Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 7,Issue 9,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  A review of age-old antimalarial drug to combat malaria: efficacy up-gradation by nanotechnology based drug delivery
    Satyajit Tripathy Somenath Roy
    2014, 7(9):673-679. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60115-2
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 583.23 K](125)
    Abstract:
    Malaria is uncontrolled burden in the world till now. Despite of different efforts to develop antimalarial drug for decades, any anti-malarial drug can able to eradicate completely till now. Many anti-malarial substances are practically ineffectual because of their physicochemical limitations, cytotoxicity, chemical instability and degradation, and limited activities against intracellular parasites. Taking into consideration, the amount of research is going to conduct in the field of nanoparticle based drug delivery systems, lead to new ways of improving the treatment of infectious diseases. The study has focused on the progress and advancement of research on nanotechnology based drug delivery to eradicate the malaria. We like to focus the efficacy of nanotechnology based drug application for the opening out of novel chemotherapeutics in laboratory research, which may show the way to better use with age-old antimalarial drug and may draw the attention of pharmaceutical industries for the improvement and designing of effective anti-malarial drugs in future.
    2  Expression analysis of reactive oxygen species detoxifying enzyme genes in Anopheles stephensi during Plasmodium berghei midgut invasion
    RK Chaitanya P Sridevi K Surendra Kumar Babu S Mastan K Arun Kumar A Dutta-Gupta
    2014, 7(9):680-684. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60116-4
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 715.79 K](117)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the involvement of reactive oxygen species detoxification system in Anopheles stephensi during Plasmodium berghei midgut invasion. Methods: Eight key reactive oxygen species metabolizing enzymes were cloned and characterized, and their expression was monitored in parasite-infected mosquitoes. Results: Superoxide anion detoxifying superoxide dismutases (Fe/Mn SOD, Cu/Zn SOD 2, Cu/Zn SOD 3A, and Cu/Zn SOD 3B) depicted varied expression patterns. Fe/Mn SOD expression declined, whereas Cu/Zn SOD expression was elevated in the infected mosquitoes. Peroxidases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase showed lack of induction in expression during the Plasmodium berghei infection. Further, expression of thioredoxin reductase increased in the infected mosquitoes, whereas gluthathione S-transferase levels decreased markedly. Conclusions: Detoxification enzymes may play a role in modulating host immunity and parasite transmission.
    3  Aristolochia gehrtii inhibits liver toxicity and apoptosis in Schistosoma malayensis infection
    Khaled M. M. Koriem Razmy E. Shahabudin Rafiq Z. Jamaludin
    2014, 7(9):685-692. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60117-6
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 864.78 K](128)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate a protective effect of Aristolochia gehrtii (A. gehrtii) leaves to inhibit liver toxicity and apoptosis in Schistosoma malayensis (S. malayensis) infection. Methods: Forty male albino mice were divided into four equal groups: group 1 control including non-infected healthy mice and groups 2, 3 & 4 subcutaneously infected with S. malayensis cercariae where groups 3 & 4 pretreated with A. gehrtii leaves (200 mg/kg, bwt) & cinnamoylamide (250 mg/kg, bwt), respectively. Results: S. malayensis caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, MDA, NO, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and HDL levels. The pretreatment of A. gehrtii leaves and cinnamoylamide significantly inhibited that increase. On the other hand, S. malayensis induced a significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, blood SOD and GPx, while A. gehrtii leaves and cinnamoylamide pretreatment increased the above parameters. Treatment with A. gehrtii leaves and cinnamoylamide to S. malayensis infected mice increased p53 expression but decreased bcl-2 expression. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. Conclusions: A. gehrtii inhibits liver toxicity and apoptosis in S. malayensis infection and this effect is associated with the major cinnamoylamide ingredient of A. gehrtii leaves.
    4  Antimalarial activity and toxicity of Garcinia mangostana Linn.
    Ratchanu Bunyong Wanna Chaijaroenkul Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn Kesara Na-Bangchang
    2014, 7(9):693-698. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60118-8
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 526.63 K](120)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antimalarial activity and toxicity of the crude ethanolic extract of its pericarp both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana) Linn. extract against 3D7 and K1 Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) clone were assessed using SYBR green Ⅰ-based assay. A 4-day suppressive test of Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mouse was performed to investigate in vivo antimalarial activity. Results: The in vivo antimalarial activity was selective (SI > 5) and classified as weak and good to moderate activity against both 3D7 and K1 P. falciparum clones with median IC50 (range) values of 11.12 (10.94-11.29) and 7.54 (6.80-7.68) μg/mL, respectively. The extract was considered non-toxic to mice. The maximum tolerated doses for acute and subacute toxicity in mice were 5 000 and 2 000 mg/kg, respectively. Median (range) parasite density on day 4 of the negative control group (25% Tween-80) , mice treated with 250, 500, 1 000, and 2 000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, and 10 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine for 14 d were 12.8 (12.2-13.7), 11.4 (9.49-13.8), 11.6 (9.9-12.5), 11.7 (10.6-12.8), 10.9 (9.4-11.6) and 0 (0-0)% respectively. Parasite density on day 4 in the control group treated with Tween-80 was higher than the groups treated with chloroquine and all dose levels of the extract. Conclusions: G. mangostana Linn. showed weak antimalarial activity of the extract both in vitro and in vivo could be due to limitation of absorption of the active compounds.
    5  Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phoma sp.
    Hidayat Hussain Ines Kock Ahmed Al-Harrasi Ahmed Al-Rawahi Ghulam Abbas Ivan R. Green Afzal Shah Amin Badshah Muhammad Saleem Siegfried Draeger Barbara Schulz Karsten Krohn
    2014, 7(9):699-702. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60119-X
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 798.92 K](169)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the Agar Well Diffusion Method. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, 2D COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction of Phoma sp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties. One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol (1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton (2), (3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phoma sp. Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton (2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities. Similarly (3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin (4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that Phoma sp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
    6  Role of ERK/MAPK signalling pathway in anti-inflammatory effects of Ecklonia cava in activated human mast cell line-1 cells
    Hye Kyung Kim
    2014, 7(9):703-708. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60120-6
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 741.32 K](166)
    Abstract:
    Objective: The anti-inflammatory effects of Ecklonia cava (EC) and its mechanism of action were examined in phorbol-12 myristate 13-acetate (30 nmol/L) and A23187 (1 μmol/L) (PMACI) stimulated human mast cell line-1 cells. Methods: Nitric oxide content, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA and protein expressions were determined. In addition, extracellular regulated protein kinases/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) activation was examined. Results: EC dose-dependently suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and subsequently it reduces nitric oxide content in PMACI stimulated human mast cell line-1 cells. EC dose-dependently inhibited the m RNA as well as protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the PMACI stimulated human mast cell line-1 cells without any cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, EC significantly inhibited PMACI induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the total protein levels. Conclusions: EC exert its anti-inflammatory actions via inhibition of ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, suggesting that EC is a potent and efficacious anti-inflammatory agent for mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
    7  Risk factors and molecular characterization of acute sporadic symptomatic hepatitis E virus infection in Thailand
    Kittiyod Poovorawan Salyavit Jitmitrapab Sombat Treeprasertsuk Thanunrat Thongmee Apiradee Theamboonlers Pisit Tangkijvanich Piyawat Komolmit Yong Poovorawan
    2014, 7(9):709-714. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60121-8
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.57 M](114)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To report clinical outcomes and viral genotypes of acute symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Thailand. Methods: Forty patients with acute symptomatic HEV infection were recruited during 2009-2013. Clinical, demographic and laboratory data were collected. Diagnosis was accomplished by detection of anti-HEV IgM and/or HEV RNA in the serum or stool. HEV genotypes were classified by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products and phylogenetic analysis. Results: The high risk group, comprising immune-compromised, liver cirrhosis and very elderly (>80 years) patients (17 cases), had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase at presentation compared with the low risk group. Two fatal cases resulted from acute hepatitis E in the high risk group. Initial clinical presentation did not show statistically significant differences. In six cases (6/40), the virus could be detected in serum or stool by RT-PCR and sequencing. Upon molecular characterization, the viruses were classified as HEV genotype 3f and were in the same cluster as Thai swine HEV. Conclusions: Our data showed that acute HEV infection has various clinical presentations and outcomes. Higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase were observed in high risk patients. All isolated viruses were identified as HEV genotype 3f possibly originating from swine.
    8  Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in Saudi Arabia: molecular detection from camel and other domestic livestock
    Osama B. Mohammed Abdulrahman A. Jarelnabi Riyadh S. Aljumaah Mohammed A. Alshaikh Amel O. Bakhiet Sawsan A. Omer Abdulaziz N. Alagaili Mansour F. Hussein
    2014, 7(9):715-719. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60122-X
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 363.62 K](177)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To detect Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) DNA in clinical specimens from camel, goats, cattle and sheep in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 367 clinical samples including blood, milk, faeces and urine were collected from different livestock and subjected to PCR amplification using primers which amplify transposon-like region and transposase gene. Results: Positive amplification from both regions was obtained from camel, goats and cattle but not from sheep. A percentage of 10.8% samples yielded positive PCR amplification from both blood and milk, where 15 of 139 blood and 16 of 148 milk samples were positive. Faeces and urine showed higher percentages of positive samples reaching 40.8% and 23.8% respectively. Conclusions: The preferred route of shedding in camel appeared to be the faeces followed by urine, while that of goats appeared to be the faeces and that of the cattle appeared to be the milk.
    9  Expression of HSP90 and HIF-1α in human colorectal cancer tissue and its significance
    Qiu-Ran Xu Xin Liu Ying-Min Yao Qing-Guang Liu
    2014, 7(9):720-724. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60123-1
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 441.30 K](206)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the expression of HSP90 and HIF-1α in human colorectal cancer tissue, the influence of HSP90 and HIF-1α on human colorectal cancer biological behavior and their related factors. Methods: The expression of HSP90 and HIF-1α protein in human colorectal cancer as well as normal tissue were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: The positive expression rates of HSP90 and HIF-1α protein in normal human colorectal tissue as well as colorectal cancer tissue were 30% vs. 63.0%, 15.0% vs. 71.7%, respectively. There were significant difference (P=0.035 and P=0.005 respectively). The expression of HSP90 was significantly correlated with the differentiation, Dukes stages and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), while the expression of HIF-1α was significantly correlated with the Dukes stages and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Association analysis showed that the expression of HSP90 protein was significantly correlated with that of HIF-1α protein (P<0.01). Conclusions: The expression of HSP90 and HIF-1α protein may be related to the development, metastasis and invasion of human colorectal cancer; and their synergistic effects may participate in the development of the colorectal carcinoma.
    10  Nerve protective effect of rhTPO and G-CSF on hypoxic ischemic brain damage in rats
    Hong-Xia Zhou Chun-Lai Zhang Yue-Hong Li Yu-Xin Zhang Zi-Feng Wei Xi Wang Meng Ling-Li
    2014, 7(9):725-729. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60124-3
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 780.72 K](140)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To observe the protection effect of rhTPO and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on brain nerve after hypoxic ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats, exploring new ways for the laboratory basis of treatment for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and provide for possible. Methods: A total of 120 newborn SD rats aging 7 d were randomly divided into control group, model group, TPO group and G-CSF group, using the method of blockingleft carotid artery to establish HIBD model. The left carotid artery was only seperated rather than blocked in the control group; after modeling, saline injection, rh TPO treatment and G-CSF treatment were adopted in the model group, TPO group and G-CSF group respectively. Then 10 rats of 4 groups were executed at Day 3, 7, 14 after modeling, brain tissue was extracted to observe the brain damage; Immunohistochemical method was used to observe the histopathological changes of brain tissue and changes of nest protein (nestin) expression. Results: Injured brain mass of model group, TPO group and G-CSF group were significantly higher than that of control group at corresponding time point (P<0.05). Injured brain mass of TPO group and G-CSF group were significantly lower than that of model group (P<0.05), and with the increase of age, more significant increasing trend. At Day 3 after modeling, the expression of nestin positive cells in cerebral cortex of model group, TPO group and G-CSF group increased significantly than that of control group (P<0.05); nestin positive cells of G-CSF group outnumbered TPO group significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: The early TPO, G-CSF treatment of HIBD rats can improve brain function after hypoxia ischemia by neural protection. G-CSF can promote the differentiation of neural cells proliferation, and reduce degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells.
    11  Protective effects of Ginseng mixture on myocardial fibrosis in rats
    Chun-Lai Zhang Yue-Hong Li Hong-Xia Zhou Yu-Xin Zhang Yong-Sheng Wang Zhi-Yong Zhang Ling-Li Meng Xiao-Ming Shang
    2014, 7(9):730-734. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60125-5
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 519.96 K](118)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the protective effects of ginseng mixture on myocardial fibrosis (MF) in rats. Methods: A total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group without modeling operation, and another 4 groups using subcutaneous injections of isopropyl adrenaline for 10 d to set up the MF model: model group with saline lavage treatment after modeling, captopril group with captopril lavage, ginseng mixture group A and group B with low and high dose mixture treatment respectively. After treatment for 14 d, abdominal aorta and myocardial tissue were extracted to observe the pathological morphological changes and heart weight index in each group. Results: The left ventricular weight and heart heavy index of captopril group and group B were significantly lower than that of model group and group A (P<0.05); Model group and group A showed a higher hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in myocardial tissue than the control group and lower catalase (CAT) activity than control group (P<0.05); captopril group and group B showed a lower Hyp content and higher CAT activity compared with group A and model group (P<0.05), a significantly lower level of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and CAT and a higher level of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and H2O2 in model group and group A were observed compared with the control group (P<0.05). A higher level of GSH-PX and CAT and a lower level of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and H2O2 in captopril group and group B were observed compared with group A and model group (P<0.05); and histopathological examination showed that in captopril group and group B, secretion of collagen fiber was significantly inhibited and myocardial injury was significantly lighter than that of model group. Conclusions: Ginseng mixture plays a protective effect on myocardium by inhibiting antioxidant process of MF.
    12  Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway in primary liver cancer cells
    Lian-Yi Guo Pei Liu Ying Wen Wei Cui Ying Zhou
    2014, 7(9):735-738. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60126-7
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 489.17 K](123)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate clinical significance of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway molecular Shh, Smo and Gli2 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. Methods: A total of 30 HCC tissue samples were collected. Protein expression of SHH signaling pathway molecules Shh, Smo and Gli2 in HCC tissues and para - carcinoma tissue were detected by using immunohistochemical method. Cirrhosis and normal liver tissue specimens were observed as control to analyze the expression of SHH signaling pathway molecular Shh, Smo and Gli2 mRNA in HCC tissues and corresponding para-carcinoma tissues and its relationship with the onset of HCC. Results: There was no expression of Shh, Smo and Gli2 protein in normal liver tissue, while their positive rates were 63.3%, 76.7% and 66.7% in HCC tissues, respectively, with a significantly higher expression level than that in the para - carcinoma tissue (P<0.05). The protein expressions in HepG2 cells were slightly lower than that in Huh7 cells, with no statistical difference (P>0.05); Shh and Smo protein was detected in part of cirrhosis with positive expression, but Gli2 protein was not observable in cirrhosis tissues. Conclusions: In HCC tissues, the high expression level of SHH signaling pathway molecules signal peptide (Shh), membrane protein receiptor (Smo) and nuclear transcription molecular (Gli2) can be indicators of the onset of liver cancer.
    13  Effect of siRNA interference on nerve growth factor in intervertebral disc inflammation rats
    Ming-Lei Lang Ai-Lin Qin Jian-Min Li Peng Fu
    2014, 7(9):739-743. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60127-9
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 723.33 K](163)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the inhibition effect of siRNA interference on NGF induced by inflammatory factor IL-6, and IL-1 so as to provide novel targets for clinical treatment of discogenic low back pain. Methods: The intervertebral disc nucleus and annulus fibrosus cells of rats were separated. The cells were co-cultured with different concentrations (10 nmol/L, 20 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L) of IL-6 and IL-1β. The NGF- siRNA was leaded into the co-cultured cells with its import ability assessed by flow cytometry instrument tests, before and after which the NGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time Q-PCR and the NGF content was detected by ELISA. Results: Flow cytometry instrument test results showed that the NGF- siRNA cell conversion rate was 99.8%. Real-time Q-PCR detection results showed that compared with negative control group, the NGF mRNA expression of co-cultured cells treated by 10 nmol/L, 20 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L IL-6 and IL–1β were respectively raised 3.4, 3.7, 4.7, 3.7 times which were all significantly down-regulated after the import of NGF- siRNA. EILSA detection results showed that compared with negative control group, the NGF content of co- cultured medium treated by 10 nmol/L, 20 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L I-L6 and IL-1β were respectively raised 2.9, 3.3, 4.5, 7.4 times which were all significantly decreased after the import of NGF- siRNA. Conclusions: These molecular biological results suggest that inflammatory factor IL-6 and IL-1β could stimulate NGF on intervertebral disc cells in vitro culture model and its efficiency is concentration dependent, while siRNA interference can inhibit the stimulation effect of IL-6 and IL-1β on intervertebral disc cell, which provides a new targets for the clinical treatment of discogenic low back pain.
    14  Protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats
    Fang-Jiang Li Tao Hsu Hui-Xian Li Jin-Zheng Shi Mei-Ling Du Xiao-Yuan Wang Wen-Ting Zhang
    2014, 7(9):744-748. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60128-0
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 519.89 K](210)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-RI) in rats. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, lithium chloride intervention group and L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group with 15 in each. The I-RI model was established in model group, the lithium chloride intervention group and L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group by method of seaming along left anterior descending coronary artery myocardial, control group was only opened the chest without seaming, ST-elevation within 2 min was regarded as modeling success. Model group did not adopted any intervention, lithium chloride intervention group was treated with lithium chloride injection 15 mg/kg by jugular venipuncture preoperatively, L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg • kg-1 • d-1 L-arginine methyl ester 7 d before the test, and intravenous catheter of 15 mg/kg lithium chloride preoperatively. The hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase (HBDH), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activites were tested. Each large area of myocardial ischemia tissue was extracted for determination of the MDA content, SOD activity in tissue and serum, and morphological changes of myocardial tissue. Results: SOD activity was highest in lithium chloride intervention group, followed by L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group, control group and model group (P<0.05); SOD activity was highest in L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group intervention group, followed by lithium chloride intervention group, control group and model group (P<0.05). MDA content of myocardial tissue was highest in model group, followed by L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group, the lithium chloride intervention group and control group (P<0.05); serum MDA content was highest in L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group, followed by model group, lithium chloride intervention group and control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, serum NOS was significantly higher in model group, lithium chloride intervention group and L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group (P<0.05), there was no statistical difference of serum NOS activity between the three groups (P>0.05); HBDH and CK-MB of plasma were highest in model group, followed by L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group, lithium chloride intervention group and control group (P<0.05). A significantly lighter myocardial damage was observed microscopically in lithium chloride intervention group than that in L-arginine methyl ester + lithium chloride intervention group and model group. Conclusions: lithium chloride pretreatment can significantly reduce the myocardial I-RI, maintain structure and function of myocardial cells, improve the antioxidant ability of myocardial tissue, play an effective role on protecting myocardial I–RI.
    15  Protection effect of Emodin pretreatment on intestinal I - RI damage of intestinal mucosa in ratsa
    Shu-Jie Zhao Shi-Ji Wang Hong-Xiang Li Li-Hua Dong Huai-Jiang He Zhong-Min Liu Yu-Shan Wang
    2014, 7(9):749-753. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60129-2
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 457.89 K](142)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To tinvestigate the protective effect and mechanism of emodin pretreatment on intestinal mucosa of rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: A total of 50 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, emodin groups of low, medium and high dose, with 10 in each group. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-RI) mode was established by using noninvasive clamp on superior mesentericartery (SMA). Control group and model group were pretreated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution lavage 2 h before operation, emodin groups of low, medium and high dose were given emodin lavage with 20, 40, 60 mg/kg pretreatment, femoral venous blood before the lavage pretreatment (T0) and 1 h ischemia (T1), and inferior vena venous blood after 1 h of reperfusion (T2) were extracted from each group of rats for detection of serum level of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), endotoxin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the content of diamine oxidase (DAO); After model establishment, the rats were sacrificed, intestine homogenate was prepared by using blind intestinal tissue to detect intestinal tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. And upper small intestine tissue was retrieved, followed by fixation and conventional HE staining to observe intestinal tissue morphology under light microscopy. Results: In emodin groups of low, medium and high dose at T1 and T2, I-FABP, TNF-α, endotoxin, IL-6 and DAO level were significantly lower than that of model group (P<0.05); in emodin group of low, medium and high dose, MPO and MDA content in intestinal tissue homogenate was significantly lower than that in model group (P<0.05), SOD level was significantly higher than that of model group (P<0.05). Intestinal damage of emodin low, medium and high dose groups were significantly lighter than model group. Conclusions: Emodin pretreatment has certain protective effect on intestinal mucosa in ischemia reperfusion injury.
    16  Runx3 might participate in regulating dendriti cell function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome
    Hua-Zhi Wu Man-Ni Cai Yu An Cheng Lan Jia-Li Wei Xiao-Ning Sun
    2014, 7(9):754-756. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60130-9
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 420.61 K](123)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the expression levels and correlations among the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Runx3 and CD83 in colonic mucosal specimens from IBS patients. Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected, who were confirmed as IBS by Rome III standard and 40 healthy volunteers served as control. Colonic mucosal specimens of each subject were collected from colon sigmoideum with biopsy forceps. Runx3, TGF-β1, and CD83 (the marker for immunecompetent mature dendritic cells (DCs) mRNA in the sigmoid colon tissue were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Results: Compared with the control group, CD83 mRNA expressions were higher in patients with IBS than in healthy controls (P<0.05) and were associated with runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) mRNA levels (r=-0.361, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Runx3 mRNA levels were associated with TGF-β1 mRNA expressions in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients (r=0.402, P<0.05). However, there was no correlation between the mRNA expressions of TGF-β1 and CD83 (P>0.05). Conclusions: The increase of abnormal dendritic cells might influence the occurrence and development of IBS. TGF-β1 signal pathway might not be involved in Runx 3-regulated maturation of dendritic cells in IBS.

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