Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2021 Table of Contents

  • Display Type:
  • Text List
  • Abstract List
  • 1  Chemical constituents and biological activities of essential oils of Amomum genus (Zingiberaceae)
    Hong Thien Van
    2021, 11(12):519-526. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.331267
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 463.77 K](83)
    Amomum Roxb. includes the aromatic and medicinal plants native to tropical and subtropical Asia belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. Members ofAmomum genus have been used for a long time in traditional medicine for the treatment of throat trouble, congestion of lungs, inflammation of eyelids, and digestive disorders, etc.Amomum essential oils have been studied for their chemical profiles in which limonene, allo-aromadendrene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, farnesyl acetate, α-pinene, β-pinene, caryophyllene, camphene, D-camphor, santolina triene, methyl chavicol, bornyl acetate, β-elemene, δ-3-carene, etc. were the major compounds. Furthermore, the oils extracted fromAmomum plants have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, larvicidal, cytotoxic, anti-scabies, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and biological activities of the essential oils isolated from the different plant parts ofAmomum plants. The objective of the present review is to highlight therapeutic potentials and provide evidence for future medicinal applications of these species of genusAmomum.
    2  Salsola imbricata Forssk. ameliorates acetic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease by modulating dysregulated antioxidant enzyme system and cytokine signaling pathways in mice
    Faraza Javed Qaiser Jabeen
    2021, 11(12):527-534. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.331268
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.24 M](64)
    Objective: To explore the protective effect of the crude extract of Salsola imbricata against acetic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease in mice and its mechanism of action. Methods: Ethanolic crude extract of Salsola imbricata was characterized by HPLC. Salsola imbricata extract at different doses was administered and ulcerative colitis was induced by 200 μL, 7.5% acetic acid and macroscopic parameters were evaluated to assess the homeostatic condition of intestinal mucosa along with hematological and biochemical assays. The levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase 1, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were determined in colon tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were quantified by ELISA. The extent of tissue damage was assessed by histological analysis. Results: Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including quercetin, gallic acid, syringic acid, benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid in the crude extract. The crude extract of Salsola imbricata (300 and 500 mg/kg) markedly decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (P<0.01) and increased antioxidant activities of glutathione peroxidase 1 (P<0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P<0.001). Moreover, it decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α significantly (P<0.001) and reduced the damage to the colon mucosa, promoting tissue healing and regeneration. Conclusions: Salsola imbricata extract restores the colonic epithelial layers by maintaining mucosal homeostasis and cell integrity by modulating antioxidant defense system and inflammatory cytokine signaling in ulcerative colitis mice.
    3  Demethylbelamcandaquinone B from Marantodes pumilum var. alata (Blume) Kuntze inhibits osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells
    Haryati Ahmad Hairi Jamia Azdina Jamal Nor Ashila Aladdin Khairana Husain Noor Suhaili Mohd Sofi Norazlina Mohamed Isa Naina Mohamed Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
    2021, 11(12):535-542. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.331269
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.36 M](69)
    Objective:To investigate the bone-resorbing effect of demethylbelamcandaquinone B (Dmcq B) extracted from Marantodes pumilum var. alata on osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. Methods: RAW264.7 macrophages were differentiated using RANKL into osteoclast-like cells. Then, they were treated with 10 μg/mL Marantodes pumilum var. alata crude aqueous extract, 5 μg/ mL dichloromethane fraction, and 0.6 μg/mL Dmcq B and 0.06 μg/ mL estradiol. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) as an osteoclast phenotypic marker was determined by TRACP staining and TRACP 5b colometric assay, and bone-resorbing pits were examined. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) was measured. Moreover, the protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and estrogen receptors were evaluated. Results: Marantodes pumilum var. alata crude aqueous extract and Dmcq B inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation as evidenced by size reduction of giant multinucleated osteoclast cells, decreased TRACP 5b activity as well as the subsiding of resorbed pit area compared with normal control. In addition, they reduced the gene and protein expressions of TNF-α and IL-6. Marantodes pumilum var. alata, Dmcq B, and estradiol treatments increased the protein expressions of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in osteoclasts. Conclusions: Marantodes pumilum var. alata and its active compound, Dmcq B can inhibit osteoclast differentiation.
    4  An in vitro and in silico study of anti-dermatophytic activity of gossypol from fruits of Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa
    Anuthara R Sebastian Jose Midhun Jyothis Mathew
    2021, 11(12):543-552. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.331270
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.32 M](71)
    Objective: To isolate, purify, and characterize gossypol from the fruits of Thespesia populnea (L) Sol. ex Correa, test its antidermatophytic activity, identify its targets on the dermatophyte, and confirm the binding of gossypol with the fungal target by molecular docking study. Methods: Gossypol from Thespesia populnea was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatographmass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The anti-dermatophytic activity of gossypol was tested against four different dermatophytes, viz. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was selected for further studies. The inhibitory mode of action of gossypol on Trichophyton mentagrophytes was determined by analyzing the modulation of gene expression in various pathways of the dermatophyte. Results: Gossypol inhibited all the dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 12.5 μg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis and 25 μg/mL for Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. The minimum fungicidal concentrations were 50 μg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 100 μg/mL for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum, and 200 μg/mL for Microsporum gypseum. Gossypol inhibited the mRNA expression of metalloprotease (MEP4) and isocitrate lyase (ICL). The binding of gossypol with the enzymes was confirmed by molecular docking studies. The best docking poses were found and the low binding energies were recorded with the two target enzymes. Conclusions: Gossypol is a potential antifungal agent and can be further explored as an anti-dermatophytic drug.
    5  Ethyl acetate extract of Smilax glabra Roxb roots and its major active compound astilbin promote osteoblastogenesis in vitro by upregulating bone cell differentiationassociated genes
    Huyen T.T. Nguyen Minh T.H. Nguyen Thu X. Nguyen Quan M. Pham Ha X. Nguyen Phuong T.M. Nguyen
    2021, 11(12):553-560. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.331271
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 735.28 K](70)
    Objective: To investigate the osteoblastogenic activity of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Smilax glabra Roxb roots and its major active compound astilbin. Methods: Astilbin was isolated from EtOAc extract using silica gel chromatography combined with fraction crystallization. Chemical structure of astilbin was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data in comparison with the literature. MTT method was used to detect the toxicity. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined by the spectrophotometric method at 405 nm using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate. Calcium deposition was stained with alizarin red-S, distained with cetylpyridium chloride, and quantified at 562 nm. In silico model for astilbin-ALP interaction was analyzed using AutoDock 4.2.6. The changes in expression of osteoblast differentiation related genes were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Both the EtOAc extract and astilbin had no toxicity toward osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells at 5.0, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL. At 25 μg/mL, they enhanced ALP activity and mineralization of osteoblasts up to 30% and 55% for the EtOAc extract and 22% and 41% for astilbin, respectively. Molecular docking analysis of astilbin-ALP interaction revealed Arg167, Asp320, His324, and His437 were key residues participating in hydrophobic interaction; meanwhile, His434 and Thr436 residues were involved in hydrogen bond formation in the active site of human tissue-nonspecific ALP. Moreover, the expression level of genes opn, col1,osx, and runx2 were up-regulated in astilbin treated samples with the fold changes as 2.2; 3.7; 4.1; 2.3, respectively at 10 μg/mL (P<0.05). Conclusions:The EtOAc extract and its major compound astilbin exhibit osteoblastogenic activity by up-regulating important markers for bone cell differentiation. It could be a new and promising osteogenic agent with dual actions for therapeutic applications.

    Current Issue

    Volume , No.

    Table of Contents Archive



    Most Read

    Most Cited

    Most Downloaded

    Academic misconduct statement

      Peer review


      Mobile website