Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Antimicrobial activities of Acacia genus: A review
    Deeksha Adhikari Naresh Kumar Rangra
    2023(2):45-59. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.369609
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](0) [PDF 614.23 K](66)
    More than 1 300 species of the vast genus Acacia are found in tropical habitats. They are crucial economic plants since they produce traditional medicines, timber, and gum. The pharmacological uses of the Acacia genus include anti-diarrheal, anti-malarial, chronic pain relief, wound healing, anti-cancer, anti-rheumatism, and anti-diabetes activities. It is also used for treating various illnesses such as gastroenteritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, cough, and cardiovascular disease. The present review aims to summarize the antimicrobial activities including the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the Acacia genus. The literature was searched in books and online databases including SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and scientific journals using the most relevant keywords: Acacia+antimicrobial, Acacia+antibacterial, and Acacia+antifungal.
    2  Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of saponin extracts from walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves
    Youssef Elouafy Adil El Yadini Salma Mortada Mohamed Hnini Hicham Harhar Asaad Khalid Ashraf N. Abdalla Abdelhakim Bouyahya Khang Wen Goh Long Chiau Ming My El Abbes Faouzi Mohamed Tabyaoui
    2023(2):60-69. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.369610
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.19 M](91)
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between triterpenoid saponin content and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 70% ethanolic, butanolic, aqueous, supernate and precipitate extracts of Juglans regia leaves. Methods: Triterpenoid saponins of different Juglans regia leaf extracts were measured by the vanillin method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH and ABTS free radicals. We also assessed α-glucosidase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts. Pearson's correlation coefficient was evaluated to determine the correlation between the saponin content and biological activities. Results: The butanolic extract was most effective against DPPH with an IC50 of 6.63 μg/mL, while the aqueous extract showed the highest scavenging activity against ABTS free radical with an IC50 of 42.27 μg/mL. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated a strong negative correlation (r = −0.956) between DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50) and the saponin content in the samples examined. In addition, the aqueous extract showed the best α-glucosidase inhibitory activity compared with other extracts. All the extracts had fair antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae except for the aqueous extract. Conclusions: Juglans regia extracts show potent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. There is a correlation between saponin levels in Juglans regia leaf extracts and the studied activities. However, additional research is required to establish these relationships by identifying the specific saponin molecules responsible for these activities and elucidating their mechanisms of action.
    3  Salidroside attenuates oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal injury by inhibiting ferroptosis
    Ying-Zhi Li Ai-Ping Wu Dan-Dan Wang Pan-Pan Yang Bin Sheng
    2023(2):70-79. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.369611
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.64 M](55)
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of salidroside on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated NT2 cells and its underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: Retinoic acid was used to induce the differentiation of NT2 cells into neurons. The effects of salidroside on survival, apoptosis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress of neurons undergoing OGD were evaluated. Using precursor cells as controls, the effect of salidroside on the differentiation progression of OGD-treated cells was evaluated. In addition, the effect of erastin, a ferroptosis inducer, on NT2 cells was examined to investigate the underlying mechanisms of neuroprotective action of salidroside. Results: Salidroside alleviated the effects of OGD on neuronal survival, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and promoted NT2 cell differentiation. Moreover, salidroside prevented ferroptosis of OGD-treated cells, which was abolished following erastin treatment, indicating that ferroptosis mediated the regulatory pathway of salidroside. Conclusions: Salidroside attenuates OGD-induced neuronal injury by inhibiting ferroptosis and promotes neuronal differentiation.
    4  Combinatorial effect of diclofenac with piperine and D-limonene on inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of breast cancer cells
    Srivarshini Sankar Gothandam Kodiveri Muthukaliannan
    2023(2):80-92. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.369612
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.61 M](62)
    Objective: To investigate the potential synergistic activity of diclofenac with piperine and D-limonene in inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods: Molecular docking study was conducted to evaluate the binding affinity of diclofenac with piperine and D-limonene against p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The MTT assay was used to determine IC50, and the Chou-Talay method was used to determine the synergistic concentration of the combination treatment of diclofenac plus piperine and diclofenac plus D-limonene. Apoptosis detection, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential were also investigated. Results: Diclofenac, piperine, and D-limonene showed potent binding affinity for p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. Diclofenac plus piperine and diclofenac plus D-limonene enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species, which also had an effect on the mitochondrial membrane's integrity and caused DNA fragmentation. Diclofenac plus piperine and diclofenac plus D-limonene arrested the cells in the sub-G0 phase while drastically lowering the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the elevated apoptosis in the combined therapy was confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Conclusions: The combined therapy prominently enhanced the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 cells compared with treatment with diclofenac, piperine, and D-limonene alone.

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