Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

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  • 1  Cytotoxic, apoptotic and cell migration inhibitory effects of atranorin on SPC212 mesothelioma cells
    Erhan Sahin Sinem Dabagoglu Psav Ilker Avan Mehmet Candan Varol Sahinturk Numair Ayse Tansu Koparal
    2019(7):299-306. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.261810
    [Abstract](215) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.67 M](1395)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effects of atranorin, a lichen secondary metabolite, on SPC212 malignant mesothelioma cells in vitro. Methods: SPC212 malignant mesothelioma cell line was used. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cytotoxic effects of atranorin and cisplatin at 24, 48 and 72 h. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride staining were used for determining cell and nucleus morphology, respectively. Wound healing assay was used for investigating cell migration. The xCELLigence real-time cell analysis system was used for determining cell proliferation. Results: Atranorin at 5-450 μM decreased cell viability at 24, 48 and 72 h. IC50 values of atranorin were 300.94, 292.6 and 278.02 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively; meanwhile, the IC50 values of cisplatin were 128.00, 34.37 and 17.05 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Furthermore, atranorin disrupted cell and nuclear morphology with increasing concentrations. Atranorin significantly reduced cell migration by 38%, 37% and 35% at 300, 250 and 200 μM, respectively (P<0.000). Atranorin at 160-450 μM decreased cell proliferation at 72 h (P<0.000). Conclusions: Atranorin has cytotoxic, antiproliferative, apoptotic and cell migration inhibitory effects on SPC212 malignant mesothelioma cancer cells.
    2  Pam3CSK4 enhances adaptive immune responses to recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin expressing Plasmodium falciparum C-terminus merozoite surface protein-1
    Mohamed H Abdikarim Muhammad A Abbas Munirah N Zakaria Robaiza Zakaria Rapeah Suppian
    2019(7):271-277. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.261742
    [Abstract](196) [HTML](0) [PDF 940.00 K](1246)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effects of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) agonist, Pam3CSK4, on cellular and humoral immune response against recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) expressing the C-terminus of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum. Methods: Six groups of mice (n=6 per group) received intraperitoneal phosphate buffered saline T80 (PBS-T80), BCG or rBCG in the presence or absence of Pam3CSK4. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was carried out to measure serum total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b production. Spleens were also harvested and splenocytes were co-cultured with rBCG antigen for in vitro determination of IL-4 and IFN-γ via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The production of total IgG and the isotype IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b was significantly higher in rBCG-immunised mice than in the BCG and PBS-T80-immunised mice, and Pam3CSK4 further enhanced their productions. A similar pattern was also observed in IFN-γ production. Moreover, there was no significant difference in IL-4 production in all groups either in the presence or absence of Pam3CSK4. Conclusions: We present evidence of the adjuvant effects of TLR-2 agonist in enhancing the production of total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, as well as IFN-γ in response to rBCG. However, the presence or absence of Pam3CSK4 had no effect on IL-4 production.
    3  Evaluation of L-dopa, proximate composition with in vitro anti-inflammatory andantioxidant activity of Mucuna macrocarpa beans: A future drug for Parkinson treatment
    Chetan Aware Ravishankar Patil Swaroopsingh Gaikwad Shrirang Yadav Vishwas Bapat Jyoti Jadhav
    2017(12):1097-1106. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.012
    [Abstract](161) [HTML](0) [PDF 697.58 K](261)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa, anti-Parkinson drug),anti-inflammatory activity, proximate nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of Mucuna macrocarpa(M. macrocarpa) beans. Methods: L-dopa content was determined and quantified by high performance thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by in vitro protein denaturation inhibition and human red blood cell membrane stabilisation activity. Proximate composition and elemental analysis were also investigated. The antioxidant potential(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, N-N-dimethyl-phenylenediamine and ferric-reducingantioxidant power) of M. macrocarpa beans were evaluated by using different extraction solvents. The RP-HPLC analysis also quantified significant phenolics such as gallicacid, tannic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. Results: RP-HPLC quantification revealed that M. macrocarpa beans contain a high level of L-dopa [(115.41 ± 0.985) mg/g] which was the highest among the Mucuna species from Indian subcontinent. Water extract of seed powder showed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. Proximate composition of M. macrocarpa beans revealed numerous nutritional and anti-nutritional components. RP-HPLC analysis of major phenolics such as tannic acid (43.795 mg/g), gallic acid (0.864 mg/g),p-coumaric acid (0.364 mg/g) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.036 mg/g) quantified successfullyfrom M. macrocarpa beans respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that M. macrocarpa is a potential source of L-dopawith promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and nutritional benefits.
    4  Establishment of an early warning system for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fars province, Iran
    Marjan Zare Abbas Rezaianzadeh Hamidreza Tabatabaee Hossain Faramarzi Mohsen Aliakbarpour Mostafa Ebrahimi
    2019(6):232-239. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.260395
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.01 M](592)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To establish an early warning system for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fars province, Iran in 2016. Methods: Time-series data were recorded from 29 201 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in 25 cities of Fars province from 2010 to 2015 and were used to fit and predict the cases using time-series models. Different models were compared via Akaike information criterion/ Bayesian information criterion statistics, residual analysis, autocorrelation function, and partial autocorrelation function sample/model. To decide on an outbreak, four endemic scores were evaluated including mean, median, mean + 2 standard deviations, and median + interquartile range of the past five years. Patients whose symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis began from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015 were included, and there were no exclusion criteria. Results: Regarding four statistically significant endemic values, four different cutaneous leishmaniasis space-time outbreaks were detected in 2016. The accuracy of all four endemic values was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study presents a protocol to set early warning systems regarding time and space features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in four steps: (i) to define endemic values based on which we could verify if there is an outbreak, (ii) to set different time-series models to forecast cutaneous leishmaniasis in future, (iii) to compare the forecasts with endemic values and decide on space-time outbreaks, and (iv) to set an alarm to health managers.
    5  Antioxidant and anti-melanogenic activities of ultrasonic extract from Stichopus japonicas
    Chanipa Jiratchayamaethasakul Junseong Kim Eun-A Kim Soo-Jin Heo Seung-Hong Lee
    2020(1):33-41. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.273092
    [Abstract](122) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.57 M](199)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of an ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicas, collected from Jeju Island. Methods: Antioxidant activity experiments were assessed by an electron spin resonance system and a cellular model of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to determine its radical scavenging activity and protective effects against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress. Antimelanogenic activity of the ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber was also examined using the melanoma cell model B16F10 and mushroom tyrosinase. Following the induction by α-melanocytestimulating hormone, the effects of the ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber on intracellular tyrosinase activity, melanin content and the melanogenic protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP-1, and TRP-2) were examined. Results: The ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and alkyl radicals [IC50: (0.924±0.035) and (0.327±0.006) mg/mL, respectively], as well as showed a protective effect against oxidative stress and attenuated generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species on AAPHinduced HaCaT cells, with no cytotoxicity (12.5-400 μg/mL). The ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber also exhibited a tyrosinase inhibitory effect [IC50: (2.750±0.006) mg/mL]. On α-melanocytestimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells, the ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber (25-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited not only melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, but also protein expressions of microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Conclusions: The ultrasonic extract of red sea cucumber shows antioxidant and anti-melanogenic potential and may be a natural candidate for anti-aging as well as a whitening agent in the cosmeceuticals industry.
    6  Methanolic extract of Abrus precatorius promotes breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell death by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and upregulating Bax
    Wan Suriyani Wan-Ibrahim Norzila Ismail Siti Farhanah Mohd-Salleh Aidy Irman Yajid Michael Pak-Kai Wong Mohd Nizam Md Hashim
    2019(6):249-256. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.260397
    [Abstract](121) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](594)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the anti-proliferative activity of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius) leaf extracts and their effect on cell death. Methods: A. precatorius leaves were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol by Soxhlet extraction. Aqueous extract was prepared by decoction at 50 ℃. Extracts of A. precatorius leaves were used to treat selected cancer and normal cell lines for 72 h. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was performed to determine cell viability. Analysis of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis assay and apoptosis protein expressions were determined by flow cytometry. Results: Methanolic extract of A. precatorius leaves showed the lowest IC50 on MDA-MB-231 cells at (26.40±5.40) μg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell arrest occurred at G0/ G1 phase and the apoptosis assay showed the occurrence of early apoptosis at 48 h in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with methanolic extract of A. precatorius leaves. Methanolic extract of A. precatorius leaves induced apoptosis by upregulation of Bax, p53 and caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2. Conclusions: Methanolic extract of A. precatorius leaves promotes MDA-MB-231 cell death by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis possibly via the mitochondrial-related pathway.
    7  A new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor from Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth
    Islamudin Ahmad Neneng Siti Silfi Ambarwati Berna Elya Hanita Omar Kamarza Mulia Arry Yanuar Osamu Negishi Abdul Mun'im
    2019(6):257-262. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.260398
    [Abstract](121) [HTML](0) [PDF 936.95 K](593)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate, identify, and evaluate a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor from Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth herbs. Methods: A dried sample of Peperomia pellucida herb was successively macerated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract solution was evaporated to obtain the crude extract. Vacuum liquid column chromatography and thin layer chromatography were performed to obtain two pure compounds. Then, both compounds were elucidated and identified using the spectroscopic method. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity studies of both compounds were determined using angiotensin-converting enzyme kit WST-1 with spectrophotometer microplate reader 96-well at 450 nm wavelength. Results: Two bioactive compounds were successfully isolated from Peperomia pellucida herb, including a new compound of 2,3,5-trimethoxy-9-(12,14,15-trimethoxybenzyl)-1H-indene and pellucidin A. Both compounds demonstrated angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 72 μM (27.95 μg/mL) and 11 μM (4.4 μg/mL), respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, two active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were successfully isolated and purified from Peperomia pellucida which is used as an antihypertensive in traditional medicine, and support its use as an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting drug.
    8  Phytochemical profiling of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. leaf methanol extract and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities
    Ekta Bhattacharya Rajashree Dutta Swati Chakraborty Suparna Mandal Biswas
    2019(11):484-492. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.270984
    [Abstract](118) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.39 M](251)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the phytochemical profile of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. leaves both qualitatively and quantitatively, and validate its role as a potent antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. Methods: Extraction and isolation of different compounds were done from the leaves of Artocarpus lakoocha based on solvent fractionation method. Subsequently, quantitative and qualitative phytochemical profiling along with antioxidant, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities were tested following standard protocols. Results: Among the five fractions, methanol fraction of Artocarpus lakoocha exhibited higher content of phytochemical compounds [phenols = (3 175.21±290.43) mg GAE/g dry extract, flavonoids = (1 173.15±47.52) mg QE/g dry extract and tannins = (923.53±95.21) mg TAE/ g dry extract] as compared to other fractions. The methanol fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays with IC50 of (111.98±34.20) μg/mL and (138.26±0.66) μg/mL, respectively, and the best reduction potential with a value of (316.81±2.96) mg QE/g dry extract in reducing power assay. There was significant correlation between the amount of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the extract successfully protected Lambda phage DNA from damage at 5 and 6 mg/mL concentration and exhibited substantial bactericidal as well as fungicidal activity. The GC-MS analysis of methanol fraction of Artocarpus lakoocha revealed diethyl phthalate as the main phytochemical compound, along with 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, 9-octyl eicosane and 7,8-didehydro-3- methoxy-17-methyl-6-methylene morphinan. Conclusions: The methanol fraction of Artocarpus lakoocha could be used as a potent antioxidant and antimicrobial agent for sustainable agriculture and pharmaceutical purposes.
    9  Hepatoprotection by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and mechanisms
    Mohaddese Mahboubi Mona Mahboubi
    2020(1):1-10. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.273081
    [Abstract](117) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.35 M](194)
    Abstract:
    The protection of the liver as an essential organ in the body against oxidative stress and deleterious compounds has been the subject of recent investigations. Among different compounds, medicinal plants play an important role due to their hepatoprotective effects. Taraxacum officinale or “common dandelion” is a popular plant that has been traditionally used for its hepatoprotective effects. Currently, there are limited clinical studies on its hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this review article is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of dandelion and its mechanism of action. We reviewed literature up to July 2019 on “Taraxacum officinale” or “dandelion” and hepatoprotection. Currently available pharmacological studies indicate that dandelion extracts have hepatoprotective effects against chemical agents due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory effects of dandelion, the prebiotic effects of its oligofructans, inhibitory effects against the release of lipopolysaccharides and fasting induced adipose factor, digestive enzymes, and enhancing effects of lipogenesis, reduce lipid accumulation and liver inflammation, which directly or indirectly improve the liver functions. Given emerging evidence on hepatoprotective effects of dandelion, designing large human clinical studies is essential.
    10  Comparison of antioxidant capacity and a-glucosidase inhibitory activity between bitter melon (Momordica charanti) fruit and leaf extract
    Eun-Sun Hwang
    2018(4):189-193. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.231280
    [Abstract](116) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.34 M](263)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the physiologically active substances, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in vitro of bitter melon fruit and leaf extract. Methods: Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured using spectrophotometrically by gallic acid and catechin standard curves, respectively. The radical-scavenging potential of bitter melon fruit and leaf extract were measured by DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power and anti-diabetic ability was evaluated by a-glucosidase activity. Results: It was confirmed that the bitter melon leaf contained more total polyphenols and flavonoids than bitter melon fruits. Bitter melon leaf extract contained 2.8-fold and 4.9-fold higher total polyphenols and flavonoids than bitter melon fruits, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of bitter melon leaf was 5.81- and 5.70-fold higher than that of the bitter melon frui, based on 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL of the extract, respectively. In ABTS, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power, the bitter melon leaf extract all showed higher antioxidant capacity than the bitter melon fruit. Bitter melon fruit showed 2.52- and 2.63-fold higher a-glucosidase inhibitory activity than bitter melon leaf extract at 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our results, bitter melon may improve antidiabetic effects by upreguating a-glycosidase activity. Even, bitter melon leaf extract shows higher antioxidant potential than its fruit but bitter melon leaf extract does not show higher a-glucosidase inhibitory potential than bitter melon fruit. The overall results support that bitter melon fruit and leaf may have specific target effects on antidiabetic and antioxidant, respectively.
    11  p-Coumaric acid ameliorates ethanol-induced kidney injury by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB signaling in rats
    Ramakrishnan Sabitha Kumari Nishi Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran Govindhan Annamalai Balupillai Agilan Mathan Ganeshan
    2019(5):188-195. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.258998
    [Abstract](113) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.20 M](645)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the effects of p-coumaric acid on ethanol-induced kidney injury in Swiss Wistar rats. Methods: Ethanol (25% v/v) was used to induce nephrotoxicity in rats. p-Coumaric acid was orally administered at 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight. The levels of oxidative parameters were determined; pro-inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by Western blotting and apoptotic protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Ethanol treated rats showed decreased levels of antioxidants and aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL1β, TNF-α), NF-κB activation and imbalance of proand anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3). Meanwhile, p-coumaric acid restored antioxidant levels and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB, and proapoptotic proteins and increased Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: p-Coumaric acid ameliorates ethanol-induced kidney injury by restoring antioxidant production and suppressing cellular apoptosis and inhibiting NF-κB expression. p-Coumaric acid should be further investigated as a promising candidate for ethanol-induced kidney toxicity.
    12  Cynodon dactylon extract ameliorates cognitive functions and cerebellar oxidative stress in whole body irradiated mice
    Vinodini NA Roopesh Poojary Reshma Kumarchandra Nayanatara Arun Kumar Ganesh Sanjeev Numair Bhagyalakshmi K
    2019(7):278-283. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.261763
    [Abstract](108) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.01 M](733)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon on the whole body radiation-induced oxidative status of the cerebellum and cognitive impairments in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into the control group, radiation control group, low dose and high dose Cynodon dactylon extract treated groups and pre-treated with Cynodon dactylon extract before irradiation. Cynodon dactylon extract was administered for 7 d daily in low dose (0.25 g/kg) and high dose (1 g/kg). On day 7, mice were irradiated with a sublethal dose of 5 Gy gamma rays. Motor coordination was assessed by elevated rotarod test and spatial memory was studied by water maze test. Subsequently, biochemical markers (glutathione, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels) in the cerebellum were evaluated. Results: The gamma irradiated group showed significant impairment in motor coordination and spatial memory compared to normal mice. Mice treated by Cynodon dactylon extract prior to gamma radiation showed good improvement in both paradigms compared to the radiation control group. Moreover, glutathione level was increased, while lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels were significantly reduced in mice receiving low dose and high dose of Cynodon dactylon extract compared to the radiation control group. Conclusions: The present study suggests the neuroprotective role of Cynodon dactylon against radiation-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress on the cerebellum of mice.
    13  Galangin ameliorates changes of membrane-bound enzymes in rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia
    Amal A. Aloud Chinnadurai Veeramani Chandramohan Govindasamy Mohammed A. Alsaif Khalid S. Al- Numair
    2019(7):284-291. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.261764
    [Abstract](108) [HTML](0) [PDF 942.18 K](750)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the protective effect of galangin on membrane bound enzymes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods: A single low dose of streptozotocin was injected to adult male albino rats to induce hyperglycemia. Galangin (8 mg/kg) or glibenclamide 600 μg/kg as a standard drug was given orally once daily for 45 days by gavage. Membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases were determined including total ATPase, sodium-potassium-ATPase, calcium-ATPase and magnesium-ATPase in erythrocytes and tissues (kidney, liver, and heart). Results: The levels of total ATPases, sodium-potassium-ATPase, calcium-ATPase and magnesium-ATPase in erythrocytes and tissues were significantly altered in diabetic rats as compared to that in normal rats. After 45 days of treatment with galangin or glibenclamide, the levels of these enzymes were similar to that of normal control rats. Conclusions: Oral administration of galangin or glibenclamide can improve activities of these membrane-bound ATPases towards normal levels. Mechanism of galangin needs to be further explored in future.
    14  Medicinal values of aquatic plant genus Nymphoides grown in Asia: A review
    Zihan Rahman Khan Nargis Sultana Chowdhury Suriya Sharmin Md. Hossain Sohrab
    2018(2):113-119. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.225615
    [Abstract](103) [HTML](0) [PDF 462.34 K](232)
    Abstract:
    Nymphoides is an aquatic genus consisting about 50 species, of which few were accepted as traditional medicinal plants in Asia. The literature review revealed that Nymphoides species are widely used in Ayurvedic medicine as a popular drug, i.e. Tagara. They are also utilized by the traditional local healers of different Asian countries to treat various diseases, like convulsion, jaundice, fever, headache, etc. According to the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies, Nymphoides species have been claimed to possess major biological activities like anticonvulsant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, antitumor, etc. Biochemical profiling of different aquatic plants of this genus revealed the presence of some important phytochemicals as polyphenolic component, flavonoids, triterpenes, carbohydrates, glycosides, etc. . Several valuable bioactive compounds including ephedrine, coumarin, secoiridoid glucosides, methyl quercetin, ferulic acid, foliamenthoic acid, etc. were also known to be isolated and identified from different Nymphoides species. The aim of this review is to analyze the published report based on the medicinal values of different Asian Nymphoides species, to provide the updated information about the ethnomedicinal, pharmacological as well as the phytochemical properties for the first time.
    15  Anti-cancer effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of pericarp of pistachio fruits
    Hamidreza Harandi Ahmad Majd Soudeh Khanamani Falahati-pour Mehdi Mahmoodi
    2018(12):598-603. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.248097
    [Abstract](102) [HTML](0) [PDF 790.78 K](209)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity and anti-cancer effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of pistachio pericarp on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and mouse fibroblast L929 cells as normal and control group cell. Methods: MTT assay was performed to investigate the cytotoxicity effects of the extract at 0-4 000 μg/mL on the cells after 24 and 48 h. The expressions of some genes involved in apoptosis including Bax, Bcl-2 and P53 were investigated by real time PCR. Results: Our results showed that after 24 and 48 hours of treatment of cells with this extract, the viability of HepG2 and L929 cells was reduced. Therefore, this extract had the cytotoxicity effect on both cells. The IC50 concentration of extract for HepG2 cells after 24 and 48 hours of treatment was 1 500 and 1 000 μg/mL and for L929 cells was 2 000 and 1 500 μg/mL, respectively. The expressions of Bax and P53 genes were up-regulated after treatment in the HepG2 and L929 cells and the expression of Bcl-2 gene was down-regulated after treatment of extract in HepG2 cell. Conclusions: According to the results of MTT assay and real time PCR, this extract can be considered as a potential candidate for use in the production of anti-cancer drugs for the treatment of patients with liver cancer in future.
    16  Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. extract against Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    Waode Munaeni Widanarni Munti Yuhana Mia Setiawati Aris T. Wahyudi
    2019(9):397-404. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.267669
    [Abstract](102) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.53 M](347)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze compounds in Eleutherine bulbosa (E. bulbosa) (Mill.) Urb. extract and to determine its antibacterial capability against Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus). Methods: E. bulbosa bulb extract was preprared using 96% ethanol by the maceration method. Phytochemical investigation of E. bulbosa extract was analyzed using GC-MS, spectrophotometry and titrimetry methods. The zone of inhibition was identified by the diffusion agar method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined using the plate count method. The inhibitory rate against V. parahaemolyticus was determined by the microdilution method. Cellular leakage was evaluated by spectrophotometry and cellular damage was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: GC-MS analysis showed the high compound of the E. bulbosa extract was securixanthone E (7-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyxanthone). The compound groups also included fatty acid esters, isoquinolines, naphthalenes, and phenolics. The total phenolic content was (2.50 ± 0.00) mg/g, flavonoid (6.61 ± 0.00) mg/g, and tannin (0.03 ± 0.00)%. The greatest zone of inhibition and inhibitory rate were (11.83 ± 0.06) mm and (91.32 ± 2.76)%, respectively, at 10 mg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.156 mg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was 10 mg/mL. The E. bulbosa extract caused leakage and cellular damage to V. parahaemolyticus. Conclusions: The E. bulbosa extract possesses inhibitory activities against V. parahaemolyticus and causes cellular leakage and damage.
    17  Attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory events in BV-2 microglial cells by Moringa oleifera leaf extract
    Gothai Sivaprakasam Palanivel Ganesan Katyakyini Muniandy Shin-Young Park Duk-Yeon Cho Joon-So Kim Palanisamy Arulselvan Dong-Kug Choi
    2019(3):109-115. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.254604
    [Abstract](101) [HTML](0) [PDF 352.79 K](181)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) under lipopolysaccharide stimulation of mouse murine microglia BV2 cells in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of MLE was investigated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. The inflammatory response of BV-2 cells were induced with lipopolysaccharide. The generation of nitric oxide levels was determined by using Griess assay and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) was evaluated by ELISA kit. The expression of iNOS, COX-2 as well as IκB-ααwas carried out by immunoblot analysis. Results: MLE reduced the nitric oxide production in concentration-dependent manner, and maintained the viability of BV-2 microglial cells which indicated absence of toxicity. In addition, MLE repressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by arresting the deterioration of IκB-α, consequently resulted in suppression of cytokines expression such as COX-2 and iNOS. Conclusions: MLE inhibitory activities are associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B transcriptional activity in BV2 microglial cells. Thus MLE may offer a substantial treatment for neuroinflammatory diseases.
    18  Characterization of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl bark root extract and evaluation of cytotoxic effect on human tumor cell lines
    Paulo Fernando Machado Paredes Selene Maia de Morais Fernando César Rodrigues Brito Luiz Francisco Wemmenson Gon alves Moura Patrícia de Araújo Rodrigues Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin Francisco Ernani Alves Magalh es Eridan Orlando Pereira Tramontina Florean Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes
    2018(7):345-351. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.237077
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](0) [PDF 341.39 K](146)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the chemical components of active extract from Cnidoscolus quercifolius root bark and its cytotoxic potential against several tumor strains. Methods: The high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the extract were used to distinguish the existence of possible functional groups in the root bark extract. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of methanol extract on human colon cancer cell lines was evaluated using OVCAR-8, SF-295, HCT116, HL-60 strains and the samples were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Results: The analysis of nuclear magnetic spectra of the active chloroform fraction revealed the presence of absorptions bands correspondent to a mixture of favelines such as neofavelanone, deoxofaveline or methyl-faveline, which structures were confirmed by ultraviolet spectra upon high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection analysis. The active fraction showed cytotoxic effects in the tested strains, HCT-116, SF-295, OVCAR-8 and HL-60 cells with IC50 of 72 hours ranging from 4.95 to 15.23 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results suggest that the substances present in faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) root bark extract have a cytotoxic potential against several tumor lines, showing a broader antitumour potential, and in addition no adverse to healthy cells. Therefore, the root bark extract of Cnidoscolus quercifolius has a possibility of use for anticarcinogenic therapies.
    19  Anticancer potential of Alternanthera sessilis extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells
    Sivapragasam Gothai Katyakyini Muniandy Norhaizan Mohd Esa Suresh Kumar Subbiah Palanisamy Arulselvan
    2018(8):394-402. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.239427
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](0) [PDF 423.34 K](266)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the bioactive extracts from Alternanthera sessilis and investigate its cytotoxicity potential against colon cancer cells, HT-29. Methods: This study examined the effects of three parts (aerial, leaf, stem) of whole plant on HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Three different extracts from the plant parts were prepared by maceration technique using 80% ethanol. The anticancer activities were determined using MTT, clonogenic, cell motility and AOPI assay. The chemical composition profiling was analyzed by GC-MS. Results: Among three plant part extracts, leaf extract greatly suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells in time and dosage-dependent manner, followed by aerial and stem. The cytotoxicity results were rationalized with clonogenic, cell motility and AO/PI assay, where extract showed the most active activity compared to aerial and stem extracts. GC-MS analysis of leaf extract showed there were various recognized anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: Amid the screened extracts, the leaf extract exhibits the credible cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity and hence, our findings call for additional research to conclude the active compounds and their mechanisms determining the apoptotic activity.
    20  A comprehensive review on phytopharmacological investigations of Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.
    Naresh Kumar Rangra Subir Samanta Kishanta Kumar Pradhan
    2019(1):1-11. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.250263
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](0) [PDF 359.51 K](263)
    Abstract:
    Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth. is a perennial shrub having a wide range of medicinal potentials and is widely distributed throughout the world. It is being used traditionally to overcome various medical complications like sore eyes, aches, rheumatism, allergy, itching, and rashes. Besides, Acacia auriculiformis has been proven for many pharmacological activities like central nervous system depressant activity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-filarial, cestocidal, antimutagenic, chemopreventive, spermicidal, wound healing, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activity due to its low toxicity (LD50 = 3 741.7 mg/kg) and high efficacy. In addition, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of chief constituents as flavonoids (Auriculoside) and triterpenoid saponin glycosides (acaciasides- acaciaside A & B) in different parts of this plant. Since many years researchers have been carrying out various studies on this medicinal important shrub to elicit the various biological activities. This review attempts to highlight the pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological observations from 1965 to 2018 retrieved from SciFinder, Scientific journals, books, Google Scholar, and botanical electronic database websites. The various plant extracts evaluated for different pharmacological activities showed significant efficacy. Bioactive phytoconstituents isolated from various parts of the plant are highlighted. Pharmacognostical standardization of the plant done with various standard parameters is also reported. The low toxicity of this plant and the presence of major bioactive phytoconstituents like flavonoids and triterpenoid saponin glycosides are responsible for a therapeutic remedy for various diseases and pharmacological activities respectively. This review provides exhaustive information about the pharmacognostical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations of Acacia auriculiformis till date.

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