Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2019 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Spatial distribution and infection rate of leishmaniasis vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae)in Ardabil Province, Northwest of Iran
    Eslam Moradi-Asl Yavar Rassi Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Abedin Saghafipour
    2019(5):181-187. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.258997
    [Abstract](87) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.19 M](693)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the spatial distribution and infection rate of sand flies as vectors of Leishmania parasite in Ardabil province, northwest of Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sand flies were collected from 30 areas in all 10 districts of Ardabil province during 2017. The specimens were caught using the sticky traps. The head and genitalia of sand flies were separated and mounted in Berlese solution for microscopic identification. The Geographical Information System ArcMap10.4.1 software was used to provide the spatial maps. Results: A total of 2 794 sand flies specimens were collected and 22 species of sand flies were identified from the two genera: Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia from Ardabil province. The highest frequency was found in Phlebotomus papatasi (23.7%) followed by Phlebotomus kandelakii (13.0%). The promastigote form of Leishmania infantum parasite has been reported from the three main vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (Phlebotomus kandelakii, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and Phlebotomus tobbi) from Ardabil province, where the spatial distribution map of these visceral leishmaniasis vectors was prepared. Some important species of sand flies such as Phlebotomus kandelakii, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and Phlebotomus tobbi were reported and identified as main and probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Ardabil. Conclusions: According to the Geographic Information System based maps, the frequency of the sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors, the leishmania parasite infection rate and the prevalence of the disease in the central areas of Ardabil province are higher than in other areas in Ardabil province.
    2  p-Coumaric acid ameliorates ethanol-induced kidney injury by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB signaling in rats
    Ramakrishnan Sabitha Kumari Nishi Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran Govindhan Annamalai Balupillai Agilan Mathan Ganeshan
    2019(5):188-195. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.258998
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.20 M](847)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the effects of p-coumaric acid on ethanol-induced kidney injury in Swiss Wistar rats. Methods: Ethanol (25% v/v) was used to induce nephrotoxicity in rats. p-Coumaric acid was orally administered at 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight. The levels of oxidative parameters were determined; pro-inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by Western blotting and apoptotic protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Ethanol treated rats showed decreased levels of antioxidants and aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL1β, TNF-α), NF-κB activation and imbalance of proand anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3). Meanwhile, p-coumaric acid restored antioxidant levels and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB, and proapoptotic proteins and increased Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: p-Coumaric acid ameliorates ethanol-induced kidney injury by restoring antioxidant production and suppressing cellular apoptosis and inhibiting NF-κB expression. p-Coumaric acid should be further investigated as a promising candidate for ethanol-induced kidney toxicity.
    3  Polygonum minus ethanolic extracts attenuate cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in thecerebral cortex of rats via its antioxidant properties
    NR. Adib Ridzuan SL. Teoh N. Abdul Rashid F. Othman SN. Baharum F. Hussan
    2019(5):196-203. DOI: doi: 10.4103/2221-1691.258999
    [Abstract](86) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.43 M](729)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the protective effect of Polygonum minus ethanolic extract on cisplatininduced neurotoxicity. Methods: In vitro test, total phenolic content assay and DPPH assay were performed to determine the antioxidant activity of Polygonum minus. For in vivo test, 30 male SpragueDawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the control group, cisplatin 10 mg/kg, Polygonum minus 100 mg/kg, Polygonum minus 200 mg/kg and Polygonum minus 400 mg/kg. The control group and the cisplatin group were given distilled water whereas Polygonum minus groups received the respective dose of Polygonum minus extract orally for 14 d. On day 15, a single intraperitoneal administration of normal saline was given to the control group; while 10 mg/kg of cisplatin was given to the cisplatin group and Polygonum minus groups. Body weight, signs of illness, daily activity and mortality were observed at least once daily throughout the experimental period. On day 18, the anterior part of the brain was collected and processed for histological and ultrastructural analyses (right hemisphere). The remaining part (left hemisphere) of the brain was assayed to determine malondialdehyde and catalase levels for oxidative stress analyses. Results: Polygonum minus ethanolic extract possessed high phenolic content (977.6 mg GAE/g) and 95.9% DPPH radical scavenging activities. No mortality was observed in all groups. Rats in the cisplatin group were weak and less active compared to Polygonum minus treated rats. In the cisplatin group, disorganised cellular layers of the cerebral cortex were observed whereas rats treated with low and mid doses of Polygonum minus extract had normal cerebral cortex as in the control group. Mild ultrastructural changes were observed in rats treated with low and mid doses of Polygonum minus extract. Meanwhile, low and mid doses of Polygonum minus extract significantly reduced malondialdehyde level whereas low and mid doses of Polygonum minus extracts groups significantly increased catalase activity compared to the cisplatin group. Conclusions: Polygonum minus ethanolic extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg attenuates cisplatininduced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex via its antioxidant activity.
    4  Antibacterial activity and bioactive compounds of 50% hydroethanolic extract of Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm.
    Ratree Tavichakorntrakool Aroonlug Lulitanond Arunnee Sangka Seksit Sungkeeree Natthida Weerapreeyaku
    2019(5):204-208. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.259000
    [Abstract](86) [HTML](0) [PDF 863.63 K](718)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity and the bioactive compounds of 50% hydroethanolic extract of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) rhizomes. Methods: Eight reference microbial strains including two Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212)] and six Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATTC 700603), Proteus mirabilis (DMST 8212), Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Vellore. (ATCC 15611), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)], were used to test antimicrobial susceptibility by the broth microdilution method. Bioactive compounds were analyzed by using HPLC. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration values of A. zerumbet extract were 8 mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri and 16 mg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis and the other four Gram-negative bacilli. HPLC chromatograms revealed that the A. zerumbet extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. Conclusions: The constituents of A. zerumbet rhizomes could be a potential source of antibacterial compounds, warranting further study of A. zerumbet extract.
    5  Phytochemical analyses, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of stem bark extractsof Distemonanthus benthamianus H. Baill. and fruit extracts of Solanum torvum Sw. fromGabon
    Cédric Sima Obiang Rick Léonid Ngoua Meye Misso Guy Roger Ndong Atome Joseph Privat Ondo Louis Clément Obame Engonga Edouard Nsi Emvo
    2019(5):209-216. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.259001
    [Abstract](94) [HTML](0) [PDF 702.83 K](796)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Distemonanthus benthamianus (D. benthamianus) stem bark and Solanum torvum (S. torvum) fruit which have been used as traditional medicinal herbs in Gabon. Methods: Plant extracts were subjected to a qualitative study (phytochemical screening) and a quantitative (dosing) study of secondary metabolites. Antioxidant activity was tested by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay. Bacteria and fungi susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller Hinton medium and solid Sabouraud, respectively, using the diffusion method, while minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were evaluated by microdilution method. Results: The total phenol and tannin contents were significantly higher in the water-ethanol extract compared to the other extracts of D. benthamianus and S. torvum. The water-ethanol and water-acetone extracts showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extracts of the two medicinal plants. However, the extracts presented weak antioxidant activities compared to standards (Vitamin C, BHA). The water-acetone and water-ethanol extracts of S. torvum showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus LMG 13569 BHI, /i>Shigella dysenteriae 5451 CIP, Shigella dysenteriae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Conclusions: Our results show that D. benthamianus and S. torvum can be promising sources of natural products with potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.
    6  Neuropharmacological evaluation of methanolic extract of Costus speciosus Linn.rhizome in Swiss albino mice
    Umay Chen Md. Saddam Hussain Tanoy Mazumder S.M. Naim Uddin Sujan Banik
    2019(5):217-221. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.259002
    [Abstract](99) [HTML](0) [PDF 658.08 K](708)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the neuropharmacological properties of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome using different experimental mouse models. Methods: The anxiolytic effect was investigated by hole-board test, elevated plus maze and light/dark test, while central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect was evaluated by thiopental sodium-induced sleep test. Finally, antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Results: In both elevated plus maze and hole board test, 400 mg/kg C. speciosus showed more significant CNS depressant effect than 1 mg/kg diazepam. Both 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg C. speciosus extract produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in onset of sleep. In forced swimming test, C. speciosus rhizome showed a decrease in duration of immobility in a dose-dependent manner. Imipramine (10 mg/kg) and C. speciosus extract at 400 mg/kg dose exhibited a significant reduction in duration of immobility in tail suspension test which provided additional evidence of antidepressant effect of C. speciosus rhizome. Conclusions: Our study indicates that C. speciosus rhizome possesses CNS depressant, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activities. Further studies are warranted determine the exact phytoconstituents and mechanism of action responsible for the neuropharmacological effect.
    7  Chemical composition, antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart.
    Jacqueline Cosmo Andrade Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva Ant?nia Thassya Lucas dos Santos Maria Audilene Freitas Yedda Maria Lobo Soares de Matos Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais Braga Camila Fonseca Bezerra Maria Isabeli Pereira Gon?alo Maria Celeste Vega Gomez Míriam Rolóm Cathia Coronel Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos Ribeiro Edy Sousa de Brito Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
    2019(5):222-226. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.259003
    [Abstract](75) [HTML](0) [PDF 686.07 K](776)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the in vitro antiparasitic activity of aqueous extracts from Ziziphus joazeiro leaves and stem bark against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania infantum, as well as to evaluate its cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, in addition to identifying the chemical composition of the extracts. Methods: Ziziphus joazeiro leaf and stem bark aqueous extracts were prepared by cold extraction maceration and subjected to ultra-efficient liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole/time of flight system. The susceptibility assays used Trypanosoma cruzi CLB5 strains and promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum for antiparasitic activity of the extracts. Moreover, mammalian fibroblasts NCTC clone 929 were used for cytotoxicity analysis. Results: Terpenoid compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acid were identified in extracts. The stem bark aqueous extracts presented more significant results in terms of antiparasitic activity compared with the leaf aqueous extracts, especially against Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum promastigote forms with an IC50 < 500 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity evaluation showed moderate toxicity of the stem bark aqueous extracts, which is relevant information for the rational use of this plant part since it is widely used by the population. Conclusions: These preliminary results may contribute to the formulation of new therapeutic agents against this group of neglected diseases, so further investigations are required to delineate

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