Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Cardiovascular protective properties of gastrodin
    Shu-Ting Yang Shu-Bai Liu
    2022, 12(4):141-147. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.340558
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 354.93 K](102)
    Abstract:
    Cardiovascular diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, incurring a major public health burden. Gastrodia elata Blume is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been widely used to treat central nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. Gastrodin, as the major active component in Gastrodia elata Blume, can confer protection against cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the anti-inflammatory actions, anti-cardiac hypertrophy, anti-hypertension, anti-atherosclerosis, and angiogenic effects of gastrodin, as well as its protective effects on vascular cells and against myocardial ischemia‐reperfusion injury. The medical potential of gastrodin in diabetes-related cardiovascular diseases is also discussed.
    2  Lipid-lowering effect of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz extract in hyperlipidemic mice
    Tanaporn Hengpratom Sajeera Kupittayanant Seekaow Churproong Griangsak Eumkeb
    2022, 12(4):148-155. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.340559
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.90 M](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Oroxylum indicum fruit extract on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Methods: The phytochemical composition of Oroxylum indicum fruit extract was determined by liquid chromatographymass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-two male mice were used. The mice were divided into six groups: normal control, high-fat diet control, simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg BW/day), and Oroxylum indicum fruit extract (100, 200, 300 mg/kg BW/day) treatment groups. Food intake, body weight, serum parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological lesions of the kidney, liver, and epididymal fat were observed.Results: LC-MS/MS results revealed four major components of Oroxylum indicum fruit extract: luteolin, apigenin, baicalein, and oroxylin A. Twenty-seven volatile oils were identified from Oroxylum indicum fruit extract. Daily oral administration of Oroxylum indicum fruit extract at 100 to 300 mg/kg BW/day significantly reduced the body weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P<0.05), whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher than the high-fat diet control group. Treatment with 300 mg/kg BW/day Oroxylum indicum fruit extract reduced the pathological lesion and prevented fat accumulation in the kidney and liver. Conclusions: Oroxylum indicum fruit extract has hypolipidemic effect in hyperlipidemic mice, and the active ingredients of Oroxylum indicum fruit extract, both flavonoids and volatile oils, should be further explored as an antihyperlipidemic agent.
    3  Analgesic-like activity of perillyl acetate: In vivo and in silico studies
    Renan Braga Humberto Andrade Ryldene Cruz Mayara Maia Carolina Lima Anderson Santos Andre Miranda Allana Duarte Marcus Scotti Reinaldo Almeida Damiao Sousa
    2022, 12(4):156-163. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.340560
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 950.22 K](111)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of perillyl acetate in mice and in silico simulations. Methods: The vehicle, perillyl acetate (100, 150 and/or 200 mg/ kg, i.p.), diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to mice, respectively. Rotarod test, acetic acidinduced abdominal writhing, formalin-induced nociception, hot plate test, and tail-flick test were performed. Opioid receptorsinvolvement in perillyl acetate antinociceptive effect was also investigated. Results: Perillyl acetate did not affect the motor coordination of mice. However, it reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches and licking times in the formalin test. There was an increase of latency time in the tail-flick test of 30 and 60 minutes. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of perillyl acetate (200 mg/kg). In silico analysis demonstrated that perillyl acetate could bind to µ-opioid receptors. Conclusions: Perillyl acetate has antinociceptive effect at the spinal level in animal nociception models, without affecting the locomotor integrity and possibly through µ-opioid receptors. In silico studies have suggested that perillyl acetate can act as a µ-opioid receptor agonist.
    4  Anti-obesity effect and UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS based metabolite profiling of Solanum nigrum leaf extract
    Zain Ul Aabideen Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar Muhammad Asam Raza Hamid Mukhtar Ahmad Irfan Syed Ali Raza Muhammad Nadeem Yee Soon Ling
    2022, 12(4):164-174. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.340561
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.80 M](57)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential and pancreatic lipase inhibitory action of optimized hydroethanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum. Methods: Optimized extraction for maximum recovery of metabolites was performed using a combination of freeze-drying and ultrasonication followed by determination of antioxidant and antiobesity properties. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry was used to analyze metabolite profiling of Solanum nigrum. Computational studies were performed using molecular docking and electrostatic potential analysis for individual compounds. The hypolipidemic potential of the most potent extract was assessed in the obese mice fed on fat rich diet. Results: The 80% hydroethanolic extract exhibited the highest extract yield, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents along with the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, total antioxidant power, and pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties. The 80% hydroethanolic extract not only regulated the lipid profile of obese mice but also restricted the weight gain in the liver, kidney, and heart. The 80% hydroethanolic extract also reduced alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase concentrations in serum. The effects of plant extract at 300 mg/kg body weight were quite comparable with the standard drug orlistat. Conclusions: Solanum nigrum is proved as an excellent and potent source of secondary metabolites that might be responsible for obesity mitigation.
    5  Methyl gallate isolated from Mangifera pajang kernel induces proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via oxidative stress
    Ranneh Yazan Abu Bakar Mohd Fadzelly Rahim Azlen-Che Kassim Nur Kartinee Stanslas Johnson Teh Yuan-Han Fadel Abdulmannan Ellulu Mohammed S
    2022, 12(4):175-184. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.340562
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.70 M](59)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the lead bioactive compound in kernel extract of Mangifera pajang and its anti-cancer activity against human breast cancer cell lines with positive estrogen receptor (MCF-7). Methods: The methanolic extract of dried powder kernel of Mangifera pajang was exposed to column chromatography for isolation. The structural elucidation of the isolated compound was characterized using infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cytotoxicity, morphological changes, flow cytometry and cell cycle arrest analyses were performed to examine the mechanism of anti-proliferation and apoptosis induced by methyl gallate against MCF-7. Results: One compound was isolated from the methanolic extract of Mangifera pajang kernel and identified as methyl gallate. The flow cytometric results demonstrated induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by three concentrations of methyl gallate. The cell cycle arrest showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in cell progression at G2/M phase of MCF-7 after treatment with 100 μM of methyl gallate. The cell percentage of early and late apoptosis was significant at 10 and 100 μM of methyl gallate. Also, methyl gallate treatment induced up-regulation of reactive oxygen species levels in MCF-7 cells with a reduction in superoxide dismutase levels. Conclusions: These findings indicate that isolated methyl gallate from Mangifera pajang kernel extracts induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via up-regulating oxidative stress pathway

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