Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  An in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Sutherlandia montana E. Phillips & R.A. Dyer leaf extracts
    Afolakemi Abibat Alimi Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
    2017(9):765-772. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.004
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 459.51 K](173)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Sutherlandia montana E. Phillips & R.A. Dyer leaf extracts using the in vitro model. Methods: The antioxidant activities of aqueous, decoction, ethanol and hydro-ethanol extracts of the plant were determined using seven different assays; the antidiabetic potential was evaluated through the inhibition of key carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), while the modes of the enzymes inhibition were assessed using enzyme kinetic analysis. Results: The ethanol extract exhibited the best scavenging activity (IC50: 0.47, 0.36, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.01 mg/mL) against the tested radicals like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2, 20 -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide anion, respectively. It also showed the best reducing power efficiency when compared with the standard (silymarin), while the decoction extract displayed the strongest metal chelating potential (IC50: 0.71 mg/mL). The ethanol (IC50: 5.52 mg/mL) and decoction (IC50: 0.05 mg/mL) extracts exhibited mild and strong inhibitory effects on the specific activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively, through an uncompetitive and non-competitive mode of action. Conclusions: The observed properties might be linked to the presence of active principles as shown by the results of the phytochemical analyses of the extracts. This research has validated the folkloric application of Sutherlandia montana as a potential antidiabetic agent, which is evident from the inhibition of specific activities of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
    2  Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves
    David Febrilliant Susanto Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta Arief Widjaja Setiyo Gunawan
    2017(9):773-781. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.001
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 847.16 K](104)
    Abstract:
    Objectives: To investigate the proximate composition, mineral content, and phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum (C. inophyllum) leaves. Moreover, isolation and identification of pyrene were also performed. Methods: C. inophyllum leaves were extracted with methanol by percolation methods. The proximate composition of C. inophyllum leaves was analyzed by standard methods. Mineral contents in this plant were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening and analysis of this plant were performed by spectrophotometric method. Washing method with carbon disulfide was used for isolating dihydropyrene compound from C. inophyllum leaves extracts. Results: The result revealed that C. inophyllum leaves contained 11.24% moisture, 4.75% ash, 6.43% crude protein, 23.96% crude fiber, 9.91% carbohydrate, and energy (79.17 kcal/100 g). The leaves also contained 0.007% iron, 1.240% calcium, 0.075% sodium, 0.195% magnesium, 0.100% ppm potassium, and 0.040% phosphorus. Moreover, 11.51% alkaloid, 2.48% triterpenoid, 2.37% flavonoid, 7.68% tannin, 2.16% saponin, 2.53% polyphenol, were identified in the methanolic crude extracts of C. inophyllum leaves. It was found that trans-2-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-10b, 10c-dimethyl-10b,10c-dihydropyrene was obtained at purity of 79.18% (22.17% yield) from C. inophyllum leaves. Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.
    3  In vitro assessment on medicinal properties and chemical composition of Michelia nilagirica bark
    Babu Venkatadri Ameer Khusro Chirom Aarti Marimuthu Ragavan Rameshkumar Paul Agastian
    2017(9):782-790. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.003
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 502.33 K](100)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To outline the antibacterial, antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibition and anticancer properties of Michelia nilagirica (M. nilagirica) bark extract. Methods: The antibacterial activity of bark extracts against human pathogens was assessed by disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical screening, total phenols, flavonoids content, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition properties of bark extracts were investigated by standard methods. In vitro anticancer activity of ethyl acetate extract at various concentrations was observed against HepG2 cells using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The presence of diverse bioactive constituents in the ethyl acetate extract was identified using FT-IR and GC–MS analysis. Results: Ethyl acetate extract was found to be the promising agent against human pathogens tested. The ethyl acetate extracts showed the presence of various phytochemicals and comprised the substantial content of phenolics and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate extract showed better antioxidant activities and also revealed remarkable reducing power ability and α-glucosidase inhibition property. The dose dependent assay of extract showed remarkable cancer cell death with IC50 value of (303.26 ± 2.30) μg/mL. FTIR and GC–MS results indicated the presence of major bioactive constituents in the ethyl acetate extract of M. nilagirica bark. Conclusions: Revealing the first report on in vitro biological properties and chemical composition analysis of M. nilagirica bark extract, our study implied that this plant could be of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries.
    4  Acaricidal activity of Derris floribunda essential oil and its main constituent
    Ana Claudia Fernandes Amaral Aline de S. Ramos Marcia Reis Pena Jose Luiz Pinto Ferreira Jean Michel S. Menezes Geraldo J.N. Vasconcelos Neliton Marques da Silva Jefferson Rocha de Andrade Silva
    2017(9):791-796. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.006
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 387.24 K](100)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil obtained from roots of Derris floribunda (D. floribunda) (Miq.) Benth, and its main constituent nerolidol against the Mexican mite Tetranychus mexicanus (T. mexicanus) (McGregor). Methods: The essential oil from the roots of D. floribunda collected in the Amazon region (Brazil) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Its chemical composition was determined by GC–MS analysis. The acaricidal activities of this essential oil and nerolidol, were evaluated by recording the number of dead females (mortality) and eggs (fertility). Results: The essential oil showed sesquiterpenes as major volatile components. Nerolidol, the main component, represented 68.5% of the total composition of the essential oil. D. floribunda essential oil and nerolidol showed acaricidal activity, with LC50 of 9.61 μg/mL air and 9.2 μg/mL air, respectively, over a 72 h period. In addition, both the essential oil and nerolidol significantly reduced the fecundity of T. mexicanus. Conclusions: Due to the economic importance of T. mexicanus and the lack of new pesticides, our data are very promising in the search for efficient and safer acaricidal products. Furthermore, this is the first report about the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil of the Amazon plant species D. floribunda.
    5  Nrf2 activator corosolic acid meliorates alloxan induced diabetic nephropathy in mice
    Priti S. Tidke Chandragouda R. Patil
    2017(9):797-804. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.010
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 748.78 K](109)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine whether corosolic acid (CA) targeting nuclear protein expression of Nrf2 activation can be used to attenuate renal damage and preserve renal function in alloxan diabetic mice. Methods: A mouse model with diabetic nephropathy was established to examine the Nrf2 expression. Mice were randomly divided into control, diabetic control, and CA groups treated at 0.4 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg p.o. for 8 weeks. Diabetes was induced in mice by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan 200 mg/kg in all groups except the control. The mice with fasting blood glucose level over 200 mg/dL were considered as diabetic and were employed in the study. After 4th and 8th weeks, urine samples were collected (using metabolic cages) to measure protein and urea. Animals were euthanized, and serum samples were collected to estimate the glucose, creatinine, total protein, urea and blood urea nitrogen. Kidney was isolated at the end of experiment for histology to evaluate anti-oxidant parameters. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the Nrf2 expression. Results: CA treatment showed dose dependent reduction in level of biochemical parameters in serum and urine. CA group (10 mg/kg) showed significantly higher body weight and reduced kidney weight. Histopathological examination revealed reduced inflammation, collagen deposition and glomerulosclerosis in renal tissue. CA attenuated renal dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammatory pro-cytokine levels. Conclusions: CA treatment exhibited ameliorative effect on kidney in mice with its enhanced Nrf2 expression.
    6  Comparison of electrochemiluminescence and ELISA methods in the detection of blood borne pathogens in Gabon
    Cyrille Bisseye Jophrette Mireille Ntsame Ndong Anicet Mouity Matoumba Calixte Bengone Guy Mouelet Migolet Bolni Marius Nagalo
    2017(9):805-808. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.008
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 284.02 K](104)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the performances of Cobas 6000 e601 and EVOLIS BioRad in the detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in blood donors in Libreville (Gabon). Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in July 2017 in a total of 2 000 blood donors recruited at the National Blood transfusion Center, Libreville Gabon. Among them, 363 donors were selected to compare the performances of COBAS 6000 e601 (electro-chemiluminescence) and EVOLIS BioRad in detecting HIV, HBV and HCV using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: Both methods yielded similar results for the detection of HIV and HBsAg. A very good agreement of 93.39% and an excellent agreement of 98.90% were obtained for the detection of HIV and HbsAg, with kappa values of 0.80 and 0.98, respectively. The observed agreement of 91.86% was found for the detection of HCV, which gave a fair agreement between the two methods with kappa = 0.33. Conclusions: The two evaluation methods showed a similar performance in the detection of HIV, HBV. However, given the high rate of intra and inter-genotypes recombination known for HIV and HBV, more robust techniques of detection such as polymerase chain reaction should be used to prevent post-transfusion contaminations.
    7  Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid induced sperm abnormalities and histopathological changes in mice
    Maha A. Fahmy Ayman A. Farghaly Enayat A. Omara Zeinab M. Hassan Fawzia A.E. Aly Souria M. Donya Aziza A.E. Ibrahim Elsayed M. Bayoumy
    2017(9):809-816. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.002
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.56 M](103)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the genotoxic potential and histopathological changes induced in liver, kidney, testis, brain and heart after using the antibiotic drug amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1). Methods: The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in bone-marrow and mouse spermatocytes, induction of sperm morphological abnormalities and histopathological changes in different body organs. The drug was administrated orally at a dose of 81 mg/kg body weight twice daily (Total = 162 mg/kg/day) for various periods of time equivalent to 625 mg/men (twice daily). Results: The results revealed non-significant chromosomal aberrations induced after treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AC) in both bone marrow and mouse spermatocytes after 7 and 10 days treatment. On the other hand, statistically significant percentages of sperm morphological abnormalities were recorded. Such percentage reached 8.10 ± 0.55, 9.86 ± 0.63 and 12.12 ± 0.58 at the three time intervals tested (7, 14 and 35 days after the 1st treatment respectively) (treatment performed for 5 successive days) compared with 2.78 ± 0.48 for the control. The results also revealed histopathological changes in different body organs after AC treatment which increased with the prolongation of the period of therapy. Congestion of central vain, liver hemorrhage and hydropic changes in hepatocytes were noticed in the liver. Degenerative changes were found in kidney glomerulus and tubules while testis showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and reduction of spermatogenesis. AC also induced neurotoxicity and altered brain neurotransmitter levels. Hemorrhage in the myocardium, disruption of cardiac muscle fibers and pyknotic nuclei in cardiomyocytes were recorded as side effects of AC in heart tissue. Conclusions: The results concluded that AC treatment induced sperm morphological abnormalities and histopathological changes in different body organs. Clinicians must be aware of such results while describing the drug.
    8  Antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties of two medicinal plants against the wound infecting bacteria
    Idowu Jonas Sagbo Anthony Jide Afolayan Graeme Bradley
    2017(9):817-825. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.009
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 293.39 K](100)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties of ethanol extracts of Brachylaena elliptica and Brachylaena ilicifolia against wound infecting bacteria normally found in diabetic patients. Methods: The in vitro antioxidant activity of the two plants extracts were investigated spectrophotometrically using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, azino-bis (3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric reducing power. The antibacterial assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the agar dilution method against five bacteria strains using amoxycillin and ciprofloxacin as positive control. The phytochemical analyses (tannins, total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidin, alkaloids and saponins) were assessed using standard methods. Results: The ethanol extract of both plants exhibited strong antioxidant activities in some cases when compared to the standards (vitamin C and BHT). The antibacterial activity of both plants showed an appreciable broad spectrum activity against these wound pathogens with MIC value ranges between 0.3 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Tannins, phenols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins and alkaloids content of B. ilicifolia were significantly higher than those in B. elliptica. However, there were no significant differences in the flavanoid content of both plants extracts. Conclusions: These results indicated that the ethanol leaf extracts of these plants have antioxidant and antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria possibly due to the presence of bioactive compounds and therefore could be used as alternative therapy against wound infection caused by these bacteria in diabetic patients.
    9  Isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from clinical samples: An investigation of patterns motility and production of melanin pigment
    Rabeeh Izadi Amoli Jamileh Nowroozi Azar Sabokbar Ramazan Rajabniya
    2017(9):826-830. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.012
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 334.00 K](100)
    Abstract:
    Objectives: To investigate possible sources of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) in the clinical environment. Methods: Different samples were collected from Amol City of Iran. Steps for the identification of S. maltophilia included culturing, biochemical tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 16S rRNA gene and 23S rRNA gene. In addition, production of melanin pigment and patterns of motility of the bacteria, were also investigated. Results: In our study, 20 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from clinical sources, oxygen manometer apparatus of hospitals were 7/110 (6.36%), blood was 1/777 (0.13%), sputum was 4/40 (4%), urine was 1/2 947 (0.03%), tap water was 1/240 (0.42%) and dental suction was 6/120 (5%). The isolated bacteria showed production of melanin pigment with rates of strong, moderate, weak, and lack of pigment. Types of motilities were seen in isolates. Conclusions: The highest percentage of bacteria is isolated of oxygen manometer system and dental suction, yet has not been reported from oxygen manometer system. These bacteria have also been associated with patients who have respiratory problems, so it is essential for staffs of hospitals to draw attention to this source of bacteria.
    10  An update on Gardneralla vaginalis associated bacterial vaginosis in Malaysia
    Nada Khairi Younus Renu Gopinath Ravindran Jegasothy Syafinaz Amin Nordin Alex van Belkum Narcisse Mary Vasantha Kumari Neela
    2017(9):831-835. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.011
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 237.71 K](92)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To update the status of Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) as a causative agent of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Malaysia and to define its epidemiology, metronidazole resistance and virulence properties. Methods: It is a single-centre (Gynaecology clinic at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) prospective study with laboratory-based microbiological follow up and analyses. Vaginal swabs collected from the patients suspected for BV were subjected to clinical BV diagnosis, isolation and identification of G. vaginalis, metronidazole susceptibility testing, vaginolysin and sialidase gene PCR, Piot's biotyping and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotyping. Results: Among the 207 patients suspected for BV, G. vaginalis was isolated from 47 subjects. G. vaginalis coexisted with Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans in 26 samples. Three G. vaginalis isolates were resistant to metronidazole. Biotyping revealed 1 and 7 as the common types. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotype Ⅱ was found to be more common (n = 22; 46%) than Ⅰ (n = 12; 25.53%) and Ⅲ (n = 13; 27.6%). All genotype Ⅰ and Ⅲ isolates carried the sialidase gene, while 91.6% and 84.6% contained the vaginolysin gene. Genotype Ⅰ was significantly associated with postgynaecological surgical complications and abortions (P = 0.002). Conclusions: The existence of pathogenic G. vaginalis clones in Malaysia including drug resistant strains should not be taken lightly and needs to be monitored as these may bring more complications especially among women of child bearing age and pregnant women.
    11  LC–MS characterization, anti-kinetoplastide and cytotoxic activities of natural products from Eugenia jambolana Lam. and Eugenia uniflora
    Celestina Elba Sobral de Souza Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva Janaina Esmeraldo Rocha Maria Celeste Vega Gomez Míriam Rolom Cathia Coronel José Galberto Martins da Costa Manoel L.C. Netto Larissa A. Rolim Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
    2017(9):836-841. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.007
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 286.71 K](114)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) and Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) extracts and fractions. Methods: The products were characterized by LC–MS. Antiparasitic assays were performed and cytotoxicity was evaluated in fibroblastos. In vitro assays were performed using spectrophotometric evaluation. All assays were performed in thrice. Results: The results showed that the extracts and the tannic fraction from E. jambolana inhibited 100% of the epimastigote lines. The ethanolic extract was the most efficient in all concentrations tested against the three parasite strains. In the cytotoxicity assay the flavonoid fraction showed low toxicity. All E. uniflora samples showed cytotoxicity at the highest concentration tested, but the extract showed no toxic effect on the fibroblasts at the lowest concentration. The flavonoid and tannic fractions were more efficient against Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes compared to the extract. However, the extracts and the tannic fraction were more effective against Leishmania infantum strains. The effect on epimastigote cells was observed at all concentrations tested, with all E. uniflora samples. However, the samples were more effective at the highest concentration, where there was inhibition in 100% of the Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Conclusions: The species E. jambolana and E. uniflora presented antiparasitic activity against all tested parasite strains, indicating that these species can serve as an alternative therapy as they were efficient in the tests performed. The E. uniflora extract and the E. jambolana flavonoid fraction presented a low cytotoxicity, opening the floor for new biological studies.
    12  ʟ-theanine: A potential multifaceted natural bioactive amide as health supplement
    Rajsekhar Adhikary Vivekananda Mandal
    2017(9):842-848. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.005
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 291.29 K](97)
    Abstract:
    Natural bioactive compounds from plants are of great importance in modern therapeutics, which are used to prepare antibiotics, growth supplements or some other therapeutics. ʟ-theanine is such a bioactive amide amino acid presented in different plants and fungi, especially in tea. Theanine has influential effects on lifestyle associated diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, stress relief, tumor suppression, menstruation and liver injury. This amino acid can maintain normal sleep and improve memory function and nullify effect of the neurotoxins. The rate of bioavailability and its medium of ingestion in the body is one of the great concerns for its additional antioxidant properties. Pharmacokinetics of the bioactive compound and its mode of action are described herewith. The biosynthesis and industrial synthesis are also reviewed to promote accelerated production of this bioactive compound in the pharmaceutical industries.

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