Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Rhus longipes (Engl.) infusions improve glucose metabolism and mitigate oxidative biomarkers in ferrous sulfate-induced renal injury
    Brian K. Beseni Kolawole A. Olofinsan Veronica F. Salau Ochuko L. Erukainure Md. Shahidul Islam
    2022, 12(11):453-465. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.360561
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.03 M](2)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Rhus longipes (R. longipes) leaf and stem bark aqueous infusions. Methods: R. longipes leaf and stem bark infusions were characterized via gas-chromatography mass-spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. In vitro antioxidant and carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzyme inhibitory activities of R. longipes infusions were determined. Additionally, the modulatory effects of R. longipes infusions on intestinal glucose absorption, muscle glucose uptake, and biomarkers of renal oxidative injury were evaluated. Molecular docking was performed to determine the binding affinities of the identified compounds from the leaf and stem bark infusions on carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of several phytocompounds, including palmitoleic acid, octadecanamide, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and L -ascorbic acid. The bark infusion had significantly higher total phenolic contents compared with the leaf infusion, with better DPPH scavenging [IC50: (10.50±1.03) μg/mL] and ferric reducing [IC50: (9.85±0.32) μg/mL] activities (P<0.05). Both R. longipes infusions at their highest concentrations significantly increased glucose uptake in yeast suspension and rat psoas muscle with marked suppression of glucose absorption in the rat jejunum (P<0.05). With no cytotoxicity on Vero cells, the infusions lowered lipid peroxidation, increased cellular reduced glutathione concentration, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in renal homogenate treated with FeSO4. Conclusions: R. longipes shows antioxidant and antidiabetic activities and could be a potential therapeutic candidate for diabetes.
    2  Phytosomal curcumin alleviates collagen-induced arthritis by downregulating Th17 and upregulating Treg cell responses in rats
    Mahnaz Ramezani Nahid Zainodini Reza Nosratabadi Yaser Yousefpoor Zahra Taghipour Mitra Abbasifard Mohammad Reza Rahmani
    2022, 12(11):466-474. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.360562
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.90 M](2)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effects of a nano-formulation of curcumin (phytosomal curcumin) on the clinical and pathological symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were immunized with an emulsion containing bovine type Ⅱ collagen and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and then administered phytosomal curcumin post-immunization. Clinical symptoms and histological analysis of the synovial tissues were performed. The effect of phytosomal curcumin on Th17 and Treg parameters was also evaluated. Results: Phytosomal curcumin reduced the clinical severity and paw swelling in CIA-induced rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovial tissue. Additionally, treatment with phytosomal curcumin significantly inhibited CIA-associated mediators as well as increased the anti-inflammatory mediators in comparison to the control groups. Conclusions: Phytosomal curcumin could improve CIA autoimmune responses and can be considered a potential candidate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    3  Acanthus leucostachyus leaf extracts promote excision wound healing in mice
    Deepjyoti Dev Ashish Sarkar Bishnupada Roy
    2022(11):475-482. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.360563
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.86 M](2)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the in vivo wound healing activity of Acanthus leucostachyus leaf extracts using an excision wound model in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into two groups of six animals in each group: the control group and the Acanthus leucostachyus extract-treated group. Healing potential was evaluated by determination of physical parameters (contraction rate, epithelialization period, and tensile strength), biochemical parameters (protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline content), the expression of growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as histological and ultrastructural observations. Results: Treatment with Acanthus leucostachyus leaf extracts markedly increased the rate of wound contraction, tensile strength, the concentrations of protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline, and the expression of growth factor, as well as promoted epithelialization, compared to the control. In addition, Acanthus leucostachyus leaf extracts significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histological and ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of thicker epithelial layer and smoother surface topography in the extract-treated group compared to the control. Conclusions: Acanthus leucostachyus leaf extracts show potent wound-healing activity and can be used as a wound healing agent.
    4  Inhibition mechanisms of secretome proteins from Paenibacillus polymyxa Kp10 and Lactococcus lactis Gh1 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus
    Nurul Hana Zainal Baharin Nur Fadhilah Khairil Mokhtar Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa Nurul Diana Dzaraly AbdulRahman Muthanna Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi Mohd Hafis Yuswan Sahar Abbasiliasi Norasfaliza Rahmad Wan Ahmad Kamil Wan Nur Ismah Amalia Mohd Hashim Shuhaimi Mustafa
    2022(11):483-494. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.360564
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.74 M](2)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the inhibition mechanisms of secretome protein extracted from Paenibacillus polymyxa Kp10 (Kp10) and Lactococcus lactis Gh1 (Gh1) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods: The sensitivity and viability of MRSA and VRE treated with secretome proteins of Kp10 and Gh1 were determined using minimal inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, and time-to-kill assays. The morphological changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. To elucidate the antimicrobial mechanism of secretome protein of Kp10 and Gh1 against MRSA and VRE, 2D gel proteomic analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was run by comparing upregulated and downregulated proteins, and the proton motive force study including the efflux of ATP, pH gradient, and the membrane potential study were conducted. Results: MRSA and VRE were sensitive to Kp10 and Gh1 secretome protein extracts and displayed apparent morphological and internal composition changes. Several proteins associated with cellular component functions were either downregulated or upregulated in treated MRSA and VRE by changing the membrane potential gradient. Conclusions: Kp10 and Gh1 secretome proteins reduce the growth of VRE and MRSA by damaging the cell membrane. Cell division, cell wall biosynthesis, and protein synthesis are involved in the inhibition mechanism.

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