Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 10,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Potential immunomodulatory role of sesamin in combating immune dysregulation associated with COVID-19
    Amin F. Majdalawieh Sarah M. Yousef Imad A. Abu-Yousef
    2021, 11(10):421-428. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.326096
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.41 M](70)
    Abstract:
    The ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused an unprecedented global health crisis. Development of a cure for this devastating disease is currently at full speed, with several vaccines against COVID-19 already authorized and administered. Currently, demand for these vaccines far exceeds supply. As such, boosting immunity represents a viable route to halt the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and limit fatalities until vaccines become more readily and widely available. The use of phytochemicals appears to be a promising panacea. Sesamin, a lignan isolated from Sesamum indicum seeds, is known for its potent pharmacological properties, and is therefore hypothesized as a potential candidate in the therapeutic regimen against COVID-19. Herein, we highlight the confirmed therapeutic anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory potential of sesamin against myriads of respiratory disorders, and tentatively suggest that sesamin may exert similar potent effects against COVID-19. Precisely, we speculate that sesamin may help alleviate COVID-19 via restoring Th1/Th2 balance and preventing inflammation and cytokine storm development. Additionally, we further support the promising role of sesamin against COVID-19 by underscoring the direct evidence, which suggests that sesamin may demonstrate promising inhibitory potential against three important SARS-CoV-2 targets, namely main protease, spike protein, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Although preliminary, there is ample evidence to propose sesamin as a potential phytotherapeutic and prophylactic candidate against COVID-19. Further in vitro , in vivo, and preclinical studies are required to further substantiate the role of sesamin in the prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19.
    2  Effects of Sirt1 on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood of SD rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Dong-Mei Sun Jin-Jian Yao Zhan-Ling Dong Jin Qian Qi-Feng Huang Yuan-Tian Sun Xiao-Ran Liu
    2021, 11(10):429-439. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.326097
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.99 M](53)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect of Sirt1 on the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A rat COPD model was established via smoking and endotoxin administration for three months. The peripheral circulating EPCs were isolated by gradient centrifugation, and their functions, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and Sirt1 expression were examined. The function changes of EPCs in the presence or absence of Sirt1 agonist and inhibitor were estimated; meanwhile, the expressions of Sirt1, FOXO3a, NF-κB, and p53 were also evaluated. Results: The proliferation, adhesion, and migration of EPCs decreased while the apoptosis rate was increased in the COPD rats. The expression of Sirt1 protein in EPCs of the COPD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P <0.01). The overexpression of the Sirt1 gene using a gene transfection technique or Sirt1 agonists (SRT1720) improved the proliferation, migration, and adhesion, and decreased the apoptosis of EPC. However, Sirt1 inhibitor (EX527) decreased EPC functions in the COPD group. The effect of Sirt1 expression on EPC function may be related to reduction of FOXO3a and increase of NF-κB and p53 activity. Conclusions: Increased expression of Sirt1 can improve the proliferation and migration of EPCs and reduce their apoptosis in COPD rats. This change may be related to FOXO3a, NF-κB, and p53 signaling pathways.
    3  Gracilaria fisheri oligosaccharides ameliorate inflammation and colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in mice with acetic acid-induced colitis
    Brenda Siringoringo Nawiya Huipao Chittipong Tipbunjong Jongdee Nopparat Santad Wichienchot Albert M. Hutapea Pissared Khuituan
    2021(10):440-449. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.326098
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.77 M](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Gracilaria fisheri oligosaccharides (GFO) on inflammation and colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in colitis mice. Methods:The animals were treated by oral gavage with distilled water, 1 000 mg/kg inulin, 100, 500, or 1 000 mg/kg GFO for 14 d, or treated with 50 mg/kg mesalamine for 5 d after colitis induction (on day 10). Histopathology, inflammatory cytokines, colonic permeability, and tight junction proteins were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, Ussing chamber technique, and Western blotting assays, respectively. Results: GFO ameliorated histological damage in colitis mice when compared to untreated colitis mice. Treatments with 100, 500, and 1 000 mg/kg GFO reduced TNF-α expression, while IL-1β was significantly reduced in colitis mice treated with 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. Compared to untreated colitis mice, GFO increased transepithelial electrical resistance, reduced fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran paracellular flux, and modulated tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin 2) in colitis mice. Conclusions: GFO has anti-inflammatory activity and could modulate colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in acetic acid-induced colitis mice. Furthermore, GFO could modulate the expression of tight junction proteins that play important roles in colonic barrier function.
    4  Ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus (Harvey) Hommersand attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory and oxidative response by blocking the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways
    Da Hye Kwon Cheol Park Hyesook Lee Su Hyun Hong Gi-Young Kim Hee-Jae Cha SuhkmannKim Heui-Soo Kim Hye-Jin Hwang Yung Hyun Choi
    2021, 11(10):450-459. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.326099
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.34 M](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate whether the ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus (Harvey) Hommersand, a type of red algae, could exhibit anti-inflammatory potential in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Methods: The ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus was applied to 100 ng/mL LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and cell viability, phagocytic ability, levels of pro-inflammatory factors, and the production of reactive oxygen species were measured. To identify the underlying mechanism of the ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus, the expression of inflammation-regulated genes was estimated. Results: The ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus had no cytotoxic effect at concentrations below 300 μg/mL, and reduced the LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2. Furthermore, the extract markedly suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. The LPS-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines was attenuated by treatment with the ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus, reducing their extracellular secretion. The Chondracanthus tenellus extract also inhibited LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt was markedly increased by LPS, which was significantly abolished by the Chondracanthus tenellus extract. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the ethanol extract of Chondracanthus tenellus exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects through downregulating the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

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