Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 7,Issue 8,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Toxoplasma gondii infection among chronic hepatitis C patients: A case- control study
    Hala A El-Nahas Nora L El-Tantawy Raghda E Farag Argaya MA Alsalem
    2014, 7(8):589-593. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60100-0
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 350.72 K](126)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the detection rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) IgG and IgM in chronic HCV patients attending the Department of Tropical Medicine Mansoura University hospital in Egypt. Methods: This study included 120 adult chronic HCV patients, 81 decompensate cirrhosis (late-stage) and 39 chronic HCV non cirrhotic patients (early-stage) and 40 healthy blood donors as controls. Serum samples were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies by ELISA. Real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction assay was done for quantitation of hepatitis C virus. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 75 (92.6%) of 81 late-stage cirrhotic patients, 30 (76.9%) of the 39 chronic HCV non cirrhotic patients (early-stage) and in 6 (15%) of 40 controls with statistically significant difference (P<0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11 (13.6%) in late stage patients, 5 (12.8%) in early stage and in 3 (7.5%) of controls with no statistical significant difference (P=0.610). There was no correlation between stage of fibrosis and IgM or IgG antibodies positivity in our studied groups (P=0.526). High IgG levels significantly correlated with high viral load (P=0.026). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the serious opportunistic T. gondii infection represent a potential significant risk for chronic HCV patients. So, toxoplasmosis should be considered in their investigations and follow-up.
    2  Inhibition of the growth and development of mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) treated with extract from leaves of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Bignonaceae)
    Carlos Granados-Echegoyen Rafael Pérez-Pacheco Marcos Soto-Hernández Jaime Ruiz-Vega Luicita Lagunez-Rivera Nancy Alonso-Hernandez Rene Gato-Armas
    2014, 7(8):594-601. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60101-2
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](0) [PDF 372.29 K](105)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil, hydrolat and botanical extracts derived from leaves of Pseudocalymma alliaceum on mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: Groups of twenty larvae were used in the larvicidal assays. The mortality, relative growth rate, the larval and pupal duration and viability was estimated. The essential oil was analyzed by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Results: Essential oil at 800 ppm showed larvicidal activity at 24 h with lethal values of LC50 and LC90 of 267.33 and 493.63 ppm. The hydrolat at 20% and 10% on 2nd stage larvae showed 100% effectiveness after 24 h. The aqueous extract at 10% had a relative growth index of 0.58, while the ethanolic and methanolic extract obtained values of 0.76 and 0.70 and control reached 0. 99. Larvae treated with 10% of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extract showed a reduction in larval duration of 5.00, 2.20 and 4.35 days; ethanol extract at 1% provoke decrease of 2.40 days in the development and exhibited an increment of 3.30 days when treated with 0.01%. Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts at 10% reduced in 6.15, 3.42 and 5.57 days pupal development. The main compounds were diallyl disulfide (50.05%), diallyl sulfide (11.77%) and trisulfide di-2-propenyl (10.37%). Conclusions: The study demonstrated for the first time, the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and hydrolat of Pseudocalymma alliaceum; aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts inhibited the normal growth and development of mosquito larvae, prolonging and delaying larval and pupal duration.
    3  Anti-listerial synergism of leaf essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides with nisin in whole, low and skim milks
    Vivek K. Bajpai Jung In Yoon Monika Bhardwaj Sun Chul Kang
    2014, 7(8):602-608. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60102-4
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 922.08 K](108)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the individual and synergistic anti-listerial effect of nisin and leaf essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides (M. glyptostroboides) against one of the leading foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) ATCC 19116 in milk samples. Methods: The whole (8%), low (1%) and skim (no fat content) milk samples were inoculated with L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 along with leaf essential oil of M. glyptostroboides or nisin alone as well in combinations. Results: In this study, the leaf essential oil at the concentrations of 2% and 5% revealed strong anti-listerial effect against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 in all categories of milk samples. Nisin at the concentrations of 250 and 500 IU/mL displayed a strong inhibitory effect against ATCC 19116 as compared to the control group. Additionally, synergistic combinations of leaf essential oil (1%) and nisin (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 IU/mL) also had a remarkable anti-listerial synergism in all the tested milk samples including whole, low and skim milk after 14 days. Conclusions: As a major finding, the leaf essential oil of M. glyptostroboides might be a useful candidate for using in food industry to control the growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria as confirmed by its potent anti-listerial synergistic effect with nisin against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 in different milk samples.

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