Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 7,Issue 6,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Therapeutic potential and pharmacological activities of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC.
    Nut Koonrungsesomboon Kesara Na-Bangchang Juntra Karbwang
    2014, 7(6):421-428. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60069-
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.41 M](144)
    Abstract:
    AbstractThe rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (A. lancea) (Thunb.) DC. (AL) is extensively used in Chinese, Thai, and Japanese traditional medicines as crude extracts/decoctions or a component in various herbal formulations. Various pharmacological activities of AL and its major constituents have been demonstrated in vitroex vivo, and in animal models. Results from the toxicity studies in animal models suggest safety profile of AL and its active constituents. Despite extensive use with positive impression in many diseases, there has not been a clinical study that can conclusively support its efficacy and safety profile in human. This review comprehensively summarizes current information on the pharmacological activities of AL and their active constituents including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antipyretic activities, as well as activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems.
    2  Synergistic effects of ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae family and antibiotics against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii
    Sasitorn Chusri Thanyaluck Siriyong Pinanong Na-Phatthalung Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
    2014, 7(6):456-461. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60074-2
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.59 M](129)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of 17 ethnomedicinal plants belonging to Apocynaceae family used in combination with 16 conventional antibiotics against non-multidrug resistant-, multidrug resistant (MDR)-, and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). Methods: Antibacterial activity and resistance modifying ability of 272 combinations were determined by growth inhibition assays and further confirmed by time-kill assay. Results: Among the combinations of the antibiotics with Apocynaceae ethanol extracts on this pathogen, 15 (5%) had synergistic effects, 23 (8%) had partial synergistic effects and 234 (86%) had no effects. Synergistic activity was observed mostly when the Apocynaceae extracts were combined with rifampicin or cefazolin. Interestingly, 10 out of 17 combinations between the extracts and rifampicin displayed synergistic or partial synergistic behaviors. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract was additionally tested to restore rifampicin activity against clinical isolates of MDR and XDR A. baumannii. With respect to total or partial synergy, 70% was XDR A. baumannii isolates and 66% was MDR A. baumannii isolates. Conclusions: Holarrhena antidysenterica extract clearly demonstrated the ability to restore rifampicin activity against both A. baumannii ATCC19606 and clinically isolated A. baumannii. Additional studies examining its active principles as well as mechanisms of actions such as the effects on efflux pumps and outer membrane permeability alterations are recommended.
    3  Determinants of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in Bejaia, Algeria
    Yanat Betitra Vinuesa Teresa Vi?as Miguel Touati Abdelaziz
    2014, 7(6):462-467. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60075-4
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.45 M](159)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms of quinolone resistance and the association with other resistance markers among Esherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from outpatient with urinary tract infection in north of Algeria. Methods: A total of 30 nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli isolates from outpatient with urinary tract infections from January 2010 to April 2011 in north of Algeria (Bejaia) were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of quinolone were determined by microdilution. Mutations in the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC genes and screening for qnr (A, B and S) and bla genes were done by PCR and DNA sequencing. Results: Most of the E. coli isolates (56.66%) were shown to carry mutations in gyrA and parC (gyrA: Ser83Leu + Asp87Asn and parC:Ser80Ile). While, 16.66% had only an alteration in gyrA: Ser83Leu. One isolate produced qnrB-like and two qnrS-like. Four isolates were CTX-M-15 producers associated with TEM-1 producing in one case. Co-expression of blaCTX-M-15 and qnrB was determined in one E. coli isolate. Conclusions: Our findings suggested the community emergence of gyrA and parC alterations and Qnr determinants that contributed to the development and spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in Algerian E. coli isolates.
    4  Inhibited effects of veliparib combined doxorubicin for BEL-7404 proliferation of human liver cancer cell line
    Xu Zhao Yu Wang Jian-Jun Gao Jia-Jun Yin
    2014, 7(6):468-472. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60076-6
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.32 M](135)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore inhibition effects of veliparib as PARP inhibitor combined doxorubicin for BEL-7404 proliferation of human liver cancer cell line. Methods: BEL-7404 was taken as the object of study and conventional culture was performed. It wastreated by doxorubicin and (or) veliparib after 24 h. Cell proliferation rate was detected by four methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, cell apoptosis was measured with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method by flow cytometry, DNA damage degree evaluation by single cell gel electrophoresis assay, and cytosolic C levels of the mitochondrial and cytosol by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Western blotting). Results: Cell proliferation rate of doxorubicin combined veliparib group was lower than that of the control group and doxorubicin alone treated group significantly (P<0.01), the apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that of the control group and doxorubicin alone treated group (P<0.05). At the same time, DNA damage level of doxorubicin combined with veliparib group was significantly higher than doxorubicin alone treatment group and the control group (P<0.01), and cytochrome C in the cytosol was significantly higher than that of control group and doxorubicin alone treated group (P<0.01). Conclusions: Veliparib, PARP inhibitor could inhibit PARP activity, block tumor cell DNA repair, and have significant sensitizing effect for hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404 treated with doxorubicin. This might provide a new target for clinical treatment of hepatic carcinoma.
    5  Expression heterogeneity research of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adenocarcinoma cell line
    Zong-Jiang Xia Wei Hu Yue-Bin Wang Kun Zhou Guo-Ju Sun
    2014, 7(6):473-477. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60077-8
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.63 M](147)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze expression heterogeneity of Integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adenocarcinoma cell line and further provide theoretical direction for molecular biological research of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Tissue microarray was used to observe relation among expression, heterogeneitpy and clinical characteristics of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung cancer. Results: ITGB3 and BCL-2 increased significantly in A549 cells in CAFs group withβ-actin as control; the expression level of BCL-2 also increased in ITGB3 transfected cells with GFP plasmid transfected A549 cells as control; immunohistochemistry staining showed that positive rates of ITGB3, ITGB1 and BCL-2 in normal lung tissues were 0, the positive rates in lung adenocarcinoma were 7.04%, 84.51% and 4.23%, respectively; in the results of immunohistochemistry staining, the expression of Girdin protein in lung adenocarcinoma was homogeneous, however protein expression of ITGB3, ITGB1 and BCL-2 showed different patterns in the same location with significant heterogeneity; majority of ITGB3, ITGB1 or BCL-2 positive tissue showed heterogeneity that expression in trailing edge was higher than that of trailing edge in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, the patients with BCL-2 heterogeneity showed higher lymph node metastasis ratio and lower clinical stage (P<0.05); and the expression of ITGB3 and the clinical characteristics of patients were not significant related (P>0.05). Conclusions: Expression of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell line showed heterogeneity that expression in trailing edge was higher than that of trailing edge, which may play an important role in promoting tumor lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion, and provides a new research direction for exploration of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis mechanism.
    6  Effect of FK506 nanospheres on regeneration of allogeneic nerve after transplant
    Ting Li Xiao-Jian Zhang Jun Li Quan-Cheng Kan
    2014, 7(6):478-482. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60078-X
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.57 M](130)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To discuss effect of FK506 nanospheres used at different time on the regeneration of allogeneic nerve after transplant. Methods: Single emulsion-solvent evaporation method (O/W) was adopted to prepare the FK506 nanospheres and the tibial nerve of rats after allogeneic transplantation. FK506 nanospheres were used in group A after operation immediately, in group B in 24 h after operation, and in group C in 3 d after operation while FK506 nanospheres were not used in group D; in the 4th, 8th and 12th week after operation respectively, general observation of transplanted nerves, histological examination, image analysis of myelinated fibers, wet-weight determination of musculi triceps surae, retrogradely labeling of neurons by the fluorescein and electrophysiological comparison of bilateral tibial nerve were carried out. Results: FK506 nanospheres can be degraded and absorbed quickly. The neural regenerations in group A and B were similar, which were both much better than those in group C and D. The difference was statistically significant and so was the difference between group C and D. Conclusions: Drug release rate of FK506 nanospheres is accordant with the regeneration law of damaged nerves and the local application can promote the regenerations of nerves. The effect would be better if the drug is used in earlier period (within 24 h).
    7  Meta analysis of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility ofpopulations in East Asia
    Zhi-Song Xing Guang Zhu Yur Lun Yang Guang-Qiang Peng Guang-Cheng Ding
    2014, 7(6):483-487. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60079-1
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.49 M](134)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the relation between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility of populations in East Asia. Methods: Related studies of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility of populations in East Asia were collected through searching the Pubmed, Embase Library, SPRINGER, CNKI and CSSCI. Results: According to the entry criteria, there were 8 case-control studies in the assessing system and there were 6 321 study cases, including 3 215 patients with lung cancer and 3 106 cases without cancers. Meta analysis results showed the combined OR value of the ratio of genotype Thr/Met+Met/Met and Thr/Thr was 1.03 (95%CI: 0.89–1.20) (P>0.05). Conclusions: XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism may not related to lung cancer susceptibility of populations in East Asia. Allele 241Met did not increase the risk of lung cancer.
    8  Effect of WNT5A on epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its correlation with tumor invasion and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    Hong-Hai Zhu Xiao-Yuan Zhu Ming-Hui Zhou Gen-Yang Cheng Wei-Hua Lou
    2014, 7(6):488-491. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60080-8
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.79 M](130)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell WNT5A and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (emt)/metastasis, and investigate its possible mechanisms. Methods: RT-PCR and gene transfection were used to detect the expression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell strains WNT5A and EMT related factor 5–8F. Transient transfection of NPC cell line 5–8F was determined by liposome of plasmid with WNT5A gene. The differential expressions of WNT5A and EMT-related factors in cells before and after transfection were detected by RT-PCR. Cell scratch assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the motility abilities of cells before and after 5–8F transfection. Results: The expressions of WNT5A and EMT related factors matrix metalloproteinase-2 of the WNT5A transferred group in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line 5–8F were higher than the blank control group and the empty vector transferred group, and the transfer ability of the WNT5A transferred group was higher than that in the blank control group and the empty vector transferred group, while the expressions of EMT related factors E-cadherin were lower than that in the blank control group and the empty vector transferred group, and the transfer ability of the WNT5A transferred group was higher than that in the blank control group and the empty vector transferred group. Conclusions: In nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, WNT5A can regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and affect the ability of tumor invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
    9  Effect of acupuncture on inflammatory cytokines expression of spastic cerebral palsy rats
    Ya-Chao Qi Xiang-Jian Xiao Rui-Sheng Duan Yue-Hong Yue Xiao-Ling Zhang Jun-Tao Li Ya-Zhou Li
    2014, 7(6):492-495. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60081-X
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.16 M](128)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To To investigate the effect of acupuncture on the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) content and muscular tension of spasticity cerebral palsy rat model. Methods: The rats with spastic cerebral palsy were randomly divided into the control group, model group and acupuncture group. After successful modeling, the muscular tension and the content of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, NOS were measured. Results: The serum TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, NOS content were significantly decreased in the acupuncture group (P<0.05). The low and high shear viscosity of whole blood of the acupuncture group were significantly lower than the control group and the model group (P<0.05). The erythrocyte electrophoresis indexes in the acupuncture group were significantly lower than that in the model group and the control group (P<0.05). Acupuncture significantly reduced the muscular tension of spastic cerebral palsy rat and increased the active extent in the paralytic extremity (P<0.05), but it could not be restored to normal level. Compared with the control group, the difference had significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: Acupuncture treatment can inhibit the release of inflammatory cells after brain injury, then reduce immune injury, relieve muscle spasms and reduce muscular tension.
    10  Protective effect of topiramate on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rat
    Hong Jiang Juan-Juan Lei Yi-He Zhang
    2014, 7(6):496-500. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60082-1
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.06 M](136)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore protective effect of topiramate (TPM) on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Methods: A total of 360 neonatal rats were selected then randomly divided into sham operation group, ischemia and hypoxia group, conventional treatment group and degradation therapy group (n=90). After surgical treatment, sham and ischemic hypoxia group were treat with normal saline; conventional treatment group was received TPM solution 100 mg/kg, 2 times/d; degradation therapy group received TPM solution 150 mg/kg, 2 times/d, per 3 d treatment each dosage was reduced 50 mg/kg, the lowest reduced to 50 mg/kg. Four groups received continuous treatment for 10 d. After treatment for 1 d, 4 d, 7 d, 10 d the cerebral edema, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and cognitive abilities of four groups were observed. Results: After 1 d, 4 d of treatment, the brain water content and NSE levels in ischemia and hypoxia group, the conventional treatment group and the degradation therapy group were significantly higher than that in sham group (P<0.05), the brain water content and NSE levels of the conventional treatment group and the degradation therapy group were significantly lower than that in the ischemic hypoxia group (P<0.05). GABA levels and learning ability of the ischemia and hypoxia group, the conventional treatment group and degradation therapy group were significantly lower than the sham group (P<0.05), the GABA levels and learning ability of the conventional treatment group and degradation therapy group were significantly higher than the ischemia and hypoxia group (P<0.05). After 7 d, 10 d of treatment, the brain water content and NSE levels in the sham operation group, the conventional treatment group and degradation therapy group were significantly lower than the ischemia and hypoxia group (P<0.05), while the GABA levels and learning ability of these three groups were significantly higher than that in the ischemia and hypoxia group (P<0.05), the GABA levels in the conventional treatment group were significantly higher than degradation therapy group (P<0.05); After 10 d of treatment, the GABA levels of the conventional treatment group were significantly higher than the sham group, the learning ability of the degradation therapy group and sham operation group were significantly higher than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The correct amount of short-term TPM has protective effect on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, but long-term or excessive use may cause new damage to the brain and reduce the cognitive ability.
    11  Prevention effect of medical self-crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel on epidural scar adhesion after laminectomy
    Hua Liu Hai-Feng Li Jian-Yuan Wang
    2014, 7(6):501-504. DOI: 1O.1016/S1995-7645(14)60083-3
    [Abstract](63) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.89 M](141)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze the effect and medical self-crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel on epidural scar adhesion after laminectomy. Methods: A total of 24 New Zealand L5 laminectomy rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, group A as the control group without any treatment; group B covered by sodium hyaluronate gel; group C and group D covered by 0.5 and 1.0 mL medical self-crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel. All rabbits were scored at various time points after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks, then the formation of scar was observed. Results: In Groups B, C, D loose scar tissue occurred after 2 weeks of the operation, scar tissues were significantly less than that in group A, with mild inflammatory reaction. After 8 weeks, the scar tissues of group B were significantly more than that of groups C, D. After two weeks, group B, C were back to the preoperative level; After 4 weeks, group D was back to the preoperative level; After four weeks, the CSEP of group A was increased significantly, which was significantly higher than that in groups B, C, D. The motor function score of group A, group B and group C were the same as preoperative, but that in group D it was decreased significantly, and then it gradually recovered. After 4 weeks it kept a stable level. The motor function score of group A was decreased gradually after the operation, which kept a stable level after 4 weeks, the motor function score was significantly lower than that in groups B, C, D. Conclusions: Determination of somatosensory evoked potentials is sensitive indicator of spinal cord injury; Application of medical self-crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel is effective on epidural scar adhesion after laminectomy.

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