Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2020 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Mayaro fever: A brief review on the immune profile
    Jean Moisés Ferreira Danielly Santos Campos-Ferreira Elaine Virgínia Martins de Sousa Figueiredo José Luiz de Lima Filho
    2020(3):95-100. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.276315
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 862.62 K](183)
    Abstract:
    Mayaro virus is an emergent alphavirus that infects humans, leading to Mayaro fever. Approximately fifty percent of infected patients develop arthritis symptoms in the recovery phase, a phase that can last up to a year. The literature about Mayaro virus infection and its immune response is scarce, which may hamper the development of treatment strategies. We summarize changes in cytokines and chemokines in the acute and recovery phase in Mayaro virus infected patients, and relate this molecular characterization with the immune response. VEGF and IL-12/p70 show pronounced changes in patients in the acute phase, suggesting the development of cellular immunity and Th1 response. IL-6, IL-7, CXCL8/IL-8, IL-13, IL- 17, and IFN-γ are elevated in patients with arthritis symptoms in the long-term recovery phase, which may be related to the continuous inflammatory process, a possible Th2 inhibiting and promoting Th17 process. Although few studies discuss the issue, with a small number of patients and different backgrounds, inflammatory and immune response and manifestations seem to be closely linked. This information may help to develop the appropriate treatment strategies in Mayaro virus infection. Therefore, we analyzed and summarized data available in literature.
    2  Thai Perilla frutescens fruit oil alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicities in rats
    Narisara Paradee Duangta Kanjanapothi Tawat Taesotikul Sarawut Kongkarnka Adchara Prommaban Pimpisid Koonyosying Somdet Srichairatanakool
    2020(3):101-110. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.276316
    [Abstract](61) [HTML](0) [PDF 963.33 K](198)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the effect of perilla fruit oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver damage in rats. Methods: Perilla fruit oil was analyzed in terms of fatty acids, tocopherols and tocotrienols using chromatography. Sub-chronic toxicity of perilla fruit oil was investigated in rats for 90 d followed by a 28 d recovery period. Hematological, biochemical and pathological parameters were determined. To evaluate hepatoprotection, rats were divided into five groups and orally administered with Tween 80 for 10 d; Tween 80, silymarin, perilla fruit oil (0.1 mL/200 g) and perilla fruit oil (1 mL/200 g) for 10 d together with subcutaneous injection of CCl4 (2 mL/200 g) on days 9 and 10. Liver enzymes and pathological parameters were determined. Results: Perilla fruit oil contained α-linolenic acid (56.55% of total fatty acid), β-tocopherol (49.50 mg/kg) and γ-tocotrienol (43.65 mg/kg). Rats showed significant changes in the percentage of monocytes and platelet indices following perilla fruit oil consumption for 90 d; in the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and RBC indices in the recovery period when compared with the deionized water group. Total protein and creatinine levels were increased while alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were decreased (P < 0.05). Organ weight index and pathological indicators did not change significantly. The liver of CCl4 -induced rats showed remarkable centrilobular fatty changes, which was ameliorated by perilla fruit oil pretreatment. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased (P < 0.05) in rats given perilla fruit oil. Conclusions: Perilla fruit oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, β-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol and improves blood biomarker levels and protects against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies are required before supporting its use for the treatment of hepatitis.
    3  Syringic acid improves oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Zahra Sabahi Mohammad Javad Khoshnoud Bahman Khalvati Seyedeh-Sara Hashemi Zahra Ghasempour Farsani Hoda Mogholi Gerashi Marzieh Rashedinia
    2020(3):111-119. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.276317
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.08 M](188)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effects of syringic acid on hepatic damage in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were given syringic acid at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg by oral gavage for 6 weeks. Syringic acid effects on the liver were evaluated by examination of plasma biochemical parameters, and pathological study. In addition, biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status of liver tissues were assessed. Real time-PCR was performed to investigate the mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis indices in different groups. Results: Syringic acid significantly attenuated the increase in most of plasma biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. Moreover, syringic acid treatment increased the catalase activity while it reduced the superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic malondialdehyde level in diabetic rats. There was no difference between the glutathione content of the treated and untreated groups. These findings were supported by alleviation of histopathological damages in the syringic acid-treated groups compared to the untreated diabetic group. Syringic acid also significantly upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of PGC-1α , NRF-1, and NRF-2 and increased the mtDNA/nDNA ratio in diabetic rats. Conclusions: Syringic acid can be considered as a suitable candidate against hepatic complications since it can reduce oxidative damages in diabetic cases. Furthermore, it has the potential of targeting hepatic mitochondria in diabetes.
    4  Deoxyelephantopin induces ROS-mediated autophagy and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo
    Chim-Kei Chan Kind-Leng Tong Pooi-Fong Wong Habsah Abdul Kadir
    2020(3):120-135. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.276318
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.49 M](183)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To systematically map the stepwise events leading to deoxyelephantopin-induced cell death of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells and evaluate the effectiveness of deoxyelephantopin in vivo. Methods: HCT116 cells were treated with deoxyelephantopin at various concentrations and time points. Autophagy was confirmed by the detection of autophagosomes and autophagosomal proteins by electron microscopy and Western blotting assays, respectively, and then validated by siRNA knockdown. In addition, apoptosis was confirmed by the detection of apoptosis-related proteins. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using flow cytometry. The growth inhibitory effect of deoxyelephantopin was further evaluated in vivo using a mouse xenograft model. Results: Deoxyelephantopin firstly elevated ROS production, which then triggered autophagic flux with the accumulation of autophagosomal proteins including LC3A/B, ATG5, and ATG7, followed by the induction of apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS inhibitor, reversed both apoptosis and autophagy. The knockdown of LC3 prevented apoptosis induction which confirmed that deoxyelephantopin induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Accumulation of ROS also activated apoptosis via the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Furthermore, deoxyelephantopin also inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which then released the inhibition of autophagy. In vivo study further showed that deoxyelephantopin significantly suppressed the growth of HCT116 subcutaneous xenograft in nude mice. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that deoxyelephantopin elevates oxidative stress and induces ROS-dependent autophagy followed by apoptosis in HCT116 cells via the concerted modulation of multiple signaling pathways. These findings further support the development of deoxyelephantopin as a therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer.
    5  Effect of protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus on glucose uptake and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Reena Vishvakarma Abha Mishra
    2020(3):136-146. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.276319
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.18 M](197)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect of the protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach (AbPI) on glucose uptake and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Adipocytes were differentiated and stained with Oil- Red-O staining to confirm adipogenesis. The toxic/protective effect of AbPI on the adipocytes was determined by MTT assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation through flow cytometry, and morphologically through confocal microscopy using propidium iodide, 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride, and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate dyes. The uptake of fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2- deoxy-d-glucose by adipocytes was also studied through confocal microscopy. Results: MTT assay showed that the cell survival rate was (28.00±3.00)%, (92.33±2.60)%, and (71.34±2.10)% in the presence of 2 mM H2O2, AbPI alone, and AbPI and H2O2 both, respectively, in comparison to the control. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that AbPI enhanced adipogenesis. AbPI stimulated the glucose uptake by adipocytes similar to the drug rosiglitazone, and showed insulinsensitizing effect in the presence of insulin, but failed to stimulate the uptake in the absence of insulin. Intracellular reactive oxygen species generation was reduced in differentiating adipocytes upon AbPI treatment. Confocal microscopy showed that the damaged cell population rose to 3.50%, 117.84%, and 261.50% in the presence of AbPI alone, AbPI with H2O2, and H2O2 alone, respectively. Conclusions: The protease inhibitor enhances glucose uptake by adipocytes and exhibits a cytoprotective effect on them.

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