Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 8,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Chalcone analogue as potent anti-malarial compounds against Plasmodium falciparum: Synthesis, biological evaluation, and docking simulation study
    Jufrizal Syahri Emmy Yuanita Beta Achromi Nurohmah Ria Armunanto Bambang Purwono
    2017(8):675-679. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.004
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 525.99 K](93)
    Objective: To investigate in vitro antimalarial activity of chalcone derivative compounds against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (Pf3D7) strain and in silico antimalarial activity. Methods: Synthesis of the chalcone derivatives was conducted via Claisen-Schmidt method using NaOH 60% base as catalyst. An in vitro antimalarial activity assay was carried out according to the Rieckmann method against the chloroquine-sensitive Pf3D7 strain. Molecular docking studies of the prepared compounds were performed using Discovery Studio 3.1 (Accelrys, Inc., San Diego, USA) software to dihydrofolate reductases–thymidylate synthase (PfDHFR-TS) protein with Protein Data Bank ID of 1J3Ⅰ.pdb (sensitive-protein) and ID: 4DP3.pdb (resistance-protein). Results: This work has successfully synthesized seven chalcone derivatives with a great antimalarial activity. It has been revealed that allyloxy, hydroxy and alkoxy functional groups could increase the antimalarial activity of the chalcone derivatives. The best antimalarial activity of the prepared compounds was possessed by 3b with an IC50 value of 0.59 μM and categorized as an excellent antiplasmodial. Molecular docking studies of 3b showed binding interaction with the amino acid residues such as Ala16, Ⅰle164, Phe58, Tyr170 of the 1J3Ⅰ.pdb protein and also Ala16, Phe58, Ⅰle112, Met55 of the 4DP3.pdb protein. Conclusions: An in vitro antimalarial assay of the prepared chalcone derivative (3a–g) showed an excellent and good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive Pf3D7 strain. In silico antimalarial studies revealed that 3a–g made binding interaction with both sensitive-protein (1J3Ⅰ.pdb) and resistance-protein (4DP3.pdb), which means that they were both active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant plasmodium strain.
    2  Comparison of microscopy and PCR for the detection of human Plasmodium species and Plasmodium knowlesi in southern Myanmar
    Thu Zar Han Kay Thwe Han Kyin Hla Aye Thaung Hlaing Kyaw Zin Thant Indra Vythilingam
    2017(8):680-685. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.004
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 943.39 K](97)
    Objectives: To determine the distribution of Plasmodium (P) species including Plasmodium knowlesi and to compare the specificity and sensitivity of microscopy with nested PCR in malaria diagnosis. Methods: The study was conducted in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar. Ninety clinically suspected malaria patients were screened for malaria by Giemsa stained microscopy and confirmed by nested PCR. Results: Among the participants, 57 (63.3%) were positive and 33 (36.7%) were negative by microscopy. Of positive samples, 39 (68.4%) were Plasmodium falciparum, 17 (29.8%) Plasmodium vivax and 1 (1.8%) Plasmodium malariae, whereas 59-amplified by PCR were 40 (67.8%), 18 (30.5%) and 1 (1.7%) respectively. PCR amplified 2 microscopy negative samples. Two samples of P. falciparum detected by microscopy were amplified as P. vivax and vice versa. All samples were negative for Plasmodium ovale, P. knowlesi and mixed infections. Microscopy had a very good measure of agreement (ĸ = 0.95) compared to nested PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of microscopy for diagnosis of P. falciparum were 92.5% (95% CI: 79.6–98.4) and 96.0% (95% CI: 86.3–99.5) respectively, whereas for P. vivax were 83.3% (95% CI: 58.6–96.4) and 97.2% (95% CI: 90.3–99.7). Conclusions: P. knowlesi was not detected by both microscopy and PCR. Giemsa stained microscopy can still be applied as primary method for malaria diagnosis and is considered as gold standard. As to the lower sensitivity of microscopy for vivax malaria, those with previous history of malaria and relapse cases should be diagnosed by RDT or PCR combined with microscopy. Inaccuracy of species diagnosis highlighted the requirement of training and refresher courses for microscopists.
    3  Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection of unvaccinated backyard chickens in Mandlhakazi, Southern Mozambique
    Paula Taunde Ana Felicidade Lucas Abel Chilundo Rosa Costa Custodio Gabriel Bila
    2017(8):686-688. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.008
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 212.15 K](94)
    Objective: To investigate serologically the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in backyard chickens from Mandlhakazi district, Southern Mozambique. Methods: A total of 439 sera samples from unvaccinated and apparently healthy backyard chickens from 4 villages (Chidenguele, Macuacua, Chizavane, and Nwadjahane) were tested for the presence of AIV antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kit used according to manufacturer instructions. Results: Anti-AIV antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The overall seroprevalence obtained was 32.6% (95% CI 28.2%–37.0%). The highest prevalence of 51.3% (95% CI 42.3%–60.2%) was recorded in Macuacua village, while the lowest prevalence of 13.0% (95% CI 6.2%–19.9%) was found in Chizavane village. The results of logistic regression analyses suggested that chicken being located in Chizavane and Macuacua villages were more unlikely for getting the virus exposure (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that AIV is widespread within backyard chickens in the studied villages. Further research is needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes and determine the potential role of backyard chickens in the zoonotic transmission of AIV in Mozambique.
    4  Construction and expression of a synthetic gene encoding nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 of dengue 2 virus in Pichia pastoris
    Fernita Puspasari Riski Dwimalida Putri Aisyah Raden Roro Rika Damayanti Anita Yuwita Bachti Alisjahbana Sukwan Handali Ihsanawati Dessy Natalia
    2017(8):689-693. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.017
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.64 M](102)
    Objectives: To express and characterize NS1 of Indonesian-specific DENV2 virus in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). Methods: A codon optimized synthetic gene derived from the DENV-2 NS1 amino acid sequences was synthesized commercially and inserted into the P. pastoris pPICZαA expression vector. The recombinant DENV-2 NS1 protein was purified by Ni-NTA af- finity chromatography, and its antigenicity was tested. Results: The recombinant DENV-2 NS1 protein was secreted as a protein with a molecular weight of ~45 kDa, and the optimal expression condition was achieved by induction with 2% (v/v) methanol for 72 h. The purified recombinant DENV-2 NS1 protein was able to interact with a monoclonal antibody of NS1 in a commercial rapid test. Conclusions: The resulting recombinant DENV-2 NS1 protein produced in P. pastoris KM71 is a potential candidate for use in the development of a dengue diagnostic kit and vaccine.
    5  Molecular characteristics, antibiogram and prevalence of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) isolated from milk obtained from culled dairy cows and from cows with acute clinical mastitis
    Zuhair Bani Ismail
    2017(8):694-697. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.005
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 228.78 K](96)
    Objectives: To study the molecular characteristics, antibiogram and prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MDRSA) isolated from milk obtained from culled dairy cows and from cows with acute clinical mastitis. Methods: Bacteria were cultured from 188 quarter milk samples obtained from cows before culling (n = 139) and from cows affected with acute mastitis (n = 49) belonging to 10 dairy farms. The bacteria were identified using colony morphology, Gram staining and biochemical characteristics. S. aureus isolates were then subjected to molecular characterization using PCR targeting 16S rRNA and mecA gene to identify Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The antibiogram of all isolates was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method against 10 commonly used antibiotics in dairy farms. Results: S. aureus was isolated from 19 (13.7%) samples obtained from culled cows and 11 (22.4%) samples obtained from cows with acute mastitis. In both culled cows and cows with acute mastitis, in vitro antibiogram revealed that 100% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to erythromycin, penicillin G, streptomycin, doxycyclin, and trimethoprim/ sulpha. The prevalence of MRSA in milk of culled cows and cows with acute mastitis was 26.3% and 18.2%, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 3.7% among all samples. All MRSA isolates were completely resistant to all tested antibiotics. All MRSA isolates were positive for the presence of the mecA gene. Conclusions: MRSA carrying the mecA gene were isolated from mastitic milk from dairy cows in Jordan for the first time. MRSA may pose a potential health risk to the public, farm workers and veterinarians.
    6  Direct detection of rpoB and katG gene mutations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples
    Sunil Pandey Ashima Lamichhane Anu Byanjankar Ansuma Kharel Chandrakala Rai Sunil Prasad Lekhak Menuka Karki
    2017(8):698-701. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.018
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 216.56 K](99)
    Objectives: To study the rpoB and katG gene mutation rate and its markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study methods were used to study Tuberculosis. A total of 45 sputum samples were collected from Annapurna Neurological Institute and Allied sciences. Then, acid fast bacilli staining were performed. Positive and negative samples were carried for conventional polymerase chain reaction identification and electrophoresis. Results: Out of 45 samples, 3 were acid fast bacilli positive and the rest were negative. Male participants were more as compare to female participants and the mutation in rpoB and katG gene was found similar i.e. 6.66% among the total samples. Conclusions: We can conclude that genetic mutation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be identified directly from the clinical samples. However, we have carried this study in less sample size and to validate research on large number of sample is recommended.
    7  Antioxidant antileishmanial cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of a local plant Myrtus nivellei from Algeria Sahara
    Farah Ramdane Rym Essid Nadia Fares Dahmane El Ouassis Sana Aziz Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed Mohamed Didi Ould Hadj Ferid Limam
    2017(8):702-707. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.011
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 264.96 K](99)
    Objective: To study the phytochemical constituents and in vitro biological activities of hydromethanolic extract and fractions from Algerian Sahara Myrtus nivellei (M. nivellei) collected in Hoggar region and to identify the active fraction that can act as an alternative of commonly used antibiotics and as antileishmanial or antioxidant agents. Methods: Phytochemical screening of M. nivellei aerial parts was realised according to the literature. Extract was firstly prepared by using aqueous methanol then fractionated with ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. Total phenolics, tannis and flavonoids, of the hydromethanolic extract and their fractions were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method as gallic acid equivalents and by aluminium chloride as rutin equivalent respectively. Extract and fractions were tested for their antimicrobial and antiparasital activities against standard bacteria using agar diffusion method and two kinds of leishmania visceral and cutaneous. The antioxidant activities were realized using phosphomolybdenum, FRAP and DPPH tests. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. The experimental results showed that plant extract and fractions were high in phenolic compounds and exhibited an important role as antioxidant, antimicrobial and had a moderate antileishmanial activity. Conclusions: These observations lead us toward more studies in this field, so that we can get more benefits from our local Algerian medicinal plants.
    8  Multidrug resistance extended spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producing Escherichia coli isolated from the environment of Bogor Slaughterhouse, Indonesia
    Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto Denny Widaya Lukman Trioso Purnawarman Hadri Latif Herwin Pisestyan Eddy Sukmawinata
    2017(8):708-711. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.012
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 216.11 K](101)
    Objective: To determine the multidrug resistance extended spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC (ESBL/AmpC producing) Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from the environment of Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia. Methods: A total of 35 samples from 7 locations in slaughterhouse i.e., source of water, slaughtering floor, swab of carcass area floor, swab of evisceration area floor, untreated waste water, treated waste water, drinking water for cattle were collected from March to April 2016. Presence of ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli and susceptibility testing against 8 antimicrobial agents (penicillin G, streptomycin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and polymyxin B) were detected by disk diffusion test according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were identified in 14.3% (5/35) of the collected samples from the environment of Bogor slaughterhouse. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates were detected in untreated waste water (n = 3), slaughtering floor (n = 1), and carcass area floor (n = 1). Most of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates (80%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes against at least three classes of antibiotics. The highest incidence of antibiotics resistance was against penicillin G (100.0%) and streptomycin (100.0%), followed by gentamicin (60.0%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (60.0%), tetracycline (40.0%), ciprofloxacin (40.0%), enrofloxacin (20.0%), and polymyxin B (0.0%). Conclusions: The transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria into the environment may be a potential risk for human health.
    9  Rourea cuspidata: Chemical composition and hypoglycemic activity
    Manuela M. Laikowski Paulo R. dos Santos Debora M. Souza Luciane Minetto Natalia Girondi Camila Pires Gisiele Alano Mariana Roesch-Ely Leandro Tasso Sidnei Moura
    2017(8):712-718. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.015
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 826.03 K](97)
    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic effect of Rourea cuspidata hydroalcoholic stem extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: In order to evaluate the chemical composition, different extracts from stem in ascending solvent order of polarity were prepared. The extracts were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry and 7 compounds were identified, including hyperin, an important and already reported active compound in the literature. Hyperin was also quantified by HPLC-UV in all the extracts. The hydroalcoholic stem extract (Ss5), which showed the highest concentration of hyperin, was administered to STZ-induced diabetes rats to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic activity. Total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, ALT and AST were also evaluated. In the present study, the effects of oral administration of hydroalcoholic stem extract (200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 28 days on the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats' pancreas were also studied. Results: The extract exposition demonstrated hypoglycemic effect like the drug control glibenclamide. The extract was able to increase the HDL levels. Histopathological study on diabetic rats' pancreas after extract treatment showed morphological alterations in STZ-induced diabetes rats, which were apparently restored after extract treatment. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the potential use of R. cuspidata as hypoglycemic agent in the treatment of diabetes.
    10  Assessment of pesticide contaminated sediment using biological response of tropical chironomid, Chironomus javanus Kiffer as biomarker
    Atcharaporn Somparn Chuleemas Boonthai Iwai Barry N. Noller
    2017(8):719-724. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.014
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 270.25 K](106)
    Objective: To investigate the use of a biomarker for assessment of the effects on the tropical chironomid, Chironomus javanus (C. javanus), Kiffer of sediment contaminated with an insecticide (chlorpyrifos). Methods: A wide range of biological responses to the tropical chironomid exposed were measured, including survival, growth rate and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Results: The measured median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) of chlorpyrifos to C. javanus was 0.056 (95% CI 0.024–0.124) μg/kg. For sub-chronic levels of chlorpyrifos between 0.001 and 0.25 μg/kg administered for 10 days, the effects on the growth of C. javanus were reduced (larva size, head structure width and dry weight) at the significance level (P < 0.01) and the effects were concentration dependent. Following exposure to chlorpyrifos at the level of 0.001 μg/kg for 48 and 96 h, the AChE activity in C. javanus was inhibited compared with control samples (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that C. javanus was sensitive when exposed to chlorpyrifos. This species could serve as a potential biomarker for assessing pesticide contamination at low environmental persistence and provides limited effects data on the sensitivity of tropical biota to contaminants for ecological risk assessment of organophosphate pesticides in the tropical aquatic ecosystem.
    11  Antibacterial activity of naringenin-rich fraction of pigeon pea leaves toward Salmonella thypi
    Sarifa Agus Suminar Setiati Achmadi Nisa Rachmania Mubarik
    2017(8):725-728. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.019
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 369.51 K](94)
    Objective: To identify bioactive compound in pigeon pea leaves (Cajanus cajan) that inhibits Salmonella thypi (S. thypi). Methods: The leaf sample was powdered and macerated with methanol and fractioned by liquid–liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. The fraction was chromatographed and the isolates were identified for major component with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antibacterial activity was tested against S. thypi by Kirby–Bauer method. Results: Subfraction 1 from the ethyl acetate fraction formed a yellowish solid with m/z 272, identified as naringenin. The naringenin-rich fraction shows fairly well inhibitory toward S. thypi in comparison with chloramphenicol. Conclusions: Naringenin shows antibacterial activity and can be developed to treat typhoid.
    12  Comparison study of anti-microbial activity between crude extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Andrographis paniculata
    Xin Qi Chuah Wenlynn Mun Swee Sen Teo
    2017(8):729-731. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.003
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 197.61 K](106)
    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii (K. alvarezii) and Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) and to compare the microbial inhibition activities between these two crude extracts. Methods: Both K. alvarezii and A. paniculata were extracted with methanol before the commencement of antimicrobial properties studies. There were a total of eight species of bacteria, including Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. The antimicrobial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. Results: Crude extract of K. alvarezii was found not effective against both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, A. paniculata showed higher inhibition towards the growth of Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Results revealed that Bacillus subtilis was susceptible at lower concentration of A. paniculata crude extract however Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most susceptible towards A. paniculata at higher concentration. Although the inhibition zones produced by the crude extract were smaller than that of the positive control, streptomycin disc, A. paniculata crude extract still can be considered as potential antimicrobial agents either because it is a natural product or the active compound which is yet identified from its crude extract. Conclusions: Crude extract of K. alvarezii has zero inhibition in bacteria growth whereas A. paniculata exerted higher inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria. The bioactive compounds contained by A. paniculata can be evaluated in order to yield a better vision towards the mode of action.
    13  In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antiangiogenic activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum extracts
    Zina A. Habib-Martin Hana M. Hammad Fatma U. Afifi Malek Zihlif Hamzeh J. Al-Ameer Mohanad M. Saleh Ismail F. Abaza Zeyad D. Nassar
    2017(8):732-738. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.013
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.00 M](101)
    Objective: To assess the antiangiogenic activity of fenugreek. Methods: Different fractions of fenugreek crude extracts were prepared and their antiangiogenic properties were assessed using the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay and in vivo chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. They were investigated for their direct cytotoxic activity in the MCF7 cells using the MTT assay. Results: The ethanol extract showed 100% inhibition of blood vessel outgrowth from primary tissue explants in the rat aortic ring assay at a concentration of 100 μg/mL while the other extracts did not show significant antiangiogenic activity. The ethanol extract was therefore investigated at varying concentrations and exhibited a significant dose dependent effect. The CAM assay coincided with the results of the aortic ring assay as ethanol extract showed a significant inhibition of formation of new blood vessels. The extracts only showed anti-proliferative activity at the highest concentration of 400 μg/mL towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines in the MTT assay. Conclusions: Findings of the both assays confirmed that the ethanol extract inhibited vascularization significantly. Further studies on the ethanol extract would be beneficial in isolating the active ingredient responsible for the inhibition.
    14  Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Secondatia floribunda A. DC (Apocynaceae)
    Daiany Alves Ribeiro Sarah Soares Damasceno Aline Augusti Boligon Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes Marta Maria de Almeida Souza José Galberto Martins da Costa
    2017(8):739-749. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.009
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.16 M](105)
    Objective: To establish the chemical profile, and to evaluate the antibacterial and modulatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of the stalk's inner bark and heartwood of Secondatia floribunda. Methods: Quantification of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by the FolinCiocalteu method and aluminum chloride, respectively. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD (High Performance Liquid ChromatographyDiodearray Detector) and the Infrared Spectroscopy was performed using the measure by Attenuated Total Reflectance with Fourier Transform (ATR-FTIR). Antibacterial assays for determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and modification of aminoglycosides were performed by microdilution. Results: Infrared spectra showed similar characteristics, having among its main absorption bands hydroxyl group (OH). The antibacterial activity showed clinically significant results for the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In modulation assay, synergic and antagonistic effect for both extracts was observed. Heartwood extract in combination with antibiotics showed a significant MIC reduction at 19.8% (P < 0.000 1)-79.3% (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study is the first report of chemical and biological information of Secondatia floribunda suggesting that it is clinically relevant source of a new antibacterial therapy, especially due to the presence of significant levels of phenolic compounds.
    15  Jamun (Syzygium cumini) seed and fruit extract attenuate hyperglycemia in diabetic rats
    Ahmad Raza Masood Sadiq Butt Iahtisham-Ul-Haq Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
    2017(8):750-754. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.006
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 218.77 K](139)
    Objective: To evaluate the potential of both jamun (Syzygium cumini) seed and fruit extracts against hyperglycemia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate hypoglycemic potential of jamun extracts. Purposely, jamun fruit and seed's ethanolic extracts based diets were provided to normal and high sucrose diet induced hyperglycemic/diabetic rats for sixty days. The serum glucose and insulin levels were monitored at monthly intervals to evaluate hypoglycemic effect of jamun extracts. Results: The results of instant research depicted that both seed and fruit extracts reduce the blood glucose level significantly and also regulate the insulin levels in hyperglycemic rats. It was noted that jamun fruit extract attenuated serum glucose levels to 5.35% and 12.29% in normal and hyperglycemic rats, respectively; while insulin levels were improved by 2.82% and 6.19%, correspondingly. Whereas, jamun seed extract reduced glucose to 7.04% & 14.36% and showed 3.56% & 7.24% higher insulin levels in normal & hyperglycemic rats, respectively. Conclusions: The present research revealed that both jamun fruit and seeds have potent prophylactic role against hyperglycemia. In this respect, diet based regimen may be tailored using jamun fruit/seed and their extracts to alleviate hyperglycemia.
    16  Antihyperglycemic effect of Ocimum plants: A short review
    Raiya Adiba Antora Rabeta Mohd Salleh
    2017(8):755-759. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.010
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 269.79 K](100)
    This present review provides information on the antihyperglycemic effect of the plants belonging to the genus Ocimum. The species of this genus which mostly show significant antihyperglycemic effects are Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum canum L. The results were shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The anti-hyperglycemic activities of different extracts from all these species are reported here. Aqueous extracts are common to show a satisfactory result for all the species. The results for ethanol, methanol, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether extracts, chloroform and hexane fraction of ethanol extract are also presented here. Some of the results showed a better effect than the standard medicine. Eugenol is the most important bioactive compound among all the components for reducing blood glucose level. Other components include polyphenols, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid compound and chichoric acid, which are reportedly found in these species. There are fewer studies performed to identify the phytochemical components which are responsible for these plants blood glucose, serum glucose and plasma glucose lowering effect. This review presents the studies which have been done lately to establish the antihyperglycemic effects of these plants with a view to identify the core components responsible for this activity in near future.
    17  Endometritis associated with Enterococcus casseliflavus in a mare: A case report
    Francesca Paola Nocera Chiara Papulino Chiara Del Prete Veronica Palumbo Maria Pia Pasolini Luisa De Martino
    2017(8):760-762. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.016
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 197.34 K](92)
    Infectious endometritis is one of the main causes of subfertility/infertility in the mare. In this report, we present the first case of endometritis in mare associated with a strain of Enterococcus casseliflavus, an unusual gram-positive bacterium which can also be a zoonotic agent. Furthermore, the isolated strain showed a worrying multidrug-resistant profile. The accurate finding of a successful antimicrobial treatment and consequently, the pregnancy diagnosis indicate the importance to isolate, identify and define the antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria associated with endometritis.
    18  Cleft analysis of Zika virus non-structural protein 1
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2017(8):763-764. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.07.007
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 167.26 K](90)
    The non-structural protein 1 is an important molecule of the viruses in flavivirus group including to Zika virus. Recently, the NS1 of Zika virus was discovered. There is still no complete information of the molecular interaction of NS1 of Zika virus which can be the clue for explanation for its pathogenesis and further drug search. Here the authors report the cleft analysis of NS1 of Zika virus and the result can be useful for future development of good diagnostic tool and antiviral drug finding for management of Zika virus.

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