Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and an update on the therapeutic approaches
    Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman
    2022, 12(3):99-114. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.338919
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 767.67 K](26)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is set to be the most common etiology of serious liver diseases in numerous nations when accompanied by obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is further histologically categorized into the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL; steatosis without hepatocellular injury) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is characterized by the coexistence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation and is accompanied by hepatocyte injury (ballooning), either with or without fibrosis. NAFL is considered the benign and reversible stage arising from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. However, NASH is a more progressive stage of NAFLD, due to the increased risks of evolving more serious diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. This concept, however, has been lately challenged by a hypothesis of multiple parallel hits of NAFLD, in which steatosis and NASH are separate entities rather than two points of the NAFLD spectrum, not only from a set of histological patterns but also from a pathophysiological perspective. The current review highlights the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, and its progression towards steatohepatitis, with special focus on the novel imminent therapeutic approaches targeting the molecular aspects and the pathogenic pathways involved in the development, and progression of NAFLD.
    2  Aqueous extract of freeze-dried Protaetia brevitarsis larvae promotes osteogenesis by activating β-catenin signaling
    Jayasingha Arachchige Chathuranga Chanaka Jayasingha Kyoung Tae Lee Yung Hyun Choi Chang-Hee Kang Mi-Hwa Lee Gi-Young Kim
    2022(3):115-123. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.338920
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.27 M](27)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of Protaetia brevitarsis (AEPB) on osteogenesis using preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and zebrafish larvae. Methods: Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure the cytotoxicy. Alkaline phosphatase activity was detetmined using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate. Calcium deposition was detected using alizarin red staining along with osteogenic marker expression in preosteoblast MC3T3E1 cells. In addition, vertebral formation in zebrafish larvae was detected using calcein staining and osteogenic gene expression. Results: AEPB highly promoted the expression of osteogenic markers including runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase, along with elevated levels of mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, AEPB accelerated vertebral formation in zebrafish larvae accompanied by upregulated expression of osteogenic genes. FH535, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin, suppressed AEPB-induced osteogenic gene expression and vertebral formation, indicating that AEPB stimulates osteogenesis by activating the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusions: AEPB stimulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by activating β-catenin. Therefore, AEPB is a promising material that induces osteogenesis, and is useful for the treatment of bone resorption diseases.
    3  Phloretin-induced suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats
    Shivani S. Wagh Kalpesh R. Patil Umesh B. Mahajan Pradnya D. Bagal Avinash R. Wadkar Basavraj Bommanhalli Prabhakar R. Patil Sameer N. Goyal Shreesh Ojha Chandragouda R. Patil
    2022, 12(3):124-131. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.338921
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.15 M](39)
    Objective: To compare the cardioprotective efficacy of equimolar doses (50 mM/kg, p.o. ) of phloretin and genistein against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Methods: Cardiotoxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of 6 mg/kg doxorubicin on alternative days till the cumulative dose reached 30 mg/kg. This study included four treatment groups of rats (n=6): the control group (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution-treated), the doxorubicin-treated group (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution along with doxorubicin), the genistein-treated group (50 mM/kg/day; p.o. along with doxorubicin) and phloretin-treated group (50 mM/kg/day; p.o. along with doxorubicin). On the 10th day of dosing, rats were anesthetized for recording ECG, mean arterial pressure, and left ventricular function. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide levels, and inflammatory cytokines were estimated in the cardiac tissue. Cardiac function parameters (creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase) were estimated in the serum samples. Results: Phloretin treatment inhibited doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and also reduced nitric oxide levels in cardiac tissues of rats. Phloretin administration attenuated doxorubicin-induced alterations in hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular function) and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The cardiac injury markers like creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine transaminase were reduced by both genistein and phloretin. All these effects of phloretin were more prominent than genistein. Conclusions: Phloretin offers cardioprotection that is comparable to genistein, a clinically validated cardioprotectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm and establish the therapeutic utility of phloretin as a chemopreventive adjuvant to doxorubicin chemotherapy.
    4  Hexadecanoic acid-enriched extract of Halymenia durvillei induces apoptotic and autophagic death of human triple-negative breast cancer cells by upregulating ER stress
    Kant Sangpairoj Rapeewan Settacomkul Tanapan Siangcham Krai Meemon Nakorn Niamnont Nilubon Sornkaew Montakan Tamtin Prasert Sobhon Pornpun Vivithanaporn
    2022, 12(3):132-140. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.338922
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.48 M](58)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of the hexane solvent fraction of Halymenia durvillei (HDHE) on triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: The phytochemical profile of HDHE was investigated by GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of HDHE against MDA-MB-231 cells was determined. The apoptotic and autophagic effects of HDHE were analyzed. The expression of molecular markers controlling apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was determined. Results: HDHE contains a mixture of fatty acids, mainly hexadecanoic acid. HDHE at a cytotoxic concentration induced apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 cells through mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and induction of apoptosis markers, and increased the expression of proteins related to DNA damage response. HDHE also induced the expression of LC-3, a marker of autophagic cell death at a cytotoxic concentration. Moreover, HDHE modulated the expression of ER stress genes. Conclusions: The hexadecanoic acid-enriched extract of Halymenia durvillei promotes apoptosis and autophagy of human triple-negative breast cancer cells. This extract may be further explored as an anticancer agent for triple-negative breast cancer.

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