Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2018 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Comparison of antioxidant capacity and a-glucosidase inhibitory activity between bitter melon (Momordica charanti) fruit and leaf extract
    Eun-Sun Hwang
    2018(4):189-193. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231280
    [Abstract](133) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.34 M](445)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the physiologically active substances, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in vitro of bitter melon fruit and leaf extract. Methods: Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured using spectrophotometrically by gallic acid and catechin standard curves, respectively. The radical-scavenging potential of bitter melon fruit and leaf extract were measured by DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power and anti-diabetic ability was evaluated by a-glucosidase activity. Results: It was confirmed that the bitter melon leaf contained more total polyphenols and flavonoids than bitter melon fruits. Bitter melon leaf extract contained 2.8-fold and 4.9-fold higher total polyphenols and flavonoids than bitter melon fruits, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of bitter melon leaf was 5.81- and 5.70-fold higher than that of the bitter melon frui, based on 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL of the extract, respectively. In ABTS, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power, the bitter melon leaf extract all showed higher antioxidant capacity than the bitter melon fruit. Bitter melon fruit showed 2.52- and 2.63-fold higher a-glucosidase inhibitory activity than bitter melon leaf extract at 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our results, bitter melon may improve antidiabetic effects by upreguating a-glycosidase activity. Even, bitter melon leaf extract shows higher antioxidant potential than its fruit but bitter melon leaf extract does not show higher a-glucosidase inhibitory potential than bitter melon fruit. The overall results support that bitter melon fruit and leaf may have specific target effects on antidiabetic and antioxidant, respectively.
    2  Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva
    DF. Buccini AA. Nunes GGO. Silva ON. Silva OL. Franco SE. Moreno
    2018(4):194-200. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231281
    [Abstract](76) [HTML](0) [PDF 14.21 M](311)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities and the toxic effects of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva for elucidating the modulation mechanism between arthropod saliva and host. Methods: For saliva collection, engorged ticks were obtained from a controlled bovine infestation and collected by natural fall. The ticks were fixed and injected pilocarpine 0.2% for induction of salivation. Saliva was collected, lyophilized and stored at - 80°C. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by the hemolysis method (25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 g/mL) and MTT cell viability assay (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the method of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity of mice at doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg; antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, and formalin-induced paw-licking in mice at dose of 15 mg/kg. Results: Saliva did not cause erythrocytes hemolysis at any concentration tested, as well as did not decrease cell viability in the MTT assay. Saliva inhibited neutrophil migration by 87% and 73% at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In the nociceptive tests, saliva presented analgesic activity of 69.96% in the abdominal writhing test, and of 84.41% in the formalin test. Conclusions: The study proves that Rhipicephalus microplus saliva has significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The data presented herein support the development of further studies to elucidate the active principles of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva and its mechanism of action and, in future, to develop novel anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.
    3  Physicochemical properties, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of coumarin-carbonodithioate hybrids
    Suresh S. Kumbar Kallappa M. Hosamani Arun K. Shettar
    2018(4):201-206. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231282
    [Abstract](99) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.51 M](308)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study physicochemical properties, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of coumarin-carbonodithioate hybrids. Methods: The substituted 4-bromomethyl coumarins were synthesized in first step by the cyclization. Then the reaction of substituted coumarins (a-e) with potassium O-ethyl/methyl carbonodithioate (1) by using absolute ethanol as solvent, afforded coumarin-carbonodithioate (1a-1j) derivatives under microwave irradiation and the conventional method. The spectroscopic analysis was used for the characterization of coumarin derivatives. The title (1a-1j) compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant property was evaluated by using DPPH free radical-scavenging ability assay method and anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by protein denaturation procedure using diclofenac sodium as a standard. Drug-likeness. In-silico toxicity was predicted with LD50 value and bioactivity score was also calculated for all the compounds.Results: All coumarin (1a-1j) compounds exhibited promising in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in comparison to standard drugs. All tested compounds were used for evaluating their physicochemical properties as set by Lipinski rule. It was observed that the synthesized compounds followed rule of five, indicating more ‘drug-like’ nature. Conclusions: All the screened coumarin-carbonodithioates display promising in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From the physicochemical properties of coumarin derivatives, it is found that none of the compounds violate the Lipinski rule and they fall well in the range of rule of five. It is concluded that the coumarin-carbonodithioate hybrids act with more ‘drug-like’ nature.
    4  Phenological stage effect on phenolic composition and repellent potential of Mentha pulegium against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne
    Nidhal Salem Jazia Sriti Olfa Bachrouch Kamel Msaada Saber Khammassi Majdi Hammami Saoussen Selmi Emna Boushih Marwa Ouertani Nesrine Hachani Manef Abderraba Brahim Marzouk Ferid Limam Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemaa
    2018(4):207-216. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231283
    [Abstract](84) [HTML](0) [PDF 382.90 K](300)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To elucidate for the first time the phenological stage effect on polyphenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) as well as their antioxidant capacities and insecticidal potentials against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne. Methods: Crude methanol extracts from pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) aerial parts were evaluated for their antiradical, reducing power activities and repellent potentials against selected coleopteran insects during different phenological stages. Results: Phenolic contents of pennyroyal aerial parts and their antioxidant effects were significantly dependent on maturity stage of the plant. The maximum of phenol production was reached during the full flowering stage. Apigenin was the major phenol in Mentha pulegium with an amount of 6.01 mg/g of dry vegetable matter during this period. Nevertheless, at fructification stage, the highest antioxidant activity was not related to high phenolic content. The repulsive effect of pennyroyal extract showed that Lasioderma serricorne was more susceptible to pennyroyal extract than Tribolium castaneum with corresponding median repellent dose values of 0.124 and 0.006 mg/mL respectively. Moreover, great differences in insect repulsion depending on extract concentrations, exposure time and developmental stage was observed. For the lowest concentration (0.125 mg/mL), the repellent effect against Tribolium reached its maximum (90%) during the fructification stage (after 24 h of exposure) while this repellent effect was 80% during the vegetative stage. Conclusions: Due to the strong insecticidal potential of pennyroyal extracts, this study highlights the therapeutic properties of this plant and encourages its use as a safer, environmental-friendly and efficient insecticide in food industry.
    5  Efficacies of four plant essential oils as larvicide, pupicide and oviposition deterrent agents against dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Aksorn Chantawee Mayura Soonwera
    2018(4):217-225. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231284
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 362.73 K](339)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of four plant essential oils from Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd rhizome, Anethum graveolens L. (An. graveolens) fruit, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruit, and Pimpinella anisum L. fruit against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: Four essential oils at 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations were assessed for insecticidal activity against larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti, following the procedure of a dipping method assay. Oviposition deterrent activity of four essential oils was evaluated on gravid female of Ae. aegypti by a dual-choice oviposition bioassay. Results: The results revealed that An. graveolens oil provided the strongest larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti among four tested plant essential oils with the highest mortality rate of 100% and LC50 value of -0.3%. From the pupicidal experiment, An. graveolens also showed the highest toxicity against Ae. aegypti pupae with the highest mortality rate of 100% at 72 h and LC50 value of 2.9%. In addition, 10% An. graveolens had an oviposition deterrent effect against Ae. aegypti with effective repellency of 100% and an oviposition activity index of –1.0. Conclusions: An. graveolens oil has a good potential as a larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent agent for controlling Ae. aegypti.
    6  Proteomic approach in human health and disease: Preventive and cure studies
    Khaled MM. Koriem
    2018(4):226-236. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231285
    [Abstract](90) [HTML](0) [PDF 346.82 K](307)
    Abstract:
    Proteomic is a branch of science that deals with various numbers of proteins where proteins are essential human constituents. Proteomic has a lot of functions inside the human and animal living organisms. This review helps to make a thought on the importance of proteomic application in human health and disease with special reference to preventive and cure studies. The human health can be divided into physical and mental health. The physical health relates to keeping human body state in a good health and to nutritional type and environmental factors. The mental health correlates to human psychological state. The main factors that affect the status of human health are human diet, exercise and sleep. The healthy diet is very important and needs to maintain the human health. The training program exercise improves human fitness and overall health and wellness. The sleep is a vital factor to sustain the human health. The human disease indicates abnormal human condition which influences the specific human part or the whole human body. There are external and internal factors which induce human disease. The external factors include pathogens while internal factors include allergies and autoimmunity. There are 4 principle types of human diseases: (1) infectious disease, (2) deficiency disease, (3) genetic disease and (4) physiological disease. There are many and various external microbes’ factors that induce human infectious disease and these agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The lack of necessary and vital dietary rudiments such as vitamins and minerals is the main cause of human deficiency disease. The genetic disease is initiated by hereditary disturbances that occur in the human genetic map. The physiological disease occurs when the normal human function body is affected due to human organs become malfunction. In conclusion, proteomic plays a vital and significant role in human health and disease.

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