Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia water extracts on hepatic insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice
    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot Urarat Nanna Linda Chularojmontri Pholawat Tingpej Patchareewan Pannangpetch
    2021(3):97-104. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.306689
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.65 M](120)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the effect of water extract of Thunbergia laurifolia on hepatic insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Methods: High-fat diet with 45 kcal% lard fat was used for obesity induction in ICR mice. The mice were fed with high-fat diet for 16 weeks, and during the last 8 weeks, they were treated with 200 mg/ kg/day of water extracts from Thunbergia laurifolia leaf, stem and flower. Serum biochemistry, liver histology, and protein expression were examined after the treatment. Results: Extracts from all of the three parts of Thunbergia laurifolia significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The stem and flower extracts improved glucose tolerance. All of the extracts significantly reduced serum TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Liver weight, triglyceride levels, and lipid accumulation were also decreased. Moreover, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase level was significantly decreased, while the levels of PPARα, phosphorylated AMPK, and phosphorylated Akt were significantly increased with treatment of Thunbergia laurifolia extracts. Conclusions: Thunbergia laurifolia extracts can ameliorate hepatic insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by improving glucose and lipid homeostasis, which may be associated with stimulating phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt pathways.
    2  Celastrus paniculatus oil ameliorates synaptic plasticity in a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Khushboo G Faldu Snehal S Patel Jigna S Shah
    2021(3):105-114. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.306690
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.82 M](114)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of action of Celastrus paniculatus oil on the treatment of perinatal rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: In the perinatal stage, the rats were either isolated or administered with lead acetate to establish an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine served as the reference standard. Animals' behaviours were assessed through Y-maze, novel object preference, fear conditioning and residentintruder aggression tests. Oxidative stress parameters, bioamine concentration (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine), nerve growth factor, interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were estimated. Synaptophysin immunohistochemical assay was performed. Results: Celastrus paniculatus oil significantly improved behavioural parameters in Y maze, novel object preference, discrimination index, fear conditioning and resident intruder aggressive tests. The treatment groups showed a decrease in malondialdehyde level. Changes in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin were restored by Celastrus paniculatus oil. Celastrus paniculatus oil increased nerve growth factor and decreased interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and TNF-α. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was also improved by Celastrus paniculatus oil with alleviated reactive gliosis, degeneration, and vascular proliferation. Conclusions: This research shows the therapeutic potential of Celastrus paniculatus oil for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    3  p-Coumaric acid alleviates adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
    Zeinab Rafiee Maasoumeh Zare Moaiedi Armita Valizadeh Gorji Esrafil Mansour
    2021(3):115-121. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.306691
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.53 M](104)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of p-coumaric acid against adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group received solvent; the p-coumaric acid group was treated with 100 mg/kg of p-coumaric acid orally for five i>iconsecutive days; the adriamycin group was administered with a single dose of adriamycin (15 mg/kg, i.p.p-coumaric acid + adriamycin group was given p-coumaric acid five days before adriamycin administration. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and liver tissues were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemistrical studies. Moreover, the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in liver tissue were measured. Results: Treatment with p-coumaric acid protected the liver from the toxicity of adriamycin by attenuating the increase in alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lessening the decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin. p-Coumaric acid also raised the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, as well as decreased lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and hepatic IL- 1β expression. Additionally, histopathological study confirmed the protective effect of p-coumaric acid against liver damage. Conclusions: p-Coumaric acid can alleviate adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity.
    4  Apoptotic and cytostatic actions of maslinic acid in colorectal cancer cells through possible IKK-β inhibition
    Kai Xin Ooi Menaga Subramaniam Lai Yen Fong Hoe Han Goh Soo Beng Alan Khoo Yang Mooi Lim
    2021(3):122-131. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.306692
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.93 M](117)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the anti-cancer activity of maslinic acid against colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and its possible mechanism. Methods: The inhibitory effect of maslinic acid was screened against five CRC cell lines (HT-29, HCT 116, SW480, SW48, and LS 174T) via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were carried out using annexin Ⅴ-FITC/propidium iodide staining and propidium iodide staining, respectively and subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Protein expression studies of inhibitor of κB kinase-β (IKK-β), checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and cyclin D1 were conducted using the JESS system. Results: Maslinic acid exhibited growth inhibitory effect in a doseand time-dependent manner in HT-29 and HCT 116 cell lines. A more prominent apoptosis induced by maslinic acid was observed in HCT 116 cell line. However, in HT-29 cell line, maslinic acid induced cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the G1-S transition, which was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin D1. The expression of unphosphorylated IKK-β protein was increased in both (HT-29 and HCT 116) cell lines after maslinic acid treatment. Conclusions: Maslinic acid inhibits the growth of HT-29 and HCT 116 cells in a different manner, induces cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells and causes apoptosis in HCT 116 cells partially via NF-κB pathway inhibition.
    5  Phytochemical analysis of Berberis lyceum methanolic extract and its antiviral activity through the restoration of MAPK signaling pathway modulated by HCV NS5A
    Koloko Brice Landry Shafiq Azam Sidra Rehman Somayya Tariq Bushra Iqbal Mateen Abbas Dieudonné Massoma Lembè Bushra Ijaz
    2021(3):132-140. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.306133
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.50 M](110)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antiviral activity and phytochemicals of selected plant extracts and their effect on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway modulated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A). Methods: A total of ten plant extracts were initially screened for their toxicities against HepG2 cells. The non-toxic plants were tested for their inhibitory effect on the expression of HCV NS5A at both mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays, respectively. The differential expression of the genes associated with MAPK pathway in the presence of NS5A gene and plant extract was measured through real-time PCR. Subsequently, the identification of secondary metabolites was carried out by phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Results: The phytochemical profiling of Berberis lyceum revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids, and glycosides. Similarly, quercetin, myricetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were identified through HPLC analysis. The methanolic extract of Berberis lyceum strongly inhibited HCV RNA replication with an IC50 of 11.44 μg/mL. RT-PCR and Western blotting assays showed that the extract reduced the expression of HCV NS5A in a dosedependent manner. Berberis lyceum extract also attenuated NS5Ainduced dysregulation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Berberis lyceum extract strongly inhibits HCV propagation by reducing HCV NS5Ainduced perturbation of MAPK signaling.

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