Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential of pterostilbene: A review
    Omchit Surien Siti Fathiah Masre Dayang Fredalina Basri Ahmad Rohi Ghazali
    2023(12):497-506. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.391155
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 590.43 K](378)
    Abstract:
    Pterostilbene is a natural compound that can be found in various food plants such as blueberries, grapes, and peanuts. It has also been reported to be extracted from Pterocarpus indicus, a tree species native to India and Southeast Asia. Pterostilbene exhibits various pharmacological activities such as antioxidants, anti-proliferation, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities with favorable pharmacokinetic properties, such as high oral bioavailability and longer half-life. The anti-inflammatory effect of pterostilbene has been reported to contribute to its therapeutic effects in many chronic inflammatory diseases. Besides, pterostilbene has anti-cancer activity on various types of cancers due to its ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Hence, in this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of pterostilbene in preclinical studies.
    2  Luteolin attenuates diabetic nephropathy via inhibition of metalloenzymes in rats
    R. B. Daude Rajendra Bhadane J. S. Shah
    2023(12):507-520. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.391156
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.63 M](520)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the renoprotective effects of luteolin on diabetes in rats. Methods: One week after administration of streptozotocin 55 mg/kg intraperitoneally, rats were given 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg/day of luteolin orally for another eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, body weight, blood glucose level, biochemical parameters for renal function (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, serum albumin, and total protein), kidney histology, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2) expression, and malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline content in renal tissue were evaluated. High glucose-induced damage using NRK-52E cell line was studied to evaluate cell viability and metalloenzyme expression. Additionally, in silico studies including docking and molecular dynamics simulations were conducted. Results: MMP-2, MMP-9, and HDAC-2 expressions were significantly increased in high glucose-induced NRK-52E cells and the renal tissue of diabetic rats. However, these changes were reversed by luteolin at the administered doses. Additionally, luteolin significantly reduced oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as improved biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. Furthermore, luteolin at the examined doses markedly alleviated diabetes-induced histopathological changes in renal tissues. Conclusions: Luteolin effectively attenuates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats by inhibiting MMP-2, MMP- 9, and HDAC-2 expression, and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.
    3  Interleukin-33 exerts pleiotropic immunoregulatory effects in response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in mice
    Mohammad Faruq Abd Rachman Isnadi Rusliza Basir Ramatu Bello Omenesa Roslaini Abd Majid Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah Che Norma Mat Taib Sivan Padma Priya Yong Yean Kong Chin Voon Kin Gambo Lawal Mukhtar
    2023(12):521-531. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.391157
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.91 M](1183)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the involvement and the modulatory effects of IL-33 during Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. Methods: PbA infection in male ICR mice was utilized as a model of malaria. Systemically circulating IL-33 levels were determined in blood plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 24 hours post-inoculation of PbA, recombinant IL-33 and ST2, and antibodies against IL-33 and IgG treatments were administered daily for 3 days. Tissue expression and localization of IL-33 were assessed in organs generally affected by malaria via immunohistochemistry. Moreover, histopathological examination was performed to assess the effects of the treatments. Results: The levels of systemic IL-33 were elevated at the critical phase of PbA infection. Likewise, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant upregulation of IL-33 expression at the critical phase in the brain, lungs, and spleen of PbA-infected mice as compared to healthy controls. Treatment with IL-33 protected against experimental cerebral malaria development and reduced pathological features in the brain and lungs of the PbA-infected mice. Conclusions: A potential critical role and involvement of IL-33 in PbA infection may hint at the resolution of immunopathological sequelae associated with malaria.
    4  Macrophage-secreted exosomes inhibit breast cancer cell migration via the miR- 101-3p/DLG5 axis
    Yu Liu Chao-Qun Wang Yong-Kang Zhu Jia-Fang Xu Si-Qi Yin Qing-Jie Hu Rui-Qi Yang
    2023(12):532-538. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.391158
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](0) [PDF 1012.28 K](272)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the role of macrophages in regulating breast cancer cell migration and its related mechanisms. Methods: Human leukemia monocytic cell line THP-1-secreted exosomes were isolated using multi-step ultracentrifugation and verified using nanoparticle tracking analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified using RNA sequencing. Overexpression of inhibitors of hsa-miR-101-3p in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was performed by infecting their lentiviral constructs. The luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the interaction of DLG5 and miR-101. DGL5 expression was detected using qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: The migration of breast cancer cells was significantly inhibited after addition of exosomes. RNA sequencing results showed that miR-101-3p expression was significantly upregulated. Targetscan analysis predicted that miR-101-3p could target DLG5, and this prediction was verified using the luciferase assay. The addition of the miR-101-3p precursor significantly increased the expression of miR-101-3p, and the mRNA and protein levels of DLG5 were suppressed. In contrast, inhibiting the expression of miR-101-3p increased the mRNA and protein levels of DLG5. Furthermore, the scratch assay showed that inhibiting miR-101-3p could promote the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: Macrophage exosomes can inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells, and increasing the expression of miR-101-3p to inhibit DLG5 expression may play an important role in this process, which needs further investigation.

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