Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Scopoletin: Anticancer potential and mechanism of action
    Lia Meilawati Rita Marleta Dewi Aprilia Nur Tasfiyati Abdi Wira Septama Lucia Dwi Antika
    2023, 13(1):1-8. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.367685
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 504.54 K](38)
    Cancer is considered a leading cause of death worldwide due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. Conventional treatments for cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, have been hampered by their side effects. Natural product-derived plants have been used for decades to treat diseases. Compared to conventional therapy, natural product has the potential to be effective against cancer with fewer side effects. This current review discussed the potential of scopoletin, a coumarin present in many edible plants, which elicits anticancer properties through multiple mechanisms, including modulating cell cycle arrest, inducing apoptosis, and regulating multiple signaling pathways. Understanding these mechanisms highlights the potential of scopoletin as a candidate for chemoprevention and chemotherapy.
    2  Quercetin modulates ovarian autophagy-related molecules and stereological parameters in a rat model of PCOS
    Asma Neisy Farhad Koohpeyma Majid Jafari Khorchani Fatemeh Karimi Fatemeh Zal
    2023, 13(1):9-16. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.367686
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.85 M](38)
    Objective: To examine the effect of quercetin on stereological parameters and autophagy-related genes in ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats. Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the ethanol group, the quercetin group (15 mg/kg/day), the PCOS group, as well as the PCOS + quercetin group. After the induction of PCOS, quercetin was administered orally for 30 days. Histological, stereological and real-time PCR analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of quercetin on PCOS rats. Results: Stereological analysis revealed that quercetin significantly increased the number of ovarian follicles and the volume of corpus luteum and induced a significant decrease in atretic follicles in comparison to the PCOS group. In addition, quercetin markedly increased mTOR gene expression while decreasing Beclin-1 and LC3 gene expression. Conclusions: Quercetin strongly modulates the expression of ovarian autophagy-related genes and stereological parameters in PCOS rats. Therefore, it can be considered as an ameliorative component for ovarian follicular impairments.
    3  L-carvone attenuates myocardial injury and dyslipidemia in rats with isoproterenolinduced cardiac hypertrophy
    Anitha Nagarajan Victor Arokia Doss
    2023(1):17-25. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.367687
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 989.83 K](38)
    Objective: To explore the therapeutic efficacy of L-carvone from Mentha spicata L. leaf extracts against isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Methods: Isoproterenol (5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for one month to induce cardiac hypertrophy. L-carvone (25 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to treat cardiac hypertrophy. The cardioprotective activity of L-carvone was evaluated by electrocardiogram, histopathological analysis as well as determination of biochemical parameters and enzymatic markers. Results: L-carvone from Mentha spicata L. at 25 and 100 mg/kg ameliorated isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy, as evidenced by reduced QRS interval on electrocardiogram, and decreased heart weight and heart index. In addition, both doses of L-carvone markedly lowered the levels of glucose, total protein, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase MB, troponin-Ⅰ, N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide and triglycerides while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipase level (P<0.05). Moreover, L-carvone alleviated contraction band necrosis, and reorganized the myofibrils with normal striations and myocytes as well as normal nuclei in cardiac histoarchitecture of rats with isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Conclusions: L-carvone from Mentha spicata L. leaf extract can restore abnormal cardiac function and may be further explored as a therapeutic agent against the deleterious effects of cardiac hypertrophy after further evaluation.
    4  Anti-leishmanial, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidative activity of quercetin against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major
    Ahmad Oryan Effat Bemani Somayeh Bahrami
    2023, 13(1):26-34. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.367689
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.30 M](41)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of quercetin and its immunomodulatory and anti-oxidative activity against Leishmania major (L. major). Methods: L. major promastigotes and amastigotes were incubated with different concentrations of quercetin to estimate EC50. For in vivo study, the base of tails of mice was infected with L. major. After developing ulcers in the inoculation site, mice were treated with 50 mg/kg quercetin orally for 28 consecutive days. The wound-healing potential of quercetin was evaluated by histopathological analysis of tissue sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson's trichrome. In addition, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and adiponectin, the ferric reducing ability of plasma, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured. Results: The EC50 values of quercetin against L. major promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were 0.27 and 0.85 μM, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed that fewer inflammatory cells, more fibroblasts, and more collagen deposition were observed in tissue sections of quercetin-treated mice. In addition, treatment with quercetin markedly increased glutathione peroxidase activity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and adiponectin levels while decreasing malondialdehyde, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Conclusions: Quercetin shows anti-leishmanial activity, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, it may be further explored as an effective drug in treating leishmaniasis.
    5  Molluscicidal effect of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
    Salwa S. Younis Iman F. Abou-El-Naga Khaled H. Radwan
    2023, 13(1):35-44. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.367688
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 852.53 K](44)
    Objective: To assess the molluscicidal effect of the eco-friendly green synthesized neem silver nanoparticles (neem-Ag NPs) against Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, and their cercaricidal potential. Methods: Methanol extracts from neem fruits were used for green synthesis of neem-Ag NPs. The neem-Ag NPs were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectra, dynamic laser light scattering technique, and transmission electron microscopy. The potential molluscicidal effect against adult and juvenile Biomphalaria alexandrina and the effect of the sub-lethal concentration on hatching of snail eggs and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were evaluated. Results: The surface plasmon resonance of neem-Ag NPs showed a sharp absorption peak at λ max = 518 nm together with multiple peaks. The hydrodynamic diameter was (77.15±34.53) nm, the polydispersity index (0.338±0.000) and the zeta-potential –14.07 mV. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was (27±2) nm. Agglomeration was evident and a light-colored capping layer could be seen coating the nanoparticles. Juvenile snails (LC50: 0.83 ppm) were more susceptible to neem-Ag NPs than adults (LC50: 1.07 ppm). In addition, neem-Ag NPs and neem at LC50 concentrations inhibited the egg-hatching of snails and showed cercaricidal activity in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions: Neem-Ag NPs have lethal activities against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and their eggs, as well as Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Hence, neem-Ag NPs could be a potential agent to control schistosomiasis.

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