slightly recover the viability of the differentiated culture cytotoxic-induced by cholesterol but could not protect those cells from cytotoxic-induced by cholesterol. Conclusions: High concentrations of cholesterol were observed to be harmful to the neurons and AA had a slight effect of reducing neuronal death caused by cholesterol.
    8  The healing effects of herbal preparations from Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica in full-thickness wound models
    Esmaeil Babaei Mohammad Hossein Asghari Fatemeh Mehdikhani Milad Moloudizargari Emad Ghobadi Seyedeh Rokhsane Hosseini Pouya
    2017(5):421-427. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.013
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.21 M](152)
    Objective: To investigate the healing effects of two herbal preparations. Methods: For this purpose, 106 wistar rats were divided into 9 groups including a control, eucerine, phenytoin, Urtica dioica (U. dioica) (2%), U. dioica (5%), Sambucus ebulus (S. ebulus) (2%), S. ebulus (5%), combination (2%), and combination (5%) groups. The control group remained untreated, the eucerin and phenytoin groups were considered as the negative and positive controls respectively, and the remaining groups received different concentrations of the ointments. Full thickness wounds were made. The healing process of the wounds was investigated on day 7, 14 and 21 of the experiment. Several factors including the number of fibroblasts, new vessel formation (angiogenesis), thickness of the granulomatous tissues (GT), and the overlying epithelium were analyzed. Results: Among the studied groups, all of the treatment groups were significantly different from the control, eucerin, and phenytoin groups in a positive manner with regard to all studied factors (P ≤0.05). However, the best results were observed with the S. ebulus (2%) and the combination 2% groups (P≤0.05). Conclusions: Topical ointments prepared from the extracts of U. dioica and S. ebulus and their combination possess strong wound healing properties. It is postulated that a synergistic effect may exist between the two extracts since the combination 2% showed better results than the sole extracts.
    9  Prevalence and virulence factors of Candida spp. associated with blow flies
    Wimonrat GunTang Nathamon Kamonvoradej Chitchanok Chomchat Sangrawee Suriyakan Sangob Sanit Jintana Wongwigkarn Nophawan Bunchu Damrongpan Thongwat Supaporn Lamlertthon
    2017(5):428-431. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.014
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 298.32 K](148)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Candida spp. and the virulence factors of Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolated from external surfaces of blow flies collected from Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Methods: The blow flies were collected by sterile sweep nets from three areas in Mae Sot. Yeast isolation was first performed on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. The yeast isolates were then identified by using chromogenic agar, a yeast identification test kit, a germ tube formation test and a carbohydrate utilization test. The β-hemolysis was determined on 7% sheep blood agar, while phospholipase activity was measured on SDA agar supplemented with 10% egg yolk suspension. Antifungal susceptibility testing was determined by broth micro-dilution testing against ketoconazole and amphotericin B. Results: The prevalence rate of Candida spp. on the external surfaces of the blow flies was 78.1%. All C. albicans isolated from the blow fly demonstrated β-hemolysin and potent phospholipase activities and 47.1% of C. albicans were resistant to ketoconazole with MIC values 128 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicate that blow flies could play an essential role in the transmission of potentially pathogenic and antifungal resistant C. albicans into the environment. Further investigation on other virulence factors and genetic relatedness among isolates from the blow flies, the environment and clinical specimens is required to confirm this role.
    10  Sustained small and intermediate size proteins expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycine prolonged stimulated human fibroblasts
    Zeinab Abedian Sadegh Fattahi Roghayeh Pourbagher Sahar Edrisi Amrollah Mostafazadeh
    2017(5):432-436. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.015
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 859.15 K](191)
    Objective: To compare the protein profile of culture supernatants in stimulated and unstimulated human fibroblasts to find some proteins indicating the presence of fibroblasts and their activation status. Methods: Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycine for 72 h. MTT assay was done to determine cell viability and A/E fluorescent staining was used to evaluate the cell death pattern. Protein analysis was performed by gradient SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 8%–16%. Results: The supernatant of 24 h cultured both stimulated and unstimulated fibroblasts showed two bands in SDS-PAGE analysis with relative molecular weights of 8.59 and 78.8 kDa. These bands density was decreased during the next 48 h in unstimulated cells while their expression was continued in PMA or PMA/ionomycine stimulated cells and a new 85.3 kDa band was appeared in unstimulated and 72 h PMA stimulated cells. Moreover, we found another seven small size (10–19.5 kDa) proteins in supernatants of 48 h and 72 h unstimulated but not in PMA or PMA/Ionomycine stimulated fibroblasts. Most of these proteins expression were down regulated following fibroblast activation. This down-regulation is consistent with our finding that PMA or PMA/ionomycine stimulated cells exhibited a significant level of apoptosis cell death. Conclusions: Human fibroblasts produce some small to intermediate sized proteins with specific SDS-PAGE profile upon cell activation. Most of these proteins can be excreted in urine and can be immunogen theoretically so this data provided a reliable clue for fibrosis biomarker screening based on designation of an appropriated immunoassay.
    11  Trombinol, a bioactive fraction of Psidium guajava, stimulates thrombopoietin expression in HepG2 cells
    Guntur Berlian Olivia Mayasari Tandrasasmita Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata
    2017(5):437-442. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.010
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 959.04 K](196)
    Objective: To study the regulation of trombinol on thrombopoietin, an essential regulator of thrombocyte production. Methods: Effect of trombinol on thrombopoietin regulation was evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The mRNA expressions were revealed by PCR and real-time PCR, while the protein expressions were analyzed using western blotting and human ELISA kit. Statistical differences between the test were determined by student's t-test with P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Trombinol significantly increased the expression of thrombopoietin at the level of mRNA and protein secretion in HepG2 cell lines. Trombinol with the concentration of 15 μg/mL, positively induces 2.5-fold of thrombopoietin expression. Up-regulation of GABP, a transcription factor of thrombopoietin, is suggested to be involved in cellular regulatory mechanisms of trombinol. Here, our result shows convincing evidence that trombinol affects the thrombopoietin productions in vitro. This molecular explanation of thrombopoietin's stimulating function is in line with the traditional use of Psidium guajava for treatment of diseases involving thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Thrombopoietin stimulating function of trombinol could be potentially considered as one of alternative treatment for thrombocytopenia-related cases, including post chemotherapy shock, dengue fever and liver failure.
    12  Nutritional evaluation of Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn: An edible wild plant of South Africa
    Jeremiah Oshiomame Unuofin Gloria Aderonke Otunola Anthony Jide Afolayan
    2017(5):443-449. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.016
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 369.02 K](156)
    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional composition and elemental constituents of Kedrostis africana and their safety aspect. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, proteins, and carbohydrate and energy) were evaluated using ALASA methods, and elemental analysis by ICP-OES technique. Results: The results from nutritional analysis showed that the tuber used for this study had a low content of crude fat and high content of ash, crude protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate and energy having the recommended dietary allowances. The tuber was rich in major minerals Na, K, Ca and Mg, there was sufficient amount of trace elements Fe, Cu, and Zn while the anti-nutrients oxalate, phytate, alkaloids, and saponins were detected in amounts that are not harmful according to Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Conclusions: The outcome of this study suggests that this wild plant has very good nutritional potentials to meet the recommended dietary allowance and it could be a cheap source of essential nutrients that may ameliorate most nutritional challenges and can contribute remarkably to the amount of nutrient intake in human and animal diet.
    13  Antibacterial activity of marine bacteria isolated from sponge Xestospongia testudinaria from Sorong, Papua
    Yatnita Parama Cita Achmad Suhermanto Ocky Karna Radjasa Pratiwi Sudharmono
    2017(5):450-454. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.024
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](151)
    Objective: To explore secondary metabolite of bacteria-associated Xestospongia testudinaria from Tanjung Kasuari, Sorong, Papua. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of extracts against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eschericia coli and Salmonella typhi) were determined by disk diffusion dilution method. Results: The test showed that of 15 isolates of symbiont bacteria, 6 isolates were successfully isolated and coded, namely, Xp 4.1, Xp 4.2, Xp 4.3, Xp 4.4, Xp 4.5 and Xp 4.6. Of the six bacterial isolates, isolated Xp 4.2 was found to have more powerful antibacterial activity than any other isolates of symbiont bacteria. Antibacterial activity assay for the n-hexane soluble fractions, ethyl-acetate soluble fractions, and n-buthanol soluble fractions revealed more powerful anti-bacterial activity than any other soluble fractions. Phytochemical screening showed alkaloid and steroid/triterpenoid, while identification for isolate of Xp 4.2 bacterial showed bacteria. Conclusions: Metabolites of bacterial associated with marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria promise to be developed into antibacterial agents.
    14  Molecular detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis in sheep and goat in west highland pasture of Iran
    Ali Yousefi Sadegh Rahbari Parviz Shayan Zainab Sadeghi-dehkord Alireza Bahonar
    2017(5):455-459. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.017
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 299.15 K](162)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) and Anaplasma ovis from sheep and goat in different highland pasture in west of Iran. Methods: From July 2015 to October 2015, 370 blood samples of sheep and goat were collected from different regions in Hamedan province, Iran. The DNA extracted from blood and subsequently, 16S rRNA and MSP4 genes were analyzed by nested-PCR, semi nested-PCR and RFLP methods. Results: In the PCR assessment, overall 27.5% (102/370) of sheep and goat were positive for Anaplasma ovis and A. marginale infection, which was lower than reports from tropical and subtropical regions of Iran. Statistical analysis (the Chi-square test) did not show any significant relation between infection and variables such as location, tick infestation age and sex (P > 0.05). No significant correlation between the altitude and the Anaplasma species infection was found (Mann–Whitney test: P > 0.05). However, Anaplasma infection in goat significantly is more than the sheep (P = 0.008). Conclusions: The ecological changes affect the frequency and distribution of Anaplasma species. Furthermore, our results indicate that sheep as potential reservoirs of A. marginale.
    15  Selective toxicity of Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana) venom on liver cancer cell mitochondria
    Enayatollah Seydi Shabnam Babaei Amir Fakhri Jalal Pourahmad
    2017(5):460-465. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.021
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 1014.53 K](162)
    Objective: To explore the cytotoxicity effects of Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana or N. oxiana) venom on hepatocytes and mitochondria obtained from the liver of HCC rats. Methods: In this study, HCC was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), as an initiator, and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), as a promoter. Rat liver hepatocytes and mitochondria for evaluation of the selective cytotoxic effect of N. oxiana venom were isolated and mitochondria and cellular parameters related to apoptosis signaling were then determined. Results: Our results showed a raise in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, swelling in mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) collapse and release of cytochrome c after exposure of mitochondria only isolated from the HCC group with the crude venom of the N. oxiana (12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL). This crude venom also induced caspase-3 activation (P < 0.001) in the hepatocytes obtained only from the HCC rat liver. Conclusions: Based on the over all results, we suggested that N. oxiana may be considered as a promising complementary therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC.
    16  Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. fruit extracts on α-glucosidase enzyme, glucose diffusion and wound healing activities
    Raheem Mohssin Shadhan Siti Pauliena Mohd Bohari
    2017(5):466-472. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.023
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.78 M](208)
    Objective: To provide in vitro evidence for antidiabetic activity through potential inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme, glucose diffusion and enhancement in the wound healing using methanolic extract and fractions from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. fruit. Methods: The inhibitory action of methanolic extract and fractions of such fruit on α-glucosidase enzyme and glucose movement through in vitro assay assessment was reported. Their activities on wound healing were tested using the scratch assay. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction at 50 mg/mL concentration exhibited significant α-glucosidase inhibition (95.79 mg/mL) with P < 0.05. At the same concentration, the methanolic extract as well as other fractions revealed lower a-glucosidase inhibition and higher glucose diffusion retardation across the dialysis tube than the control. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions displayed notably higher glucose diffusion inhibitory activity of 5.21 mmol/L and 5.2 mmol/L, respectively as compared to methanolic extract and n-hexane fraction of 6.58 mmol/L and 6.49 mmol/L, respectively. Conversely, compared to other fractions the methanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction manifested proliferative effect at the incubation time of 6 h during the wound healing study. Conclusions: It is established that methanolic extract and fractions from H. sabdariffa Linn. fruit can inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme and glucose movement as well as in- fluence the wound healing activity positively.
    17  Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, the marine leech from cultured crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia
    Rajiv Ravi Zary Shariman Yahaya
    2017(5):473-477. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.018
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](145)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence, phylogenetics and DNA barcoding of Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (Z. arugamensis) from crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia. Methods: Experiment was conducted with 200 fish specimens of cultured Lutjanus erythropterus from Jerejak Island, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. The water temperature and length for each fish were measured prior to parasites examination. Next, the morphological identification of parasites was performed. Genomic DNA from parasites was extracted for further molecular analysis. After PCR amplification, phylogenetic tree was constructed. The lowest Bayesian information criterion scores showed that the most compatible model is Tajima and Nei. Finally, data sets of cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ gene sequence and trace file have been submitted to Barcode of Life Data System. Results: The prevalence rate of Z. arugamensis was recorded to be 11.5%, and the intensity was 1.48. The low intensity was due to the water temperature recorded in this study (32.9–33.2 ℃). All the individuals of Z. arugamensis recorded in this study showed a close relationship with species that were recorded in NCBI database (Z. arugamensis DQ414344, Aestabdella leiostomi DQ414305, Pterobdella amara DQ414334 and Cystobranchus meyeri DQ414315) but less relationship with Aestabdella abditovesiculata DQ414300. Finally, the DNA sequences submitted to Barcode of Life Data System in accordance to species have already obtained Barcode Index Number as BOLD: ACM3477. Conclusions: This study has provided an overview of sequence divergence at cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, DNA barcodes and parasite prevalence of Z. arugamensis.
    18  Nosocomial infections: Epidemiology, prevention, control and surveillance
    Hassan Ahmed Khan Fatima Kanwal Baig Riffat Mehboob
    2017(5):478-482. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.019
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 469.73 K](226)
    Nosocomial infections or healthcare associated infections occur in patients under medical care. These infections occur worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Nosocomial infections accounts for 7% in developed and 10% in developing countries. As these infections occur during hospital stay, they cause prolonged stay, disability, and economic burden. Frequently prevalent infections include central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Nosocomial pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungal parasites. According to WHO estimates, approximately 15% of all hospitalized patients suffer from these infections. During hospitalization, patient is exposed to pathogens through different sources environment, healthcare staff, and other infected patients. Transmission of these infections should be restricted for prevention. Hospital waste serves as potential source of pathogens and about 20%–25% of hospital waste is termed as hazardous. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by practicing infection control programs, keep check on antimicrobial use and its resistance, adopting antibiotic control policy. Efficient surveillance system can play its part at national and international level. Efforts are required by all stakeholders to prevent and control nosocomial infections.
    19  Laboratory biosafety for handling emerging viruses
    I.Made Artika Chairin Nisa Ma'roef
    2017(5):483-491. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.020
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 391.05 K](152)
    Emerging viruses are viruses whose occurrence has risen within the past twenty years, or whose presence is likely to increase in the near future. Diseases caused by emerging viruses are a major threat to global public health. In spite of greater awareness of safety and containment procedures, the handling of pathogenic viruses remains a likely source of infection, and mortality, among laboratory workers. There is a steady increase in both the number of laboratories and scientist handling emerging viruses for diagnostics and research. The potential for harm associated to work with these infectious agents can be minimized through the application of sound biosafety concepts and practices. The main factors to the prevention of laboratory-acquired infection are well-trained personnel who are knowledgable and biohazard aware, who are perceptive of the various ways of transmission, and who are professional in safe laboratory practice management. In addition, we should emphasize that appropriate facilities, practices and procedures are to be used by the laboratory workers for the handling of emerging viruses in a safe and secure manner. This review is aimed at providing researchers and laboratory personnel with basic biosafety principles to protect themselves from exposure to emerging viruses while working in the laboratory. This paper focuses on what emerging viruses are, why emerging viruses can cause laboratory-acquired infection, how to assess the risk of working with emerging viruses, and how laboratory-acquired infection can be prevented. Control measures used in the laboratory designed as such that they protect workers from emerging viruses and safeguard the public through the safe disposal of infectious wastes are also addressed.
    20  Corrigendum to ‘Multiple sclerosis: New insights and trends’
    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
    2017(5):493-504. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.02.001
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.42 M](193)
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most famous autoimmune disease attacking the central nervous system. It attacks people from age 20–50 years old and the females' attacks double than males' attacks. MS is an autoimmune disease affecting principally the central nervous system that causes nerve sheath demyelination, followed by axon damage and paralysis. MS symptoms include muscle weakness, weak reflexes, muscle spasm, diffi- culties in movement and unbalance. Many factors may be responsible for MS: microorganism, virus, smoking, stress, environmental toxins, contaminated diet and gout. MS is widely spread in the population in North Europe and this is related to lack of vitamin D due to decrease of sunlight exposure. MS biomarkers include nitric oxide, interleukin-6, nitric oxide synthase, fetuin-A and osteopontin. MS is not a genetic disease (not transferred from parents into next generations) but MS appears when leukocyte antigen system-related genes are changed in human chromosome 6. The physiology of MS patients is controlled by numbers of biological processes such as activation of immuneinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways. MS includes two main steps: (1) myelin sheath destruction and formation of lesions and, (2) inflammation. Four types of MS can be distinguished: relapsing-remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive and progressive relapsing. Nine treatments have been accepted for relapsingremitting MS type: interferon β-1a, interferon β-1b, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and alemtuzumab. However, the only treatment used is mitoxantrone for progressive MS with many side effects. Complementary treatments are also used in MS treatments such as vitamin D, Yoga, medicinal plants, oxygen therapy, acupuncture and reflexology.

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