Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Hepato- and reno-protective effects of thymoquinone, crocin, and carvacrol: A comprehensive review
    Akbar Anaeigoudari
    2022, 12(5):185-196. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.343386
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 554.51 K](23)
    Medicinal plants are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals which prevent and treat a wide range of ailments. Accumulating experimental studies exhibit that some bioactive ingredients extracted from medicinal plants have suitable therapeutic effects on hepatic and renal injuries. This review focuses on the hepato-and reno-protective effects of thymoquinone, crocin, and carvacrol. The relevant literature was retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from the beginning of 2015 until the end of November 2021. According to the scientific evidence, the considered phytochemicals in this review have been applied with useful therapeutic effects on hepatic and renal damage. These therapeutic effects were mainly mediated through the amelioration of oxidative stress, suppression of inflammatory responses, and inhibition of apoptosis. Intracellular signaling pathways linked to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Toll-like receptors are the most important pathways targeted by these phytochemicals. Up-regulation of transcription factor Nrf2 and down-regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 by these natural compounds also contribute to the alleviation of hepatic and renal injuries.
    2  Humulus japonicus extract alleviates oxidative stress and apoptosis in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cells
    Feng Wang Byoung Ok Cho Jae Young Shin Suping Hao Seon Il Jang
    2022, 12(5):197-206. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.343387
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.86 M](12)
    Objective: To explore the possible neuroprotective activities of Humulus japonicus extract against Parkinson's disease (PD) in a cellular model. Methods: PD was modeled in PC12 cells using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The cell activity, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects, and other related indicators and related signaling pathways were evaluated to elucidate the neuroprotective effects of Humulus japonicus extract. Results: Humulus japonicus extract exhibited anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in 6-OHDA-stimulated PC12 cells. It also reduced oxidative stress-induced ROS accumulation; upregulated antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione, catalase, heme oxidase-1, and 8-oxguanine glycosylase 1; promoted cell survival by decreasing BAX and increasing Bcl-2 and sirtuin 1 expression via the MAPK and/or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Conclusions: Humulus japonicus extract has antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects and could be developed as a promising candidate for preventing and treating oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases.
    3  Fucoxanthin suppresses OxLDL-induced inflammation via activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB signaling
    Peramaiyan Rajendran Abdullah M AlZahrani
    2022, 12(5):207-215. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.343388
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.32 M](12)
    Objective: To explore the impact of fucoxanthin on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)-induced stress and inflammation in human endothelial cells and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: HUVECs were treated with OxLDL and/or fucoxanthin for a range of time points and concentrations. We evaluated the effects of fucoxanthin on OxLDL-induced HUVECs using the MTT assay, reactive oxygen species accumulation assay, ELISA, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Results: Fucoxanthin enhanced the cell viability in a dose dependent manner after OxLDL exposure. Furthermore, fucoxanthin pretreatment significantly decreased OxLDL-induced reactive oxygen species production and prevented the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B pathway, which led to substantial suppression of pro-inflammatory gene expressions. OxLDL-induced upregulation of interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cyclooxygenase-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly reduced by fucoxanthin. Conclusions: Fucoxanthin can inhibit OxLDL-induced vascular inflammation and oxidative stress in HUVECs by targeting Nrf2 signaling pathways.
    4  Antibacterial and anti-parasitic activities of Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract against some common pathogenic agents of infectious diarrhea
    Sultan F Alnomasy
    2022, 12(5):216-222. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.343389
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.04 M](11)
    Objective: To assess the antidiarrheal effects of Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Giardia lamblia. Methods: Antibacterial effects of the Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract were carried out by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration through micro broth dilution technique. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species production and protein leakage were evaluated. To evaluate the in vitro anti-giardial effects of Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract, Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC® 30957) trophozoites were treated with various concentrations of Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract for 10-360 min. In addition, the plasma membrane permeability of trophozoites treated with Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract was determined. The cytotoxicity effects of Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract against normal (HEK293T) and cancer (MCF-7) cells were also assessed using the MTT assay. Results: The MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration of Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract against bacterial strains were in the range of 0.52-1.04 and 1.04-2.08 mg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that reactive oxygen species production and protein leakage were significantly increased after the bacteria were treated with the Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract, especially at 1/3 and 1/2 MICs (P<0.001). Furthermore, Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract decreased the viability of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in a dose-dependent manner. Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract at 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL resulted in 100% mortality in Giardia lamblia trophozoites after 360, 240, and 120 min, respectively. Moreover, Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract altered the permeability of plasma membrane of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by increasing the concentration. MTT assay revealed that the 50% cytotoxic concentrations values for HEK293T and MCF-7 cells were 4.32 mg/mL and 6.40 mg/mL, respectively, indicating that Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract had greater cytotoxicity against cancer cells than normal cells. Conclusions: Terfezia claveryi methanolic extract had potent in vitro antibacterial and anti-parasitic effects on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Giardia lamblia by affecting cell membrane permeability and reactive oxygen species generation with no significant cytotoxicity on normal cells.
    5  Naringin attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage in acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
    Volkan Gelen Serkan Yildirim Emin Sengul Ali C?nar Fikret Celebi Merve Kucukkalem Melahat Gok
    2022, 12(5):223-232. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.343390
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.01 M](10)
    Objective: To explore the possible effects of naringin on acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into five groups. The control group was given intragastric (i.g.) saline (1 mL) for 10 d. The acrylamide group was given i.g. acrylamide in saline (38.27 mg/kg titrated to 1 mL) for 10 d. The treatment groups were administered with naringin in saline (50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) for 10 d and given i.g. acrylamide (38.27 mg/kg) 1 h after naringin injection. The naringin group was given i.g. naringin (100 mg/kg) alone for 10 d. On day 11, intracardiac blood samples were obtained from the rats when they were under anesthesia, after which they were euthanized. Urea and creatinine concentrations of blood serum samples were analyzed with an autoanalyzer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, interleukin (IL)-33, IL-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, kidney injury molecule-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase-1, and caspase-3 in kidney tissues. Renal tissues were also evaluated by histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations for 8-OHdG and Bcl-2. Results: Naringin attenuated acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity by significantly decreasing serum urea and creatinine levels. Naringin increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities and decreased malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissues. In addition, naringin reduced the levels of inflammatory and apoptotic parameters in kidney tissues. The histopathological assay showed that acrylamide caused histopathological changes and DNA damage, which were ameliorated by naringin. Conclusions: Naringin attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and oxidative DNA damage in acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

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