Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and spinal microglia are implicated in tingenonemediated antinociception in mice
    Clarice C.V. Moura Rafaela S. dos Santos Lucienir P. Duarte Giovane Galdino
    2021(4):141-147. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.310200
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 1008.33 K](179)
    Objective: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of tingenone on inflammatory pain, as well as and the involvement of the cannabinoid receptors type 2 (CB2) and spinal microglia in this process. Methods: Male Swiss mice were subjected to inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan. The nociceptive threshold was measured by von Frey filaments test. Tingenone was administered orally 60 min before carrageenan injection. To evaluate the involvement of CB2 receptor, endocannabinoids, and microglia, AM630 (a CB2 receptor antagonist), MAFP (an inhibitor of an enzyme that hydrolyses endocannabinoids), and minocycline (a microglial inhibitor) were given intrathecally 20 min before tingenone administration. In addition, an immunofluorescence assay was used to evaluate CB2 receptor and CD11B (a microglial marker) expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Results: Tingenone significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, which was reversed by pretreatment with AM630. MAFP and minocycline potentiated and prolonged the tingenoneinduced antinociception. CD11B expression was increased in the spinal cord dorsal horn of mice with inflammatory pain pretreated with tingenone, which was reduced by AM630, MAFP, and minocycline. Conclusions: CB2 receptors and endocannabinoids participate in the tingenone-induced antinociception which may involve the inhibition of microglia at spinal level.
    2  Morin attenuates L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats by downregulating myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxidation
    Kanwal Rehman Ummara Rashid Komal Jabeen Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
    2021(4):148-154. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.310201
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.66 M](179)
    Objective: To explore the therapeutic role of morin against L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Methods: The group 1 received two intraperitoneal injections of normal saline, and groups 2-4 were given two intraperitoneal injections of L-arginine (250 mg/100 g body weight) at 1 h interval to induce acute pancreatitis. Subsequently, group 2 received no further treatment while groups 3 and 4 were treated with morin (30 mg/kg) and diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg), respectively. Blood glucose and serum levels of insulin, α-amylase, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol were measured. Moreover, histopathological study was carried out to investigate the effect of morin treatment on physiology of the pancreas. Results: L-arginine significantly altered the level of blood glucose and serum levels of insulin, α-amylase, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol. Treatment with morin or diclofenac sodium significantly improved the levels of these biomarkers. Furthermore, morin showed more significant effect than diclofenac sodium. Histopathological analysis verified that morin protected the pancreas from deleterious effects of L-arginine. Conclusions: Morin plays a protective role against L-arginineinduced acute pancreatitis via reducing lipid peroxidation and tissue inflammation, and attenuating acute pancreatitis-associated alteration in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism.
    3  Natural compounds as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease: An in-silico study
    Xiao-Ran Wu Cui-Ke Gong Lin-Lin Bai
    2021(4):155-163. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.310202
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.31 M](197)
    Objective: To explore natural compounds as potential inhibitors against main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In the current study, systematic molecular docking analysis was conducted using AutoDock 4.2 to determine the binding affinities and interactions between natural compounds and Mpro. Selected natural compounds were further validated using a combination of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and molecular mechanic Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) free energy calculations. Results: Out of twenty natural compounds, four natural metabolites namely, amentoflavone, guggulsterone, puerarin, and piperine were found to have strong interaction with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 based on docking analysis. During MD simulations, all four natural compounds bound to Mpro at 50 ns and MM/G/P/BSA free energy calculations showed that all four shortlisted ligands had stable and favorable energies with strong binding to Mpro protein. Conclusions: Guggulsterone is a potential inhibitor of COVID- 19 main protease Mpro. Further in vitro and pre-clinical studies are needed.
    4  Lentinula edodes extract inhibits matrix metalloproteinase expression and increases typeⅠprocollagen expression via the p38 MAPK/c-Fos signaling pathway in ultraviolet A and B-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes
    Xuan-Hai Do Trong Nghia Nguyen Thanh Chung Dang Thi Thanh Mai Nguyen Trung Nhan Nguyen Van Nhat Truong Do Huu Tho Le Xuan Hai Nguyen Hoang Phu Dang Giang-Linh Nguyen Dinh-Khanh Hoang Van-Quan Le Van-Mao Can
    2021(4):164-173. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.310203
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.89 M](201)
    Objective: To determine the effect of Lentinula edodes extract on ultraviolet (UV) A and UVB-induced changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and typeⅠprocollagen expression using human immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. Methods: Lentinula edodes ethanol extract (LEE) was obtained by extraction with 80% ethanol for 4 h at 80 ℃. Effect of LEE on UVinduced alteration on the expression and production of MMPs and typeⅠprocollagen in keratinocytes was investigated using ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting assay. To determine the underlying mechanism of LEE-mediated effects, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein 1 signaling pathways were analysed by Western blotting assay. Results: LEE significantly inhibited the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 and increased the expression of typeⅠprocollagen in UVA and UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. The phosphorylation levels of p38 were significantly inhibited by LEE whereas it did not affect c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Suppression of p38 phosphorylation was also accompanied by downregulation of UVA and UVB-induced increase in c-Fos. Conclusions: LEE effectively inhibits the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 and increases typeⅠprocollagen production through the p38 MAPK/c-Fos signaling pathway in UVA and UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. This findings suggest that Lentinula edodes may be developed as a cosmetic material to suppress UV exposuremediated skin aging.
    5  In vitro antioxidant and wound healing activity of Sargassum polycystum hydroethanolic extract in fibroblasts and keratinocytes
    Wanwipha Woonnoi Furoida Moolsap Supita Tanasawet Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang Chakkapat Aenglong Wanida Sukketsiri
    2021(4):222-232. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.377409
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.33 M](234)
    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and wound healing properties of the hydroethanolic extract of Sargassum polycystum, and elucidate the mechanism of its wound healing activity. Methods: Human dermal fibroblast and HaCaT cells were used to evaluate the proliferation by sulforhodamine B and dsDNA assay after treatment with Sargassum polycystum extracts. Scratch wound healing and phalloidin-rhodamine staining were employed to observe migratory activity and filopodia formation, respectively. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to determine the protein and gene expressions related to wound healing activities. Results: The phytochemical analysis found a higher level of flavonoid than phenolic compound in Sargassum polycystum extracts. In human dermal fibroblast cells, Sargassum polycystum extracts at 50 and 100 μg/mL significantly increased fibroblast proliferation and the gene expressions of hyaluronic acid synthase 1 (HAS1), HAS2, HAS3, collagen type 1 alpha 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type 3 alpha 1 chain (COL3A1), and elastin. The phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK was also significantly upregulated after treatment with Sargassum polycystum extracts. Additionally, 50 and 100 μg/mL of the extracts prominently enhanced the proliferation, migration, and filopodia formation of HaCaT cells, as well as the protein levels of pFAK/FAK, pSrc/Src, pAkt/Akt, pERK1/2/ERK1/2, Rac1 and Cdc42. Conclusions: Sargassum polycystum extracts show promising wound healing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

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