Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2024 Table of Contents

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  • 1  CRX-527 as a candidate adjuvant in a recombinant BCG-based malaria vaccine
    Nor Munirah Zakaria Muhammad Adamu Abbas Rapeah Suppian
    2024(1):1-7. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.393581
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.30 M](16)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the role of CRX-527, a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, as the possible adjuvant for recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin expressing merozoite surface protein 1C (BCG-MSP-1C). Methods: The mice were immunized with BCG and BCG-MSP- 1C in the presence and absence of CRX-527. The untreated mice (injected with PBS-T80 only) were the negative control. The ability of CRX-527 to enhance IgG and its subclasses, as well as IL-4 and IFN-γ production in the serum and spleen supernatant was evaluated using ELISA. Results: Mice immunized with BCG-MSP-1C exhibited the highest production of IgGs, IL-4 and IFN-γ after third immunization. In addition, CRX-527 further promoted the production of total IgG and IgG subclasses as well as IFN-γ and IL-4 in the serum and splenocytes of immunized mice. Conclusions: CRX-527 has the potential as an adjuvant candidate for the candidate vaccines. Further study is needed to verify appropriate dosage for immunization and its efficacy.
    2  Agmatine ameliorates diabetes type 2-induced nephropathy in rats
    Fatemah O. Kamel Ohoud Shagroud Mai A.Alim A.Sattar Ahmad Gamal S Abd El-Aziz Abdulhadi S. Burzangi Duaa Bakhshwin Maha Jamal Shahid Karim
    2024(1):8-16. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.393580
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.11 M](58)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the nephroprotective potential of agmatine in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Methods: A single dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) coupled with a fructose diet induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Agmatine (40 and 80 mg/kg) was administered to rats for 12 weeks. The body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured weekly. Insulin level, urine output, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and cystatin-C were also determined at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were evaluated in kidney tissue. Histopathological study was also performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Agmatine at both doses significantly increased final body weight, and lowered fasting blood glucose, urine output, insulin, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and cystatin-C levels compared with the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Inflammatory markers and antioxidant effect were significantly improved in agmatine-treated rats. Moreover, the histopathological changes in renal structure were ameliorated by agmatine treatment. Conclusions: Agmatine alleviates diabetic nephropathy by improving renal functions and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms of its nephroprotective actions need to be investigated in future study.
    3  Ethanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress in contrast-induced nephropathy
    Xin Lin Xin Lu Yun-He Zhao Yi-Bei Wang Ru-Ge Niu Xiao-Hu Chen
    2024(1):17-27. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.393577
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.08 M](10)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the efficacy and potential mechanisms of the ethanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods: CIN rat models and human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) with iopromide-induced injury were employed to mimic CIN conditions. The effect of Abelmoschus manihot extract on the rat models and HK-2 cells was evaluated. In rat models, kidney function, histology, oxidative stress and apoptosis were determined. In HK-2 cells, cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and endoplasmic reticulum stress were assessed. Results: Abelmoschus manihot extract significantly improved structural and functional impairments in the kidneys of CIN rats. Additionally, the extract effectively mitigated the decline in cellular viability and reduced iopromide-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Abelmoschus manihot extract prominently attenuated acute endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis by downregulating GRP78 and CHOP protein levels. Conclusions: Abelmoschus manihot extract can be used as a promising therapeutic and preventive agent in the treatment of CIN.
    4  Foeniculum vulgare Mill. inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation and ameliorates neuroinflammation-mediated behavioral deficits in mice
    Sushruta Koppula Ramesh Alluri Spandana Rajendra Kopalli
    2024(1):28-39. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.393578
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.46 M](13)
    Abstract:
    5  Coumarin and eugenol ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells via modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway
    Jyotsana Bakshi Somnath Singh KP Mishra
    2024(1):40-46. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.393579
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 792.56 K](14)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the underlying mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of coumarin and eugenol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: RAW 264.7 cells were treated with 2.5 μg/mL of LPS, 50 μM of coumarin, and 50 μM eugenol for 24 h. The viability of the cells was assessed using MTT assay. The production of nitric oxide was determined using Griess reagent and DCFH-DA was used to measure the production of reactive oxygen species. The protein expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, NF-κB, and cyclooxygenase 2 was assessed using Western blot analysis. Results: Coumarin and eugenol showed anti-inflammatory effects against LPS-induced inflammatory response by ameliorating the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB, which further led to a subsequent reduction in IL-1β, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species. Conclusions: Coumarin and eugenol exert their anti-inflammatory activities by modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and NF-κB. These compounds may have promising therapeutic applications for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

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