Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 6,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Curcumin in chronic lymphocytic leukemia – A review
    Vagish Kumar Laxman Shanbhag
    2017(6):505-512. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.003
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 299.06 K](99)
    Curcumin is a widely researched natural product and is known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of leukemia that principally affects patients with age higher than 60 years. Since the toxicity of conventional drugs exceeds the benefits of treating this leukemia type, patients are treated only in the advanced symptomatic stages. The current article reviews curcumin, its general actions and targets in cancer, and specifically that of it in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
    2  Phytochemistry and potential therapeutic actions of Boswellic acids: A mini-review
    Farah Iram Shah Alam Khan Asif Husain
    2017(6):513-523. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.001
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 448.24 K](135)
    The pentacyclic triterpenic acids isolated from the oleo gum resin of various Boswellia species are collectively called as Boswellic acids (BA). The oleo gum resin obtained from Indian variety i.e. Boswellia serrata (Family – Burseraceae) is commonly known as Salai guggal. The resin fraction of Salai guggal is rich in Boswellic acids and its essential oil is composed of a mixture of mono, di and sesquiterpenes while gum fraction chiefly contains pentose and hexose sugars. This oleo-gum resin is quite popular among traditional practitioners of traditional Chinese and Indian Systems of medicine owing to their wide range of useful biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antirheumatic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-asthmatic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial anti-fungal, anti-complementary and analgesic activity, etc. It has been used as a herbal medicine since the prehistoric time to cure acute and chronic ailments including in- flammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of this herbal medicine lead to identification of Boswellic acids which are found to be novel, potent, specific antiinflammatory agents due to non-redox inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme. However, the other important targets of Boswellic acids also include topoisomerases, angiogenesis, and cytochrome p450 enzymes. This review is a sincere attempt to discuss and present the current status of therapeutic potential, phytochemical as well as pharmacological profile of Boswellic acids primarily obtained from B. serrata.
    3  Comparative assessment of intestinal helminths prevalence in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) intervention and non-intervention communities in Abeokuta, Nigeria
    Oluwaseyi Tunrayo Taiwo Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo Olufunmilayo Ajoke Idowu Adewale Oladele Talabi Adewale Matthew Taiwo
    2017(6):524-532. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.006
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 914.43 K](101)
    Objective: This study compared the prevalence of intestinal helminths in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) intervention and non-intervention communities in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 225 respondents in a study carried out between July and November, 2014. Stool samples were examined for presence of helminths using Formol-Ether concentration method. Data collected from stool samples were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 16). Results: Results showed that, at the intervention community, 88 out of 113 respondents were infected with at least one helminth infection while at non-intervention community, 80 out of 112 respondents were infected. This result revealed overall helminth prevalence of 78% at Mawuko and 71% at Isolu. In both intervention (Mawuko) and non-intervention (Isolu) communities, hookworm was the most prevalent helminth observed (21% and 18%, respectively) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13% and 13%, respectively), Taenia sp. (4% and 3%, respectively) and Trichostrongylus sp. (1% and 3%, respectively). Cases of single infections of Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Hymenolepsis nana were observed only at the non-intervention community. However, S. stercoralis occurred in the multiple infections observed at the intervention community. Significantly more (p < 0.05) cases of infections were observed in male (46%) at the intervention community than female (31%) while in non-intervention community females (39%) were significantly (p < 0.05) more infected than their male counterparts (32%). Conclusions: This study concludes that the Community Led-Total Sanitation intervention programme, which was executed in Mawuko was not effective as expected.
    4  Levels of antioxidant enzymes and alkaline protease from pulp and peel of sunflower
    Wesen Adel Mehdi Faridah Yusof Layla O. Farhan Atheer Awad Mehde Raha Ahmed Raus
    2017(6):533-537. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.002
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 564.98 K](95)
    Objective: The activity of enzymes participating in the systems of antioxidant protection was assayed in the peel and pulp of sunflower. The essential roles of proteases in food stimulate research to find other sources of the enzyme especially from non-conventional sources. In the present work, we study several biochemical parameters in the pulp and peel of sunflower. Methods: Pulp and peel of sunflower was extracted, antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant were measured. Alkaline protease was measured and purified from pulp in sunflower. Results: High carbohydrate concentration, beta-carotene, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities, free radical scavenging capacity and free flavonoid content were observed in the peel of sunflower. Whereas, MDA and ceruloplasmin activities were high in the pulp of sunflower. Conclusions: The present study concluded that peel in sunflower are strong radical scavengers and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses. Further analysis showed that protease activity was a significantly high in the pulp compared to the peel.
    5  Wound healing activity of Ullucus tuberosus, an Andean tuber crop
    Nathalie Heil Karent Bravo Andres Montoya Sara Robledo Edison Osorio
    2017(6):538-543. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.007
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 419.44 K](104)
    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity of aqueous extracts of Ullucus tuberosus (U. tuberosus) using in vitro models. Methods: Lyophilized pulp and acetone extracts of U. tuberosus were produced using ultrasound extraction. The capacity for collagenase activation was evaluated using fluorescence detection of the enzymatic activity. Then, the influence of U. tuberosus extracts on cell proliferation, cell migration and synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metalloproteinase (MMP-1) and pro-collagen was analyzed using human dermal fibroblasts in culture. Results: An increase in collagenase activity of 12% supports the utility of U. tuberosus as an agent for scar treatment. In addition, the extracts showed an increase in the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and the production of pro-collagen and MMP-1 after treatment with U. tuberosus extracts. The increase in proliferation, migration and pro-collagen levels positively influenced the regeneration of scarless tissue during the proliferation phase, whereas the increase in MMP-1 may have favored the wound healing process during the remodeling and cellular differentiation phases. Conclusion: The results of this study show for first time that U. tuberosus is a promising candidate to support scarless tissue regeneration.
    6  Sapium ellipticum (Hochst) Pax ethanol leaf extract modulates glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
    Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye Regina Ngozi Ugbaja Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse
    2017(6):544-548. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.009
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 353.83 K](106)
    Objective: To examine the effects of Sapium ellipticum (SE) leaf extract on the hepatic activities of glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Methods: STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats (four groups, n = 8) were used in this study. SE was assessed at two different doses, 400 and 800 mg/kg BW, in comparison with metformin (METF) (12 mg/kg BW) as a reference antidiabetic drug. All treatments were done orally (p.o), twice daily at 8 h interval for a period of 21 days. Glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities were respectively determined using standard protocols. Hepatic and muscle glycogen contents were estimated as well. Results: STZ caused significant decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase activity and concomitant increase in glucokinase activity. SE extract especially at 400 mg dosage significantly reversed the alterations by increasing glucokinase activity by 40.31% and inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase activity by 37.29% compared to diabetic control animals. However, the effects were significantly lower than that of METF which enhanced glucokinase activity by 94.76% and simultaneously inhibited glucose-6-phosphatase activity by 49.15%. The extract also improved hepatic glycogen level by 32.37 and 27.06% at 400 and 800 mg dosage respectively. HPLC-MS analysis of some SE fractions in dynamic MRM mode (using the optimized compound-specific parameters) revealed among other active compounds, the presence of amentoflavone, which has been associated with antidiabetic function. Conclusions: The ability of SE extract to concurrently inhibit glucose-6-phosphatase and activate glucokinase in this study suggests that it may be a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients, and the presence of amentoflavone in the plant extract may account for its anti-diabetic potential.
    7  Efficacy of combined albendazol and praziquntel and their loaded solid lipid nanoparticles components in chemoprophylaxis of experimental hydatidosis
    Ali Jelowdar Abdollah Rafiei Mohammad Reza Abbaspour Iran Rashidi Mahmood Rahdar
    2017(6):549-554. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.011
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 829.24 K](95)
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of combined ABZ and PZQ and their solid lipid nanoparticles in chemoprophylaxis of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Methods: ABZ and PZQ loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by high shear homogenization and microemulsion congealing techniques with some minor modification. Nanoparticles average size, polydispersity index (PDI), and particle size distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photon correlation spectroscopy. Forty females BALB/c were experimentally infected by protoscoleces (PSC) and randomly divided into four equal groups of 10 mice. After the end of the 3 months treatment period and 2 months rest, mice were sacrificed and the peritoneal cavity was opened for removal, counting, measuring, and histological analysis of hydatid cyst. Results: The results indicated that ABZ and PZQ chemoprophylaxis treatment reduced the wet weight and size of developed cysts 77.3% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding result for the ABZ and PZQ loaded SLNs was 83% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: This study for the first time demonstrated that ABZ and PZQ loaded SLNs is superior to free ABZ and PZQ for the chemoprophylaxis of CE in mice.
    8  Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of ion-channel modulators: In-ovo, in-vitro and in-vivo study
    Chandana Kamil Ravi Shankar Kakataparthy Uma Maheshwararao Vattikutti Vijay Chidrawar Sindhuri Amminen
    2017(6):555-562. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.005
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.18 M](96)
    Objective: Angiogenesis is the development of new blood vessels. The ion channels on endothelium play a vital action in cell proliferation and so in the related angiogenesis. We aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of Mefloquine (Cl− channel blocker) and 4-Aminopyridine (K+ channel blocker). Methods: The anti-angiogenic activities of Mefloquine and 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) were investigated by in-vivo (sponge implantation method), in-vitro (aortic ring assay) and in-ovo (CAM, Chick Chorioallantoic membrane) methods. The standard antiangiogenic drug used was Bevacizumab. Results: In the CAM assay, both the ion channel blockers exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the concentrations of 10−5 M and 10−4 M where they significantly exhibited ant proliferative activity by inhibiting the new blood vessel formation. For the further confirmation anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In Rat aortic ring assay reduction in the area of sprouts were observed with 40 μM of 4-AP and 7 μM of Mefloquine. A significant reduction in weight of sponges, number of blood vessels formed and hemoglobin content were observed at 4.2 mg/kg of 4-AP and 20 mg/ kg and 30 mg/kg of Mefloquine. Conclusions: These scientific findings indicate the use of Mefloquine and 4- Aminopyridine in pathological situations involving excessive angiogenesis. Negative regulation of cell volume, cell migration and proliferation of blood vessels may be the underlying molecular mechanisms.
    9  Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in some tissues of croaker fish from oil spilled rivers of Niger Delta region, Nigeria
    Muawiya Musa Abarshi Edward Oyedeji Dantala Sanusi Bello Mada
    2017(6):563-568. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.008
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 565.64 K](94)
    Objective: To investigate the level of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe Mn Ni, Pb and Cd) in muscles, gills and liver tissue of Croaker fish from oil spilled rivers of Bonny and Finima, Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Methods: Twenty four Croacker fishes (Genyonemus lineatus) weighing between 250 and 260 g and 24–26 cm length were collected from each sampling sites (Bonny and finima rivers). The frozen fishes were thawed and dried at 105℃ until they reach a constant weight. The dried samples were homogenized and digested with 10 ml tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HClO4:H2SO4), and then the digested samples were diluted to 100 ml with deionized water. Heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Mn, Iron Fe, and Cd) concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Our results revealed that concentrations and distribution patterns of all heavy metals studied varied significantly (P < 0.05) amongst the fish tissues analyzed and sampling sites. Moreover, liver tissue of fish caught from Finima creek accumulated the highest concentrations of Cu (52.64 ± 3.01 μg/g dry wt), Zn (166.50 ± 6.45 μg/g dry wt) and Fe (801.50 ± 14.15 μg/g dry wt) in comparison to the liver of fish caught from Bonny river in which the levels of Cu, Zn and Fe were (45.00 ± 2.79), (49.90 ± 2.91) and (216 ± 6.11 μg/g dry wt), respectively. In addition, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd exhibited their highest concentrations in gills from both locations. As expected, muscle tissue contained the least concentrations of all metals investigated from both sampling sites. Furthermore, all the metals investigated exhibited highest concentration in fish collected from Finima creek. These abnormal high level heavy metals accumulation observed in this location could be linked to the frequent crude oil spills as well as industrial activity around the area which might get discharged into Finima creek. In general, the mean concentrations of some toxic heavy metals investigated exceed the recommended maximum permissible limits set by the Joint FAO/WHO committee. However, some metals are within the acceptable limits. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data showed the abnormal higher concentration of these metals and this might be toxic to the fish and other aquatic organisms directly or by extension to humans that frequently consumed such contaminated fishes.
    10  Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of Ardisia elliptica
    Nazeh M. Al-Abd Zurainee Mohamed Nor Marzida Mansor Asdren Zajm Mohd Shahnaz Hasan Fadzly Azhar Mustafa Kassim
    2017(6):569-576. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.010
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 379.84 K](96)
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and chemical ingredients of Ardisia elliptica (A. elliptica) methanolic extracts. Methods: The plant was extracted using methanol. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Results: The results showed that both fruit and leaf extract of A. elliptica have significant antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fruit extracts showed higher content of phenolic (71 ± 0.03 GAE/mg extract dry weight), in comparison to the leaf extracts (37 ± 0.05 GAE/mg extract dry weight). Flavonoid content, and Fe2+ chelating activity of fruit extracts were higher than leaf extract. The percentage radical inhibition of fruit extract is found to be higher (70%) than that of leaf extract (60%). LCMS results indicated that the major compounds in the fruit extract were Gingerol, Aspidin, Kampherol, and Stercuresin, while the leaf extract contained Gingerol, Aspidin, Triangularin, and Salicyl acyl glucuronide. Furthermore, the results of GCMS indicated that fruit extract contained these major compounds: Vitamin E Tocopherol, 5- hepylresornicol, 2-Nonylmalonic acid, 5-pentadecylresornicol, and Stigmasta-7-22-dien- 3-ol. However, leaf extract of A. elliptica contained these major compounds: Alpha Amyrenol, 4,4, 6, 6a, 6b, 8, 8a, 9,10, 11,12,12a, 14, 14a, 14b octadehydro-2H-picen-3- one, and Lonasterol, 4-t-Butyl-2-[4-nitrophenyl] phenol. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that fruit and leaf of A. elliptica extracts might indeed be used as a potential source of effective natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in pharmaceutical and food industries.
    11  Phytochemical analysis and anti-oxidant activities of Albuca bracteata Jacq. and Albuca setosa Jacq bulb extracts used for the management of diabetes in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
    Samuel Odeyemi Anthony Afolayan Graeme Bradley
    2017(6):577-584. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.013
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 901.91 K](118)
    Objective: The bulb of Albuca bracteata Jacq., and Albuca setosa commonly used in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for the treatment of several types of disease conditions including diabetes, was investigated for their phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. Methods: The antioxidant activity was determined by evaluating the effect of various solvent extracts (acetone, methanol, ethanol and water) on 2,2 – diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, 2,2´– azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), ferric reducing power, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity while the various extracts were also analysed for phytochemical their contents. Results: The results obtained indicate that polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, saponins and alkaloids are present in higher concentrations. The composition of phenols (117 mg/g), flavonols (26.28 mg/g), proanthocyanidins (84.85 mg/g) and flavonoids (5.36 mg/g) were significantly higher in the acetone extract while saponin and alkaloids contents were higher in the aqueous extract. Antioxidant studies of the extracts for nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, ABTS and DPPH showed high antioxidant potential in a concentration-dependent manner that was not significantly different from Vitamin C, BHT and Rutin used as standard references. The methanol extract showed higher ferric reducing potential compared to the aqueous extract but was significantly different from Vitamin C, BHT and Rutin. Conclusion: This implies that the bulb of Albuca bracteata may serve as a natural source of antioxidants, which together with the numerous phytochemicals present, could account for its folkloric use as a medicinal plant.
    12  Cholera toxin A1 residues single alanine substitutional mutation and effect on activity with stimulatory G protein
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2017(6):585-586. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.012
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 173.83 K](104)
    Cholera is a well-known gastrointestinal infection. The cholera toxin is an important pathological substance in pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea. Cholera toxin is composed of catalytic A1 subunit, an A2 linker, and a homopentameric cell-binding B subunit. In enterocyte, cholera toxin will attach to GM1 ganglioside receptors on the apical membrane and causes retrograde vesicular trafficking to endoplasmic reticulum. At endoplasmic reticulum, cholera toxin A1 is released from the rest of the toxin into cytoplasm. The cholera toxin A1 interacts will catalyze ADP ribosylation of subunits of stimulatory G protein resulting a persistent activation of adenylate cyclase and an elevation of intracellular cAMP which further result in diarrhea. The single alanine substitutional mutation can result in the reduction of the interaction activity between cholera toxin A1 and stimulatory G protein. In this study, the four well-known mutations, H55, R67, L71, S78, or D109, of cholera toxin A1 is focused. The author hereby calculates for the reaction energy for the reaction between cholera toxin A1 and stimulatory G protein in naıve case and mutated case. To calculate, the standard bonding energy calculation technique in mutation analysis was used. It can be seen that aberrant in reaction energy in each studied mutation is different and can imply the different effect on activity with stimulatory G protein.
    13  Disseminated strongyloidiasis in an immunocompromised host: A case report
    Nurul Suhaiza Hassanudin Zubaidah Abdul Wahab Khalid Ibrahim Fadzilah Mohd Nor
    2017(6):587-590. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.05.004
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 603.11 K](108)
    Infections caused by Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in human are generally asymptomatic, however in immunocompromised individual, hyperinfection may develop with dissemination of larvae to extra-intestinal organs. The diagnosis could be easily missed due to asymptomatic presentation and insufficient exposure towards the infection itself, which may lead to low index of suspicion as a consequence. In this report, a case of a Malaysian male with underlying diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, bullous pemphigus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion who initially complained of generalized body weakness and poor appetite without any history suggestive of sepsis is presented. However, he developed septicemic shock later, and S. stercoralis larvae was incidentally found in the tracheal aspirate that was sent to look for acid fast bacilli. Regardless of aggressive resuscitation, the patient succumbed due to pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It was revealed that the current case has alarmed us via incidental finding of S. stercoralis larvae in the tracheal aspirate, indicating that the importance of the disease should be emphasized in certain parts of the world and population respectively.

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