Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Protective effects of rice bran hydrolysates on heart rate variability, cardiac oxidative stress, and cardiac remodeling in high fat and high fructose diet-fed rats
    Ketmanee Senaphan Upa Kukongviriyapan Pisit Suwannachot Geerasak Thiratanaboon Weerapon Sangartit Supawan Thawornchinsombut Akkasit Jongjareonrak
    2021(5):183-193. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.311754
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.29 M](142)
    Objective: To examine the ameliorative effect of rice bran hydrolysates (RBH) on metabolic disorders, cardiac oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), and cardiac structural changes in high fat and high fructose (HFHF)-fed rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily fed either standard chow diet with tap water or an HFHF diet with 10% fructose in drinking water over 16 weeks. RBH (500 and 1 000 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to the HFHF-diet-fed rats during the last 6 weeks of the study period. At the end of the treatment, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, HRV, and cardiac structural changes were examined. Results: RBH administration significantly ameliorated metabolic disorders by improving lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemodynamic parameters. Moreover, RBH restored HRV, as evidenced by decreasing the ratio of low-frequency to highfrequency power of HRV, a marker of autonomic imbalance. Cardiac oxidative stress was also mitigated after RBH supplementation by decreasing cardiac malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, upregulating eNOS expression, and increasing catalase activity in the heart. Furthermore, RBH mitigated cardiac structural changes by reducing cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in HFHFdiet-fed rats. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that consumption of RBH may exert cardioprotective effects against autonomic imbalances, cardiac oxidative stress, and structural changes in metabolic syndrome.
    2  Origanum vulgare L. leaf extract alleviates finasteride-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver and kidney
    Qi-Feng Sun Shi-Xiang Chen Zhang-Feng Tang Xiao-Yi Song Fa Jing Hao-Tian Wu Zhong-Yang Ding Attalla El-kott Diaa Massoud Heba Khalifa
    2021(5):194-204. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.311755
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.96 M](139)
    Objective: To investigate the hepatorenoprotective effects of Origanum vulgare L. against finasteride-induced oxidative injury in the liver and kidney of mice. Methods: Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) analysis was utilized to yield a fingerprint of Origanum vulgare polyphenolic constituents. Thirty BALB/c mice received 0.5 mL/day distilled water, finasteride (25 mg/kg/day for 10 d), and 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day finasteride + Origanum vulgare extract with 6 mice per group for five weeks. On day 36, liver and kidney function as well as pro- and antiinflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10) cytokines were measured. The total antioxidant status, nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde levels as well as the activities of NO synthase and catalase were also evaluated. Histopathological study was conducted to assess the effect of Origanum vulgare extract on finasteride-induced renal and hepatic toxicities. Results: Twenty-five major polyphenolic compounds were identified in the Origanum vulgare extract by LC-ESI/MS. Origanum vulgare extract, especially at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day doses, significantly improved liver and kidney biochemical indices, decreased inflammatory cytokines, increased total antioxidant status and NO synthase and catalase activities, as well as decreased plasma NO and malondialdehyde levels in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the finasteride group. Histopathological results further confirmed the protective effect of Origanum vulgare extract. Conclusions: Origanum vulgare extract ameliorates finasterideinduced hepatic and renal biochemical and histopathological alterations, and restores antioxidant/oxidant balance.
    3  Aloin attenuates chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress
    Aarti S. Kale Avinash R. Wadkar Umesh B. Mahajan Lalit A. Birari Sateesh Belemkar Sameer N. Goyal Shreesh Ojha Sanjay J. Surana Chandragouda R. Patil Kalpesh R. Patil
    2021(5):205-213. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.311768
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.96 M](130)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of aloin against chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group Ⅰ (normal control), Group Ⅱ (sham-operated), Group Ⅲ (CCI control) and Group Ⅳ, Ⅴ, Ⅵ, and Ⅶ, which underwent CCI surgery and then were administered with aloin (5 mg/kg, p.o.; 25 mg/kg, p.o.; 125 mg/kg, p.o.) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively for 14 days. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by silk ligatures (4-0) loosely placed around the sciatic nerve. Nociceptive thresholds against mechanical stimuli (Von-Frey filaments) and thermal stimuli (12 ℃ and 40 ℃) were measured at midplantar paw region ipsilateral to the compressed nerve on day-3, 7, 11, and 14. The concentration of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β was estimated at day-7. At day 14, motor nerve conduction velocity was determined under urethane anesthesia (1.25 g/kg). Oxidative stress parameters (malondiadehyde, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were estimated in sciatic nerve homogenates at day 14. Representative nerve samples were processed for histological investigations. Results: Aloin significantly reduced CCI-induced mechanical and thermal allodynia. It also improved motor nerve conduction velocity and decreased oxidative stress in nerve tissues. In addition, it decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and restored the histoarchitecture of compressed sciatic nerve. Conclusions: Aloin mitigates CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the afflicted sciatic nerve.
    4  Argemone mexicana extract alleviates gastrointestinal disorders by stimulating muscarinic receptors and blocking voltage-gated L-type calcium channels
    Rabia Iqbal Irfan Hamid Khalid Hussain Janbaz Muhammad Furqan Akhtar Ammara Saleem Ali Sharif Sohaib Peerzada Bushra Akhtar Kashif Sohail Sajid Ali
    2021(5):214-221. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.311769
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 997.85 K](139)
    Objective: To investigate the pharmacological potential of Argemone mexicana in treating constipation and emesis by using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods: The spasmogenic and spasmolytic effects were evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum fragments loaded in a tissue organ bath. The response was recorded with an isotonic transducer attached with Power Lab Data Acquisition System. The laxative and antiemetic activities were assessed in BALB-c mice and poultry chicks challenged with carbamylcholine and copper sulphate stimulated emesis, respectively. Results: The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the extract were (267.75 ± 5.77) mg GAE/g and (73.86 ± 6.01) mg QE/g, respectively. Argemone mexicana extract exerted spasmogenic effect on isolated rabbit jejunum segments with an EC50 value of 0.016 mg/ mL, which was blocked by atropine (0.3 μM). Argemone mexicana extract exerted spasmolytic effect in atropine treated jejunum fragments with an EC50 value of 2.185 mg/mL. Furthermore, Argemone mexicana extract relaxed potassium (80 mM)-induced contractions (EC50: 9.07 mg/mL), similar to a standard drug verapamil. The calcium channel blocker activity was confirmed by a rightward shift of concentration-response curve of calcium in the presence of Argemone mexicana extract (1-5 mg/mL) and verapamil (0.1-1 μM). In addition, the extract increased the distance travelled by a charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract and exhibited antiemetic effect on copper sulphate induced emesis in chicks. Conclusions: Argemone mexicana shows cholinergic agonist and calcium channel blocker activities, as well as antiemetic effect. It may be used as a potential agent for treating gastrointestinal disorders.
    5  Honokiol attenuates oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes via activating AMPK signaling
    Yung Hyun Choi
    2021(5):222-230. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.311770
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.36 M](141)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of honokiol on oxidative damage in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Methods: HaCaT cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), following pretreatment with various concentrations of honokiol. The alleviating effects of honokiol on HaCaT cell viability and cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, mitochondrial dynamics, and inhibition of adenosine triphoaphate production against H2O2 were investigated. Western blotting analysis was used to analyze the expression levels of specific proteins. Results: Honokiol suppressed H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage by blocking abnormal ROS accumulation. Honokiol also prevented apoptosis by inhibiting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reducing the activity of caspase-3 in H2O2-stimulated HaCaT cells. In addition, honokiol attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of adenosine triphosphate content, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was markedly promoted by honokiol in H2O2-stimulated cells. Importantly, the anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferative activity of honokiol against H2O2 was further enhanced by adding an activator of AMPK, indicating that honokiol activated AMPK in HaCaT keratinocytes to protect against oxidative damage. Conclusions: The present results indicate that honokiol may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent against various oxidative stress-related skin diseases.

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