Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 10,2018 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Beneficial effects of anthocyanins against diabetes mellitus associated consequences-A mini review
    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Periyanaina Kesika Kumaresan Subasankari Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
    2018(10):471-477. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.244137
    [Abstract](105) [HTML](0) [PDF 284.75 K](226)
    Anthocyanins (ACN) are water-soluble pigments, belonging to flavonoids, and are present in almost all fruits, and vegetables at varying concentration. About 635 ACN were distinguished based on the position and number of methoxyl and hydroxyl moieties in the basic structure of ACN. Pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin are extensively studied anthocyanidins. The absorption, bioavailability, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, molecular mechanism, and analytical techniques of several phytochemicals were described. The biological benefits (antidiabetic, anti-neuro-disorder, anti-cardiovascular diseases, anti-gastrointestinal diseases, and disorders) of flavonoids and ACN have been reported. Several in vitro, and in vivo reports demonstrated that ACN-rich plant extracts ameliorate the diabetes-associated consequences by reducing the glucose absorption, ROS production, oxidative stress, glomerular angiogenesis, lipid synthesis, and FoxO1 and adipose triglyceride lipase expressions, and improve the insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, glucose uptake, glucose consumption, antioxidant activity. The literature search was made in Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed using the keywords “anthocyanin” and “diabetes”. The documents were carefully checked for the relevance to the current manuscript and the selection was made without any chronological restriction. The present manuscript summarizes the updated reports on antihyperglycemic properties of ACN.
    2  Does prospective permutation scan statistics work well with cutaneous leishmaniais as a high-frequency or malaria as a low-frequency infection in Fars province, Iran
    Abbas Rezaianzadeh Marjan Zare Hamidreza Tabatabaee Mohsen Ali-Akbarpour Hossain Faramarzi Mostafa Ebrahimi
    2018(10):478-484. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.244138
    [Abstract](110) [HTML](0) [PDF 313.54 K](205)
    Objective: To determine whether permutation scan statistics was more efficient in finding prospective spatial-temporal outbreaks for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) or for malaria in Fars province, Iran in 2016. Methods: Using time-series data including 29 177 CL cases recorded during 2010-2015 and 357 malaria cases recorded during 2010-2015, CL and malaria cases were predicted in 2016. Predicted cases were used to verify if they followed uniform distribution over time and space using space-time analysis. To testify the uniformity of distributions, permutation scan statistics was applied prospectively to detect statistically significant and non-significant outbreaks. Finally, the findings were compared to determine whether permutation scan statistics worked better for CL or for malaria in the area. Prospective permutation scan modeling was performed using SatScan software. Results: A total of 5 359 CL and 23 malaria cases were predicted in 2016 using time-series models. Applied time-series models were well-fitted regarding auto correlation function, partial auto correlation function sample/model, and residual analysis criteria (Pv was set to 0.1). The results indicated two significant prospective spatial-temporal outbreaks for CL (P<0.5) including Most Likely Clusters, and one non-significant outbreak for malaria (P>0.5) in the area. Conclusions: Both CL and malaria follow a space-time trend in the area, but prospective permutation scan modeling works better for detecting CL spatial-temporal outbreaks. It is not far away from expectation since clusters are defined as accumulation of cases in specified times and places. Although this method seems to work better with finding the outbreaks of a high-frequency disease; i.e., CL, it is able to find non-significant outbreaks. This is clinically important for both high- and low-frequency infections; i.e., CL and malaria.
    3  Effect of extracts from Stachys sieboldii Miq. on cellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione production and genomic DNA oxidation
    JW Lee W Wu SY Lim
    2018(10):485-489. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.244139
    [Abstract](88) [HTML](0) [PDF 304.53 K](197)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions from Stachys sieboldii Miq., and to examine its effect on the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) production and genomic DNA oxidation in HT-1080 cells. Methods: The ROS generation induced by H2O2 was measured by the dichlorofluorescein-diacetate assay. GSH levels were measured using a fluorescent method with mBBr. Genomic DNA oxidative damage was measured with levels of oxidative DNA induced by the reaction of ferritin with H2O2. Results: The n-hexane, 85% aqueous methanol and n-butanol fractions (0.05 mg/mL concentrations) inhibited H2O2-induced ROS generation by 63%, 35% and 45%, respectively. GSH levels were significantly increased in both acetone+methylene chloride and methanol extracts (P<0.05). Supplementation of cells with n-hexane significantly increased GSH levels at concentrations of 0.05 mg/mL (P<0.05). Both the acetone+methylene chloride and methanol extracts, as well as all fractions significantly inhibited oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that cellular oxidation was inhibited by the n-hexane fraction and this fraction may contain valuable active compounds.
    4  Eicosane, pentadecane and palmitic acid: The effects in in vitro wound healing studies
    Xin Qi Chuah Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu Farahnaz Amini Swee Sen Teo
    2018(10):490-499. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.244158
    [Abstract](95) [HTML](0) [PDF 436.16 K](238)
    Objective: To examine the wound healing properties of eicosane, pentadecane and palmitic acid by evaluating in term of anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, proliferation, migration and collagen synthesis. Methods: Anti-microbial activities of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by carrying out disk diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Growth rate of tested bacteria was also evaluated for 8 h in conjunction with the sample drugs. Besides, U937 cell lines were used as model study for real- time mRNA genes expression studies of TNF-a and IL-12 under the treatment. Proliferation, migration and collagen content synthesis were carried out on human dermal fibroblast. Results: None of the sample drugs possessed significant inhibition of bacteria tested in this study both in disk diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. In contrary, significantly low expressed mRNA gene expression levels of TNF-a and IL-12 were found under the treatment of respective drugs. Meanwhile in proliferation, migration and hydroxyproline content analysis, all the sample drugs showed no significant positive stimulation. Conclusions: This study therefore explains that apart from their potential in downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, these three compounds which were examined individually may not be good candidates in promoting wound healing.
    5  Phytochemical composition of Caesalpinia crista extract as potential source for inhibiting cholinesterase and β-amyloid aggregation: Significance to Alzheimers disease
    Kolambe Rajappa Chethana Balappa Somappa Sasidhar Mahadeva Naika Rangappa Sangappa Keri
    2018(10):500-512. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.244159
    [Abstract](69) [HTML](0) [PDF 490.74 K](164)
    Objective: To screen plant extract fractions and elucidate the components present in Caesalpinia crista (C. crista) leaves for cholinergic and anti-amyloidogenic activities for the treatment of Alzheimer’s diseases. Methods: This work has been carried out to study the action of C. crista extracts from nonpolar to polar solvents toward inhibition of oxidative stress, cholinergic and amyloidosis. The antioxidant activity was studied using DPPH total antioxidant assay; cholinergic assay by Ellman’s method and anti-amyloidogenic assay by thioflavin-T fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The quantification of polyphenols was carried out following C. crista methanolic extract (CCMeOH) HPLC fingerprinting, along with LC-MS and elucidated by MS LAMPS database. GC-MS of CCMeOH was screened for potential moieties. In vitro experimental results showed that the CCMeOH was potential extract that exhibited active inhibition of antioxidant property, cholinergic enzymes acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. For anti-amyloidogenic evaluations, among all the extracts, the CCMeOH was found to have the potential toward inhibiting the oligomers, fibrillation of Aβ42 with good defibrillation of amyloid cascading properties. Conclusions: These results are also supported by the presence of polyphenols as the active ingredients. Multi-potent target drug therapy is a promising option in treating the Alzheimer’s diseases. Methanolic extract of C. crista shows potential activity against cholinergic enzymes, Aβ42 aggregation with antioxidant activity.
    6  Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plant Aloe vera: Isolation, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity assays and taxonomic study
    Ahmed Nafis Ayoub Kasrati Asma Azmani Yedir Ouhdouch Lahcen Hassani
    2018(10):513-518. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.244160
    [Abstract](80) [HTML](0) [PDF 320.45 K](183)
    Objective: To explore the new sources of novel bioactive compounds having pharmaceutical and agricultural interest and to search the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants. Methods: NAF-1 an endophyte actinobacteria was isolated from leaves of medicinal plant Aloe vera collected in Marrakesh, Morocco using Bennett agar as selective medium. NAF-1 was tested for its antimicrobial activity against five pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus PIC 53156, Micrococcus luteus ATCC381, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 14579, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50090 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and four human clinic fungi belonging to the Candida, Aspergillus and Microsporum genera. Several antioxidant activities were studied such as DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene and linoleic acid and reducing power assays. The total of phenol and flavonoid was also calculated. Using Artemia salina shrimp assay, the cytotoxicity of NAF-1 crude extract was determined. Results: The results revealed that the actinobacteria showed a high activity (≥20 mm) against only Gram positive bacteria but it had a moderate activity (between 13 and 15 mm) against Human clinic fungi. The isolate also exhibited a LD50 of 14.20 μg/mL in the cytotoxicity assay. The result showed that the crude extract presented an interesting free radical-scavenging activity with IC50 value of (5.58 ± 0.26) μg/mL and a high value of phenolic and flavonoid compounds with (15.41 ± 0.18) μg GAE/mg extract and (11.41± 0.06) μg QE/mg extract respectively. Moreover, the taxonomic position of our endophyte actinobacteria using the morphological and physiological criteria and using 16S rRNA gene sequence (polyphasic approach) showed that the NAF-1 isolate was similar to Streptomyces hydrogenans which was never described as an endophyte actinobacteria. Conclusions: This isolated strain appears promising resources of bioactive agents and can be exploited to produce therapeutic agents active against pathogenic disease.

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