Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2019 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Determining endemic values of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iranian Fars province by retrospectively detected clusters and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis
    Marjan Zare Abbas Rezaianzadeh Hamidreza Tabatabaee Hossain Faramarzi Mohsen Aliakbarpour Mostafa Ebrahimi
    2019(9):359-364. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.267636
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.51 M](315)
    Objective: To determine the endemic values of cutaneous leishmaniasis in different cities of Fars province, Iran. Methods: Totally, 29 201 cases registered from 2010 to 2015 in Iranian Fars province were selected, and the endemic values of cutaneous leishmaniasis were determined by retrospective clusters derived from spatiotemporal permutation modeling on a time-series design. The accuracy of the values was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. SPSS version 22, ArcGIS, and ITSM 2002 software tools were used for analysis. Results: Nine statistically significant retrospective clusters (P<0.05) resulted in finding seven significant and accurate endemic values (P<0.1). These valid endemic scores were generalized to the other 18 cities based on 6 different climates in the province. Conclusions: Retrospectively detected clusters with the help of ROC curve analysis could help determine cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic values which are essential for future prediction and prevention policies in the area.
    2  Smallanthus sonchifolius roots ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing redox imbalance and hepatocyte damage in rats fed with a high fructose diet
    Mariano Nicolas Aleman Sara Serafina Sanchez Stella Maris Honore
    2019(9):365-372. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.267637
    [Abstract](88) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.33 M](375)
    Objective: To evaluate the potential of Smallanthus sonchifolius (S. sonchifolius) roots in ameliorating hepatic damage of rats fed with a high fructose diet. Methods: The effect of S. sonchifolius roots on energy intake, body weight, fat and liver mass was determined in male rats fed with a high-fructose diet. Plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were analyzed. Histological changes of the livers were evaluated by electronic microscopy and apoptosis was examined using the TUNEL method. The levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) activities were also determined. Results: S. sonchifolius roots significantly decreased energy intake, body weight, fat and liver mass (P < 0.05). S. sonchifolius roots ameliorated liver steatosis and mitochondrial morphology, avoiding cellular apoptosis and normalizing transaminase activity in the liver of rats fed with high fructose. Enzymatic assays revealed that S. sonchifolius roots had a modulatory effect on the oxidative stress induced by fructose-feeding by reducing lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05) and antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in liver. Conclusions: S. sonchifolius roots can ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by improving oxidative stress and liver injury.
    3  Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and saxagliptin ameliorate ulcerative colitis in rats
    Berween Mahmoud Elmahmoudy Mai A. Abd El Fattah Mohamed F. Elyamany Laila A. Rashed
    2019(9):373-380. DOI: 0.4103/2221-1691.267638
    [Abstract](67) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.20 M](323)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and saxagliptin in rats with thioacetamide-induced ulcerative colitis. Methods: Animals were orally administered with a vehicle, sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (100 mg/kg), and saxagliptin (10 mg/kg) for two weeks. Ulcerative colitis was induced by a single intrarectal instillation of thioacetamide on day 8. Colon samples were collected to assess mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), interleukin-12 (IL-12), caspase-3, beta-defensin, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, histopathological examination was performed. Results: Rats treated with thioacetamide caused increases in colonic MAPK, phosphorylated ERK, CREB, caspase-3, IL-12, beta -defensin, iNOS, as well as decreases in body weight and GLP-1. In addition, distortion of colonic structure was found by histopathological examination. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and saxagliptin mitigated colitis severity by improving body weight decrease and GLP-1, and reducing colonic MAPK, phosphorylated ERK, CREB, caspase-3, IL-12, beta -defensin and iNOS. Conclusions: Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and saxagliptin are efficient against thioacetamide induced colitis through improving inflammatory and oxidative changes.
    4  Antidiabetic effect of Opuntia dillenii seed oil on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Mohamed Bouhrim Hayat Ouassou El Hassania Loukili Mohammed Ramdani Hassane Mekhfi Abderrahim Ziyyat Abdelkhaleq Legssyer Mohammed Aziz Mohamed Bnouham
    [Abstract](68) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.70 M](317)
    Objective: To assess the antidiabetic effect of Opuntia dillenii seed oil on rats with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of rats with 50 mg/kg streptozotocin. Thirty albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups: the diabetic control group and normal control group were treated only with distilled water, two diabetic groups received 1 and 2 mL/kg of oil per day, respectively, for 30 days and one diabetic group received 2 mg/kg of glibenclamide. In addition, blood glucose was determined weekly. Body weight, average daily food, water intake and urinary volume of each animal were determined before and after the treatment period. After the treatment period, hepatic glycogen was determined using the anthrone reagent, and glycosuria, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine and uric acid were estimated using common clinical diagnostic kits. Results: Oral intake of the oil at 1 and 2 mL/kg for the diabetic animals significantly diminished blood glucose, glycosuria, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine and uric acid, accompanied by a noticeable elevation in the amount of hepatic glycogen in comparison with the diabetic control group. Similarly, Opuntia dillenii seed oil significantly increased the food intake and decreased the urinary volume per day in treated rats of the same groups in comparison with the period before the treatment intervention and attenuated body weight loss in the diabetic rats. Moreover, this effect of the oil was dose dependent. On the other hand, the oil did not affect their need for water. Conclusions: The results show that Opuntia dillenii seed oil has a very important antidiabetic effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Hence, we suggest it as a preventive control of diabetes mellitus.
    5  Nrf2-inducing and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activities of a polyphenol-rich fraction of Guazuma ulmifolia leaves
    Sulistiyani Syamsul Falah Wulan Tri Wahyuni Dimas Andrianto Arthur Ario Lelono Waras Nurcholis Valeri Mossine Mark Hannink
    2019(9):389-396. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.267659
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 777.14 K](210)
    Objective: To fractionate and identify polyphenols from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. leaves, and to explore their antioxidant, 5-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitory, and Nrf2 modulatory activities. Methods: The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of a polyphenolic fraction of the extract of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. leaves. THP-1 gene reporter cell lines constructed with a transcriptional response element specific for Nrf2 and a minimal promoter for the firefly luciferase–green fluorescent protein transgene were used to determine the effect of the polyphenolic fraction on the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Furthermore, an assay of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity was performed by using a commercial enzyme kit. Polyphenolic compounds were identified by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. Results: The polyphenolic fraction showed fairly strong antioxidant activity [IC50 = (14.90 ± 4.70) μg/mL] and inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity by 69.10%, which was slightly lower than that by pravastatin (84.37%) and quercetin (84.25%). Additionally, the polyphenolic fraction activated the Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway at 500 μg/mL. Eleven subfractions resulting from the column chromatography separation of the polyphenolic fraction also showed relatively strong antioxidant activities (IC50: 17.46–217.14 μg/mL). The subfraction (F6) stimulated the Nrf2 signaling pathway and had HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity (65.43%). Moreover, the subfraction contained two main flavonoids: quercetin and quercimeritrin. Conclusions: The polyphenolic fraction of Guazuma ulmifolia could induce antioxidant genes via the Nrf2/antioxidant regulatory elements pathway, and is a promising candidate for an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.
    6  Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. extract against Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    Waode Munaeni Widanarni Munti Yuhana Mia Setiawati Aris T. Wahyudi
    2019(9):397-404. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.267669
    [Abstract](125) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.53 M](511)
    Objective: To analyze compounds in Eleutherine bulbosa (E. bulbosa) (Mill.) Urb. extract and to determine its antibacterial capability against Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus). Methods: E. bulbosa bulb extract was preprared using 96% ethanol by the maceration method. Phytochemical investigation of E. bulbosa extract was analyzed using GC-MS, spectrophotometry and titrimetry methods. The zone of inhibition was identified by the diffusion agar method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined using the plate count method. The inhibitory rate against V. parahaemolyticus was determined by the microdilution method. Cellular leakage was evaluated by spectrophotometry and cellular damage was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: GC-MS analysis showed the high compound of the E. bulbosa extract was securixanthone E (7-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyxanthone). The compound groups also included fatty acid esters, isoquinolines, naphthalenes, and phenolics. The total phenolic content was (2.50 ± 0.00) mg/g, flavonoid (6.61 ± 0.00) mg/g, and tannin (0.03 ± 0.00)%. The greatest zone of inhibition and inhibitory rate were (11.83 ± 0.06) mm and (91.32 ± 2.76)%, respectively, at 10 mg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.156 mg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was 10 mg/mL. The E. bulbosa extract caused leakage and cellular damage to V. parahaemolyticus. Conclusions: The E. bulbosa extract possesses inhibitory activities against V. parahaemolyticus and causes cellular leakage and damage.

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