Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 7,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Red propolis: Chemical composition and pharmacological activity
    Luciane Corbellini Rufatto Denis Amilton dos Santos Flavio Marinho Jo?o Antonio Pegas Henriques Mariana Roesch Ely Sidnei Moura
    2017(7):591-598. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.009
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 445.99 K](117)
    Propolis has been used worldwide for years in folk medicine and currently marketed by the pharmaceutical industry. In Brazil, propolis was classified into 13 groups based on their organoleptics and physicochemical characteristics. The 13th type named red propolis has been an important source of investigation since late 90s. Their property comes from the countless compounds, including terpenes, pterocarpans, prenylated benzophenones and especially the flavonoids. This last compound class has been indicated as the responsible for its potent pharmacological actions, highlighting the antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, healing and antiproliferative activities. The red propolis can also be found in other countries, especially Cuba, which has similar features as the Brazilian. Therefore, with the compilation of 80 papers, this review aims to provide a key reference for researchers interested in natural products and discovery of new active compounds, such as from propolis.
    2  An overview on application of phage display technique in immunological studies
    Abbas Rami Denis Amilton dos Santos Najmeh Yardehnavi Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht
    2017(7):599-602. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.001
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 238.48 K](99)
    Phage display is very strong technique in drug discovery and development. Phage display has many applications in improving the immunological studies. Development of monoclonal antibody, peptides, peptidomimetics and epitope mapping are main application of phage display. Selection of monoclonal antibody or peptides that are displayed on the surface of the phages can be occurred through biopanning process. In biopanning process phage library is incubated with antigen and particular phages can be identified and isolated. Increasing the stringency in the biopanning rounds can be help to select phages with high affinity and specificity. Here, we describe an overview of phage display application with focusing on monoclonal antibody production and epitope mapping
    3  Euphorbia tirucalli L.: Review on morphology, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities
    Prashant Y. Mali Shital S. Panchal
    2017(7):603-613. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.002
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 387.26 K](158)
    The intention of current review is to make available up-to-date information on morphology, ecological biodiversity, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities on different parts of Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli). This plant has a number of medicinal uses. Latex of E. tirucalli is vesicant and rubefacient which is used for rheumatism, warts, cough, asthma, ear-ache, tooth-ache and neuralgia. It acts as a purgative in small doses while in big doses it is bitter irritant and emetic. Milky juice is alexiteric, carminative and purgative. It is useful in whooping cough, gonorrhea, asthma, leprosy, dropsy, dyspepsia, enlargement of spleen, colic, jaundice and stone in bladder. The fresh milky juice is good alternative in syphilis and a good application in neuralgia. A decoction of branches is used in gastralgia and colic. Bark is used in treatment of fractures. Poultices prepared from the stem are useful to repair the broken bones. Boiled root liquid acts as an emetic in cases of snake-bite and for infertility in women. The wood is used for rafters, toys and veneering purposes. It is also useful against leprosy and foot paralysis subsequent to childbirth. E. tirucalli is reported to have euphol, β-sitosterol, euphorbol hexacosonate, cycloeuphordenol, cyclotirucanenol, tirucalicine, tri-methyl ellagic acid, gallic acids, terpenic alcohol, isoeuphorol, taraxasterol, tirucallol, euphorone, euphorcinol, euphorbins, 12-deoxy-4β-hydroxyphorbol-13-phenyl acetate-20- acetate, 12, 20-dideoxyphorbol-13-isobutyrate, glut-5-en-3-β-ol, 3,3´ -di-O-methylellagic acid, euphorbin-A (polyphenol), tirucallin-A (7) (tannin), tirucallin-B (11), euphorbin-F (14) (dimers), cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartenol, ingenol triacetate, 12-deoxy-4β-hydroxyphorbol-13-phenyl acetate-20-acetate, taraxerone, euphorginol, taraxerol, campesterol, stigmasterol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, β-amyrin, etc. active phytoconstituents. E. tirucalli have possessed activity in human-lymphocytes, analgesic, anthelmintics, antiarthritic, antibacterial/antifungal/antimicrobial, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, biodiesel production, CNS depressant/neuropathic pain, cytotoxicity/ anticancer, genotoxic/mutagenic, hepatoprotective, insect repellants, immunomodulatory, larvicidal, molluscicidal/ovicidal/piscicidal, myelopoiesis, proteolytic/chitinolytics pharmacological activities. There is a need to isolate dynamic constituents, their biological trial, molecular mechanisms, experimental protection and legalization of therapeutic uses of E. tirucalli. The collected information will be helpful to locate up study protocol for recent drugs and Ayurvedic formulation expansion in curative and treat a variety of ailments.
    4  Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of Cassytha filiformis L.: A correlative study
    Yori Yuliandra A. Armenia Helmi Arifin
    2017(7):614-618. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.007
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 421.74 K](103)
    Objective: To study the blood pressure lowering effect of Cassytha filiformis extract in animal models of hypertension and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups: endocrine hypertension (HTN group) that received a combination of prednisone and salt for two weeks and oxidative stress-associated hypertension (HTN-OS group) that received additional induction of L-Nitro Arginine Methyl Esther (L-NAME) for two days. Each group was subdivided into 4 and treated intravenously with the extract 5; 10; and 20 mg/kg, and vehicle control. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. The blood was taken before and at the end of recording for the measurement of serum concentration of nitric oxide (NO). The changes of blood pressure were analyzed by two-way ANOVA while its correlation with NO concentration was analyzed by Pearson's Correlation. Results: The study showed a significant antihypertensive effect of the extract as compared with control group (P < 0.05) in both hypertensive models. Extract in the dose of 5 mg/kg showed the best blood pressure lowering effect. However, the correlation analysis did not show an association between NO increase and blood pressure lowering effect (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The study concludes that C. filiformis extract in the dose of 5 mg/kg exhibits the best blood pressure lowering effect in both animal models. Antihypertensive activity of the extract is not correlated with its antioxidant effect.
    5  Antihyperglycemic effect of methanol extract of Tamarix aphylla L. Karst (Saltcedar) in streptozocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic rats
    Rooh Ullah Shafiq Ahmed Tariq Naeem Khan Nawaz Sharif Zia Ud Din Khalid Mansoor
    2017(7):619-623. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.005
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 225.53 K](105)
    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of Tamarix aphylla (T. aphylla) leaves in STZ–NIC induced diabetes in Wister Albino rats. Methods: Acute toxicity study was done to check the toxicity of T. aphylla (L. Karst) methanol extract. T. aphylla leaves extract was administered intraperitoneally (100 mg, 250 mg and 400 mg/kg body weight per day) to diabetic Wister rats for 21 days. The various parameters were studied including fasting blood glucose levels, haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin. Results: The treatment groups with the extract at three dose levels expressively abridged the intensities of blood glucose and Glycosylated Haemoglobin. The earlier detected reduced level of plasma haemoglobin of the diabetic rats was raised to near normalcy with treatment of extract. Conclusions: The results of the current study confirm that the leaves extract of T. aphylla are nontoxic and have antidiabetic nature.
    6  Candida albicans isolated from urine: Phenotypic and molecular identification, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility
    Laura Wiebusch Adriana Araújo de Almeida-Apolonio Luana Mireli Carbonera Rodrigues Bruna de Paula Bicudo Danielly Beraldo dos Santos Silva Danielle Ferreira Lonchiati Renata Pires de Araujo Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira
    2017(7):624-628. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.006
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 239.31 K](96)
    Objective: To isolate Candida albicans (C. albicans) from the urine of hospitalized patients and assess the virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Methods: Yeasts were identified using the chromogenic medium CHROMagar™, the VITEK® 2 system, hypertonic Sabouraud broth, tobacco agar, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. The evaluated virulence factors were proteinase production, phospholipase production, and biofilm production on polystyrene. The broth microdilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: All yeasts isolated from urine were identified as C. albicans using both classical and molecular methods. Although 91.3% of the isolates showed no phospholipase activity, 56.5% showed strong proteinase activity and 91.7% produced biofilm. All microorganisms were sensitive to fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B, but 56.5% of the yeasts showed resistance to itraconazole. Conclusions: C. albicans isolates from urine have a high capacity for virulence and can be associated with infectious processes. Furthermore, the high percentage of isolates resistant to itraconazole is important because this antifungal agent is commonly used to treat fungal infections in the hospital environment.
    7  Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.
    Malek Besbes Hlila Kaouther Majoul Hichem Ben Jannet Mahjoub Aouni Maha Mastouri Boulbaba Selm
    2017(7):629-632. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.008
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 225.37 K](101)
    Objective: To examine the potential antimicrobial activity of Euphorbia paralias L. (Euphorbiaeae) leaves and stems extracts. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was tested against six microbial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella enterica CIP 8039, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028 by two different methods, the disk method and the dilution method. Results: Our results showed the important antimicrobial activity of the chloroform extract of the stems towards the majority of the strains by using both methods. Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive strain (MIC = MBC = 15 μg/mL). Conclusion: Thus, some extracts of Euphorbia paralias can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by microbes.
    8  Antiviral activity of the dichloromethane extracts from Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves against hepatitis C virus
    Achmad Fuad Hafid Chie Aoki-Utsubo Adita Ayu Permanasari Myrna Adianti Lydia Tumewu Aty Widyawaruyanti Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih Tutik Sri Wahyuni Maria Inge Lusida Soetjipto Hak Hotta
    2017(7):633-639. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.003
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 642.73 K](108)
    Objective: To determine anti-viral activities of three Artocarpus species: Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus camansi, and Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus) against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Methods: Antiviral activities of the crude extracts were examined by cell culture method using Huh7it-1 cells and HCV genotype 2a strain JFH1. The mode of action for anti-HCV activities was determined by time-of-addition experiments. The effect on HCV RNA replication and HCV accumulation in cells were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Results: The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of A. heterophyllus exhibited strong anti-HCV activity with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of (1.5 ± 0.6) μg/mL without obvious toxicity. The DCM extracts from Artocarpus altilis and Artocarpus camansi showed moderate anti-HCV activities with IC50 values being (6.5 ± 0.3) μg/mL and (9.7 ± 1.1) μg/mL, respectively. A time-of-addition studies showed that DCM extract from A. heterophyllus inhibited viral entry process though a direct virucidal activity and targeting host cells. HCV RNA replication and HCV protein expression were slightly reduced by the DCM treatment at high concentration. Conclusions: The DCM extract from A. heterophyllus is a good candidate to develop an antiviral agent to prevent HCV grant reinfection following liver transplantation.
    9  Toxicological evaluation and protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Launaea taraxacifolia on gentamicin induced rat kidney injury
    Lydia Enyonam Kuatsienu Charles Ansah Michael Buenor Adinortey
    2017(7):640-646. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.011
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.54 M](138)
    Objective: To evaluate the toxic potential of Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract (LTE) in rats within 14 d of oral administration and also assess the potential of LTE in protecting against kidney injury induced by gentamicin using rat model. Methods: The protective ability of LTE was done after sub-acute toxicity evaluation has been carried out. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) was induced by gentamicin at a dose of 160 mg/kg intraperitoneal i.p. Parameters and indicators considered include mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, haematological and clinical chemistry parameters. Gross examination and histopathological assessment was also done on selected internal organs. Results: There were no treatment-related deaths or changes in clinical signs, haematological and clinical chemistry indices during sub-acute toxicity studies with the exception of creatinine levels. This was confirmed by micrographs obtained from histopathological analysis. Co-administration of LTE with 160 mg/kg of gentamicin (i.p) markedly decreased the levels of urea and creatinine when compared to negative control group. Histological studies of kidney tissues showed an insignificant change in tubular epithelium in LTE plus gentamicin treated group compared to LTE treated only. Conclusions: Data obtained show that ethanolic leaf extract of Launaea taraxacifolia is non-toxic within a 14 d administration at a maximum dose of 1 000 mg/kg bwt and also possesses the ability to protect against gentamicin-induced kidney damage in rats at a dose of 300 mg/kg bwt.
    10  The protective effect of rutin and quercetin on 5-FU-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
    Volkan Gelen Emin Sengu Semin Gedikli Gozde Atila Hamit Uslu Mustafa Makav
    2017(7):647-653. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.013
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.50 M](103)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of quercetin (Q) and rutin on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: The control group was corn oil. The 5-FU group rats were corn oil and injected intraperitoneal 5-FU 50 mg/kg. Groups rutin 50 + 5-FU and rutin 100 + 5-FU were respectively 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg rutin. These groups were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg) in the 18th day. The group rutin 100 was rutin (100 mg/kg i.g.). Groups Q50 + 5-FU and Q100 + 5-FU were respectively 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg quercetin. These groups were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg) in the 18th day of quercetin application. The group Q100 was quercetin (100 mg/kg i.g.). In the end of experimental applications, blood was collected from anesthetized rats. Results: The MDA level was significantly higher in the 5-FU group compared with control group, and determined to be decreased in other groups. GPx and GSH levels were significantly decreased in the 5-FU group compared to the control, rutin 100 + 5-FU and Q100 + 5-FU groups. AST, ALT, LDH and ALP levels in the serum were significantly increased in the 5-FU group compared with the other groups. The results from this analysis show that while the caspase-3 level increases in the 5-FU group, it decreases in the Q50 + 5- FU, Q100 + 5-FU, rutin 50 + 5-FU and rutin 100 + 5-FU groups. Bcl-2 level decreased in the 5-FU group compared to the control group, but increased in the rutin 100 + 5-FU, Q50 + 5- FU and Q100 + 5-FU groups. Conclusions: In this study it was determined that the rutin and Q have protective effects on 5-FU-induced hepatotoxicity.
    11  Chemical constituents, in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the extracts from Macaranga barteri Mull-Arg
    Akintayo Ogundajo Benjamin Okeleye Anofi Omotayo Ashafa
    2017(7):654-659. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.014
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 237.96 K](105)
    Objectives: To investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials as well as chemical constituents of extracts from Macaranga barteri (M. barteri). Methods: Antimicrobial activity was carried out using micro-dilution, cell culture and GC–MS methods were employed to determine the cytotoxicity and chemical constituents of the extracts respectively. Results: Marked activity was observed in methanol (ME) fraction [MIC50: (0.097 7– 6.250 0) mg/mL] compared to hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. Aeromonas hydrophila (environmental strain) and Shigella sonnei (ATCC 29930) were the most susceptible pathogens to ME and ciprofloxacin (Cl) at MIC50 value of 0.097 7 and < 0.019 5 mg/mL respectively. Cryptococcus neoformans (ATCC 66031) was susceptible to ME at 0.195 3 mg/mL compared to fluconazole at 10.000 0 μg/mL. Decreased viability of the Vero cells was observed at the concentrations of 0.1–1.0 mg/mL. The lethal dose (LC50) of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions were recorded at (0.30 ± 0.07), (0.52 ± 0.05) and (0.22 ± 0.04) mg/mL, respectively. Some of the compounds identified from ME were caryophyllene (25.21%), neophytadiene (11.90%), α-humulene (7.67%), phytol (4.40%), ethyl ester hexadecanoic acid (4.04%) and nerolidol (2.83%) which were known to have various antimicrobial activities. Conclusions: Methanol fraction of M. barteri is a potent and safe antimicrobial and antifungal alternative which can be useful in the search for new antimicrobial drugs. The study also confirmed the orthodox usage of M. barteri in combating infectious diseases.
    12  Optimization of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic content from Peperomia pellucida (L) kunth using response surface methodology
    Islamudin Ahmad Arry Yanuar Kamarza Mulia Abdul Mun'im
    2017(7):660-665. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.010
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 250.57 K](121)
    Objective: To optimize the ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction (IL-MAE) of polyphenolic content from Peperomia pellucida (L) Kunth. Methods: The IL-MAE factors as experimental design parameters, including microwave power, extraction time, ionic liquid concentration, and liquid–solid ratio had been involved. Response surface methodology and Box–Behnken design were used to obtain predictive model (multivariate quadratic regression equation) and optimization of the extraction process. The response surface was analyzed by using the yields of total polyphenolic content as response value. Results: Based on the obtained results the optimum extraction condition, including microwave power of 30% Watts, extraction time of 18.5 min, the ionic liquid concentration of 0.79 mol/L, and the liquid–solid ratio of 10.72 mL/g 1-Buthyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4) as a solvent was selected. The regression model was obtained to predicts the yields from Peperomia pellucida: Y = 30.250 – 1.356X1 + 2.655X2 + 2.252X3 – 0.565X4 + 0.990 X1X3 – 8.172 X1X4 – 3.439 X3X4 – 4.178 X12 – 3.210 X32 – 6.786 X42 – 7.290 X12X3 + 5.575 X1X32 – 4.843 X32X4 with R2 = 0.82519. Scale-up confirmation test was obtained the maximum yields of total polyphenolics content with the amount of 31.172 5 μg GAE/g. Conclusions: The IL-MAE method produced a higher extraction polyphenolic and performed rapidly, easily and efficiently.
    13  Dysregulation of Notch signaling related genes in oral lichen planus
    Nunthawan Nowwarote Thanaphum Osathanon
    2017(7):666-669. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.001
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 648.72 K](100)
    Objective: To investigate a dysregulation of Notch signaling in oral lichen planus (OLP) using public available microarray dataset. Methods: A mRNA expression profiling dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus was downloaded. Differential gene expression between OLP and normal oral epithelium was examined using NetworkAnalyst. The dysregulated genes related to Notch signaling were identified. Results: Thirteen genes in Notch signaling pathway were significantly differential expressed between OLP and normal epithelium. OLP samples significantly increased the mRNA levels of HEYL, APH1B, CNTN1 and PSEN2. Whilst, ITCH, HES1, TLE2, DLK2, DTX2, NOTCH3, JAG2, RFNG, and SPEN were downregulated in OLP groups. Conclusions: Notch signaling was dysregulated and may participate in pathophysiologic process in OLP.
    14  Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular characterization of resistance genes among Escherichia coli and among Salmonella subsp. in chicken food chains
    Yith Vuthy Kruy Sun Lay Heng Seiha Alexandra Kerleguer Awa Aidara-Kane
    2017(7):670-674. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.002
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 223.68 K](111)
    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of resistance genes among Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella subsp. isolated in chicken food chains in Phnom Penh, 2012–2013. Methods: Six hundred eighty two E. coli and 181 Salmonella Albany, Corvallis, and Kentucky strains were examined for susceptibilities to eight antimicrobials and following resistance genes were identified by PCR: blaTem, StrA, aadA, sul1, sul2, gyrA, Tet (A), and Tet (B). Results: E. coli presented high resistances to tetracycline, amoxicillin, and sulfamethoxazole (63.1%–76.1%). Salmonella Albany and Salmonella Kentucky traduced high resistance percentages to amoxicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid (84.6%–100%). Among amoxicillin-resistant isolates, blaTem genes were observed for 62% of E. coli isolates and 20% of 65 Salmonella Kentucky. The StrA gene was prevalent in 36% of 331 aminoglycoside-resistant E. coli and 90% of 40 aminoglycoside-resistant Salmonella Corvallis. The sul2 gene was predominant among sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates, for 56% of 431 E. coli and 53% of 66 Salmonella Corvallis; the sul1 gene was observed in 54% of Salmonella Albany. The Tet (A) resistance gene was prevalent in E. coli (86%), Salmonella Corvallis (82%), Salmonella Kentucky (84%). High percentages of gyrA genes observed among nalidixic-acid resistant E. coli (91%), Salmonella Albany (92%), Salmonella Corvallis (75%) and Salmonella Kentucky (85%). Conclusions: Important occurrences of resistance gene were observed among E. coli and Salmonella in chicken food chains in Cambodia.

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