Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Therapeutic potential of Zataria multiflora: A narrative review of current evidence
    Reza Nosratabadi Fatemeh Anaeigoudari Akbar Anaeigoudari
    2023(11):451-459. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.389570
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 442.58 K](93)
    Abstract:
    Zataria multiflora Boiss is a perennial plant with a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including antidiabetic, anti-nociceptive, anti-asthmatic, anti-fever, anti-spastic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. This paper reviews the therapeutic effects of Zataria multiflora based on recent reports. The relevant reports were extracted by checking the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from the beginning of 2010 until the end of May 2023. The neuroprotective effects of Zataria multiflora can be attributed to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and alleviation of brain oxidative damage. Zataria multiflora also exerts its protective effects on the respiratory system, liver, and kidney by reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines, scavenging the free radicals, and augmenting the antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, Zataria multiflora accelerates wound healing via upregulating transforming growth factor-β, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and inducing angiogenesis and collagen biosynthesis. Overall, the protective impacts of Zataria multiflora on different organs are mainly attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
    2  Biochanin-A attenuates high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats by improving antioxidant status and lipid metabolic markers
    P. P. Sethumathi V. V. Sathibabu Uddandrao P. Chandrasekaran S. Sengottuvelu P. Tamilmani P. Ponmurugan S. Vadivukkarasi M. Santhanakumar M. Shabana Begum G. Saravanan
    2023(11):460-468. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.389571
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.36 M](92)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine how biochanin-A (BCA) affects high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced pathological changes in lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were orally administered BCA (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days to investigate its effects on lipid profiles and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidney. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes in the liver was examined. Results: BCA attenuated hyperlipidemia by regulating mRNA expressions of HMG-CoA reductase, fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Additionally, BCA reduced high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress by suppressing lipid peroxidation, improving superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels, and upregulating mRNA expressions of these enzymes. Conclusions: BCA may be a promising nutraceutical for the treatment of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress associated with diabetes.
    3  Apigenin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy in rats by modulating the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway
    Yan-Bo Yu Mi-Zhen Qiu Da-Ying Zhang
    2023(11):469-478. DOI: 0.4103/2221-1691.389572
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.41 M](98)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the neuroprotective effects of apigenin against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods: To induce DN, Wistar rats (150-200 g) were administered with STZ (55 mg/kg, i.p.). Then they were randomly assigned to various groups, viz., normal, diabetic control, insulin (10 IU/kg, s.c.), apigenin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o.), and insulin (10 IU/kg) plus apigenin (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Various behavioral, biochemical, and molecular markers [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)] were assessed. Results: Apigenin (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) substantially reduced plasma glucose levels, lipid profile, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glycated hemoglobin, and neural advanced glycation end products in STZ-induced DN rats (P<0.05). After apigenin intervention, STZ-induced changes in food and water intake, body weight, urine output, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and insulin levels were markedly improved (P<0.05). Neural antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and Na+K+ATPase activity were also considerably elevated (P<0.05) while the level of lipid peroxidation was diminished following apigenin therapy (P<0.05). Furthermore, apigenin markedly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA level while downregulating the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and ILs and the protein expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 (P<0.05). STZ-induced histological abnormalities in the sciatic nerve were also improved by apigenin treatment. Conclusions: Apigenin exerts its neuroprotective effect by modulating the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways via regulating the TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway.
    4  Ocimum sanctum extract preserves neuronal echotexture and controls seizure in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus rats
    Soumya Sucharita Pattnaik Sudhir Chandra Sarangi Deeksha Sharma Surabhi Sinha Tapas C Nag Aruna Nambirajan Manjari Tripathi
    2023(11):479-487. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.389573
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.12 M](46)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extract (OSHE) on seizure control and neuronal injury in rats with lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Methods: SE was induced by administering lithium chloride followed by pilocarpine 24 h later. OSHE was administered either alone or in combination with valproate (VPA) 3 days before SE induction until 14 days post-SE induction. Seizure parameters were recorded on day 1 (0-3 h), day 1-3 and day 4-14 post-SE. On day 14 post-SE, neurobehavioural tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were done followed by total antioxidant capacity, neuron-specific enolase, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopic assessment in the hippocampus and cortex tissue. Results: OSHE+VPA provided more significant seizure protection (75%) than VPA (62.5%), OSHE (62.5%), or SE control (12.5%) (overall P=0.003). The latency to stage-3/4 seizures was increased and the number of stage-3/4 seizures was reduced in all treatment groups compared to the SE control group (P=0.002 and <0.001, respectively). The OSHE+VPA group also had better memory retention than other treatment groups (P<0.001) in the passive avoidance test. Total antioxidant capacity level was significantly higher and neuron-specific enolase was lower in the OSHE and OSHE+VPA groups compared to the SE control group. Electron microscopic study showed significant myelin sheath damage (67.5%, P<0.05) and axonal degeneration (51.8%, P<0.001) in the hippocampus of the SE control group, which were alleviated by OSHE or OSHE+VPA treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, the OSHE, OSHE+VPA, and VPA groups had a significantly higher number of viable neurons and less neuronal loss compared to the SE control in the hippocampus (P<0.001). Conclusions: OSHE either alone or in combination with VPA shows better seizure control by preservation of neuronal echotexture and reducing oxidative stress in the hippocampus.
    5  Zinc oxide nanoparticles accelerate the healing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-infected wounds in rabbits
    Muhammad Asif Ayesha Safdar Chaudhry Ambreen Ashar Hamad Bin Rashid Muhammad Hassan Saleem Hassaan Bin Aslam Abdul Aziz
    2023(11):488-496. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.389574
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.57 M](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and evaluate their antibacterial and wound healing effects against wounds infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: ZnONPs were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A total of 18 rabbits were divided into three groups: the ZnONPs group, the gentamicin group and the control group. A wound of 3 cm2 was inflicted on each rabbit and contaminated with MRSA inoculum. Treatment was started from the fourth day post-surgery. Wound healing, microbiological analysis, and histopathological analysis were performed to assess the efficacy of ZnONPs ointment. Results: XRD analysis confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnONPs with an average crystallite size of 29.23 nm. SEM revealed discoid-shaped ZnONPs with a rough surface and an average size of 48.36 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the purity of ZnONPs. Moreover, the particle size ranged from 100-700 nm with a high agglomeration trend. Treatment with ZnONPs promoted MRSA-infected wound healing. In addition, ZnONPs showed a good antibacterial effect as evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition. Conclusions: ZnONPs accelerate the healing of MRSA-infected wounds. Therefore, it can be explored for the treatment of MRSA infection.

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