Objective: To explore the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-arthritic activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark. Methods: For in vitro assays, the production of reactive oxygen species (chemiluminescence technique), the proliferation of T cells (liquid scintillation counter method), as well as the inhibition of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, protein denaturation, and free radicals [DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition methods] were evaluated. For in vivo assays, a polyarthritis model was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in rats. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark were administered orally at 150 and 300 mg/kg. After 28 days of treatment, the total blood was taken to quantify the hematological parameters and the serum was used to evaluate the biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, and proteins) and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and NO), and then the knee joint was removed for histological analysis. Results: The extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii significantly reduced the production of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased T cell proliferation. They had an inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and protein denaturation, and both extracts had antioxidant capacity on DPPH, ABTS and NO. Both extracts alleviated joint inflammation and pain sensitivity after complete Freund's adjuvant injection, reduced alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, NO and malondialdehyde levels, increased protein concentration, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione activity, and restored the cytoarchitecture of the joint after complete Freund's adjuvant injection. Conclusions: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-arthritic properties.