Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 8,Issue 10,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Is there a way out for the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa
    Angelo Andreas Christian Binoun A Egom Peter Kruzliak Emmanuel E. Egom
    2015, 8(10):757-762. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.001
    [Abstract](77) [HTML](0) [PDF 316.59 K](269)
    Abstract:
    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. Although infections only occur frequently in Western Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. This review aims (i) to discuss the latest data to aid our current recommendations for the prevention and control of the Ebola virus infection, (ii) to review its pathophysiology as well as offering insights on the most current data available about Ebola vaccine progress and potential use.
    2  Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in Thailand
    Supawadee Piratae
    2015, 8(10):763-767. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.002
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 301.21 K](262)
    Abstract:
    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) remains as medically important problem in Thailand especially in the north-eastern part. Infection with this parasite can lead to cholangiocarcinoma improvement. The highest prevalence of O. viverriniinfection has been found in the Northeast Thailand and is associated with the high incidence rateof cholangiocarcinoma. To complete the life cycle of O. viverrini, the freshwater snails namely Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis and Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (B. s. goniomphalos) are required to serve as the first intermediate host. Within these snails group, B. s. goniomphalos is distributed concisely in northeast Thailand and acts as the majority snail that transmitted the opisthorchiasis in this region. This study described the information of B. s. goniomphalos which research are needed for understanding the biology, distribution, transmission and factors influencing on the infection of the snail vector of this carcinogenic parasite.
    3  Is toxoplasmosis a potential risk factor for liver cirrhosis?
    Abeer Abd El-Rehim El-Henawy Ahmed Abdel-Razik Sahar Zakaria Dina Elhammady Niveen Saudy Manar Sobh Azab
    2015, 8(10):768-775. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.003
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.17 K](246)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To document Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibody status in patients with liver disease, blood samples were taken from 180 hepatic patients and 180 healthy controls. Methods: Toxoplasma IgG antibody was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological assessment of liver biopsy METAVIR score was applied. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 32.8% of patients and in 22.2% of controls (P=0.02). Toxoplasma seropositivity was significantly associated with lymphadenopathy, history of blood transfusion and reflex impairment in patients. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic HCV-related cirrhosis groups compared to chronic HBV and chronic HBV-related cirrhosis groups expressed significantly higher prevalence of T. gondii seropositivity (odds ratio (OR) =4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6; P=0.013, OR=4.8; 95% CI: 1.5-14.9; P=0.006, respectively). Within the chronic HCV group, T. gondii seropositivity significantly associated disease evolution as regards to METAVIR histopathological system for fibrosis and inflammation (OR=19.4; 95% CI: 2.3-165.2; P=0.0008, OR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.1-0.8; P= 0.01, respectively). Albumin, international normalized ratio (INR) and platelets count were the laboratory parameters significantly altered in Toxoplasma-positive chronic HCV patients (P=0.001, 0.03, 0.04, respectively). Child-Pugh scoring for cirrhosis in chronic HCV group placed the majority of seropositive patient in class C with significant statistical difference compared to Child A reference group (OR= 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01-0.5; P=0.003). Conclusions: Toxoplasma seropositivity was high in patients with cirrhosis and associated higher grades of inflammation and necrosis signifying disease evolution, suggesting that cirrhotic patients may thus form a risk group for toxoplasmosis.
    4  Effects of Gastrodiae rhizoma on proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells
    Samrat Baral Ramesh Pariyar Chi-Su Yoon Dong-Cheol Kim Jong-Min Yun Seok O Jang Sung Yeon Kim Hyuncheol Oh Youn-Chul Kim Jungwon Seo
    2015, 8(10):776-781. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.004
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 325.85 K](252)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effects of Gastrodiae rhizoma, a dried root of Gastrodia elata Blume, on proliferation and differentiation of human NSCs derived from embryonic stem cells. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of Gastrodiae rhizoma (EEGR) was estimated with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as a representative constituent by HPLC. Results: MTT assay showed that the treatment with EEGR increased the viability of NSCs in growth media. Compared to control, EEGR increased the number of dendrites and denritic spines extended from a differentiated NSC. Whereas EEGR decreased the mRNA expression of Nestin, it increased that of Tuj1 and MAP2 in NSCs grown in differentiation media. Immunocytochemical analysis using confocal microscopy also revealed the increased expression of MAP2 in dendrites of EEGR-treated NSCs. Furthermore, EEGR decreased mRNA expression of Sox2 in NSCs grown even in growth media. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that EEGR induced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs, suggesting its potential benefits on NSC-based therapies and neuroregeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries.
    5  Potential of four marine-derived fungi extracts as anti-proliferative and cell death-inducing agents in seven human cancer cell lines
    Alice Abreu Ramos Maria Prata-Sena Bruno Castro-Carvalho Tida Dethoup Suradet Buttachon Anake Kijjoa Eduardo Rocha
    2015, 8(10):782-790. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.005
    [Abstract](63) [HTML](0) [PDF 369.54 K](237)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro anticancer activity of crude ethyl acetate extracts of the culture of four marine-derived fungi Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013 (E1), Neosartorya paulistensis KUFC 7897 (E2), Neosartorya siamensis KUFA 0017 (E4) and Talaromyces trachyspermus KUFC 0021 (E3) on a panel of seven human cancer cell lines. Methods: Effects on cell proliferation, induction of DNA damage and cell death were assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays, comet assay and nuclear condensation assay, respectively. Results: The proliferation of HepG2, HCT116 and A375 cells decreased after incubation with the extracts E2 and E4. The anti-proliferative effect was confirmed by morphologic alterations and by clonogenic assay. Both extracts also induced cell death in HepG2 and HCT116 cells. Doxorubicin was used as a positive control and showed in vitro anticancer activity. Conclusions: This study demonstrated, for the first time, that extracts of Neosartorya paulistensis and Neosartorya siamensis have selective anti-proliferative and cell death activities in HepG2, HCT16 and A375 cells. The bioactivity of these extracts suggests a potential for biotechnological applications and substantiates that both should be further considered for the elucidation of the molecular targets and signal transduction pathways involved.
    6  Regulatory effect of miRNA 320a on expression of aquaporin 4 in brain tissue of epileptic rats
    Yu-Cheng Song Wen-Juan Li Liu-Zhi Li
    2015, 8(10):791-796. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.006
    [Abstract](58) [HTML](0) [PDF 338.75 K](251)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the expression of miRNA 320a in the brain tissue of epileptic rats and analyze its effect on the expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4). Methods: All rats were performed with the intraperitoneal injection of lithium chloride (3 mmol/kg) and then the intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) 24 h later (injected twice) to prepare the epileptic model of Wistar rats. Rats in the control group were injected with the equal volume of normal saline. According to the Racine scale, rats with over stage 3 of epilepsy were chosen and the brain tissue was separated quickly and then stored at -80 ℃. The immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of aquaporin in the brain tissue of epileptic model and the Real-time PCR was employed to determine the difference in the expression of miRNA 320a and AQP4 in the brain tissue of rats between the epileptic model group and control one. Five 5-day neonatal Wistar rats were chosen to collect the cerebral cortex and their primary astrocytes were separated and cultured. They were transfected with miRNA mimic and imitated to the endogenous miRNA 320a to up-regulate the expression of miRNA 320a. Results: In the model group, the expression of AQP4 was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.01). However, the expression of miRNA 320a in the model group was lower than control group (P<0.05), which was negatively correlated to AQP4. In the primary astrocytes, the transfection of miRNA 320a mimic could significantly reduce the expression of AQP4, while its inhibitor could up-regulate the expression of AQP4, which indicated that miRNA 320a could reduce the expression of AQP4. Conclusions: In the primary astrocytes of rats, the miRNA 320a could inhibit the expression of AQP4 and after adding the inhibitor of miRNA 320a, the expression of AQP4 was up-regulated.
    7  Effect of overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induced by hyperoxia in vivo in LNCaP tumors on tumor growth rate
    Tian-Yan Zhang Juan-Li Yang Bing-Jie Huo
    2015, 8(10):797-802. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.007
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](0) [PDF 351.39 K](252)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study effect of overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induced by hyperoxia in vivo in LNCaP tumors on tumor growth rate. Methods: The prostate cancer LNCaP cells were inoculated in the abdomen of mice. All the mice were randomly placed in the gas chamber with different oxygen content. The groups were divided as follows: twelve mice in hypoxia group, sixteen mice in normoxia group, ten mice in hyperoxia group. After 28 d of treatment, the mice were weighed, the blood samples were taken from the left ventricle, and the tumor was isolated and weighed. Tumor growth, angiogenesis and vascularization, HIF-1α expression and intracellular signal transduction molecules expression in each group of xenografts were detected and analyzed by using Western blotting and immunofluorescence and determination of hemoglobin. Results: Comparison of the growth of xenografts in each group showed that, the xenografts growth of hypoxia group was more quickly than that of normoxia group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.004). The difference in xenografts growth between hyperoxia group compared and normoxia group was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF and VEGF-R of xenografts in hyperoxia group were significantly higher than those of normoxia group (P<0.05). The expression of HIF-1α of xenografts in hypoxia group and normoxia group were similar. The blood growth rate of xenografts in hypoxia group (170%) was significantly higher than that of normoxia group (40%) (P<0.05). The expression of Nrf2 of xenografts in hyperoxia group was significantly higher than that of normoxia group (P<0.05). Conclusions: When hyperoxia induces the overexpression of HIF-1α in LNCaP tumor, it will not affect tumor growth. It provides a new ideas and theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of prostate cancer.
    8  Effect of siRNA on Wisp-1 gene expression, proliferation, migration and adhesion of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    Jian Ge Xiao-Hua Zhang Fang Wang Yu Wang Qing-Yan Li Wei Tao Guo-Hua Ren
    2015, 8(10):803-809. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.008
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 373.34 K](247)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the inhibition effect of siRNA on the expression of Wisp-1 gene in Hca-F of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells strain and also its effect on the proliferation, migration and adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods: Three expression vectors of siRNA were constructed. Lipo2000 was employed to transfect Hca-F cells and Western blot was used to detect the inhibition effect of siRNA on the expression of Wisp-1 gene. Afterwards, CCK8 was adopted to detect the effect of Wisp-1 siRNA on the proliferation of Hca-F cells; Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of Wisp-1 siRNA on the apoptosis of Hca-F cells; Transwell was used to detect the effect of Wisp-1 siRNA on the migration of Hca-F cells. The in vitro cell adhesion kit was used to detect of Wisp-1 siRNA on the change in the components of extracellular matrix to which Hca-F cells adhered. Western blot was used to detect the activation of protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and the expression of downstream target protein p53 and matrix metalloproteinases-2. Results: The siRNA showed interference effect on the expression of Wisp-1 gene. Compared with the control group, after being transfected to cells, Wisp-1 siRNA could significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration and adhesion of Hca-F cells and also promote the cell apoptosis, which was related to the down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3β and the expression of p53 and matrix metalloproteinases-2 (P<0.05). Conclusions: The inhibition of Wisp-1 expression can reduce the proliferation, migration and adhesion of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which is related to the AKT/ glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway. Wisp-1 gene may be the potential target to cure the hepatocellular carcinoma.
    9  Effect of microRNA-155 on angiogenesis after cerebral infarction of rats through AT1R/VEGFR2 pathway
    Ying-Chun Meng Zhen-Ying Ding Hai-Quan Wang Li-Ping Ning Chao Wang
    2015, 8(10):810-816. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.009
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 338.38 K](232)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the function and mechanism of microRNA-155 to regulate theangiogenesis after the cerebral infarction of rats through the angiotensin Ⅱ receptor 1 (AT1R)/ vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. Methods: Female SD rats were chosen for the construction of cerebral infarction model of rats using the modified right middle cerebral artery occlusion. The real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method was employed to detect the expression of microRNA-155 in each group at different time points after the cerebral infarction (1 h, l d, 3 d and 7 d). SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=20 rats):sham operation group (Sham group), MACO group, MACO+microRNA-155 mimic group,and MACO+microRNA-155 inhibitor group. Sham group was given the free graft, whileMACO+microRNA-155 mimic group and MACO+microRNA-155 inhibitor group weretreated with microRNA-155 mimic and microRNA-155 inhibitor respectively. The Zea Longa 5-point scale was used to score the neurologic impairment of rats in each group; 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining to evaluate the volume of cerebral infarction of rats in each group;the immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of CD31; Western blot and RT-PCR todetect the expression of AT1R and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Results: The expression ofmicroRNA-155 was increased in the cerebral ischemia tissue after the cerebral infarction. It was significantly increased at 1 d of ischemia and maintained at the high level for a long time. Rats in the Sham group had no symptom of neurologic impairment, while rats in the MACO grouphad the obvious neurologic impairment. After being treated with microRNA-155 inhibitor,the neural function of MACO rats had been improved, with the decreased area of cerebralinfarction. But after being treated with microRNA-155 mimic, the neural function was furtherworsened, with the increased area of cerebral infarction. Results of immunohistochemical assay indicated that microRNA-155 inhibitor could up-regulate the expression of CD31, whilemicroRNA-155 mimic could down-regulate the expression of CD31. The RT-PCR found that, after being treated with microRNA-155 inhibitor, MACO rats had the increased expressionof AT1R and VEGFR2 messenger RNA (mRNA); but after being treated with microRNA-155 mimic, the expression of AT1R and VEGFR2 mRNA was decreased. Results of Western blot showed that, after being treated with microRNA-155 inhibitor, MACO rats had the increased expression of /i>AT1R and VEGFR2 mRNA; but after being treated with microRNA-155 mimic, the expression of AT1R and VEGFR<sup>2 mRNA was decreased. Conclusions: The inhibition of microRNA-155 can improve the neurologic impairment of rats with the cerebral infarction,reduce the volume of cerebral infarction and effectively promote the angiogenesis in the region of ischemia, which may be mediated through AT1R/VEGFR2 pathway.
    10  Effect of preemptive local injection of ropivocaine with dexmedetomidine on mirror pain in rats and its mechanism
    Xi-Zhao Huang Wei-Feng Tu Jie Peng Rong-Fang Deng Kai Mo Zu-Rong Hu Yi Lu
    2015, 8(10):817-822. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.010
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 330.45 K](326)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To observe the effect of preemptive local injection of ropivocaine with dexmedetomidine on activation of glial cells and on the mirror pain in rats and its mechanism.Methods: A total of 48 adult male Sprague–Dawley rats (weighing 180 g–220 g) were included in the study and randomized into 3 groups, Group S, Group R, and Group RD1. A rat model of persistent postoperative pain evoked by skin/muscle incision and retraction was established in the three groups. Before procedures and nerve extraction, Group S (n=16) was injected 0.9% saline locally; Group R (n=16) was injected 0.5% ropivocaine locally, and Group RD1 (n=16) was injected 0.5% ropivocaine in combined with 1μg dexmedetomidine locally. After the model being established in the three groups, 8 rats were used for behavior test until 28 d, and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) of the other 8 rats were harvested on the 3rd day after surgery. Immunofluorescent and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the activation of glial cells in DRG, and the behavior test results in the three groups were compared. Results: The results showed that mechanical pain threshold in ipsilateral hind-paws of the Group S, Group R, Group RD1 animals dropped to (3.640±1.963) g, (5.827±1.204) g, (7.482)±1.412 g at 3 d respectively; while in contralateral paws dropped to (7.100±1.789) g, (17.687±1.112) g, (16.213±1.345) g on the 3 d respectively. Immunofluorescent showed that the glial cells were activated in bilateral side DRG after surgery in 3 groups, but ipsilateral paws expressed more active glial cells than contralateral paws. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mitochondria swelling/vacuolization and lysosomes were more obvious in ipsilateral paws than contralateral paws, but Group RD1 formula could reduce glial cells activity, mitochondria swelling/vacuolization and the amount of lysosomes. Conclusions: Local injection of ropivocaine and/or dexmedetomidine can effectively inhibit the activation of glial cells in DRG, mitigate the pathological changes of neuron in DRG and reduce mirror image pain.
    11  Effect of Rheum palmatum L. on NF-kB signaling pathway of mice with acute liver failure
    Rong-Zhen Zhang Hua Qiu Na Wang Fu-Li Long De-Wen Mao
    2015, 8(10):823-829. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.011
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 373.30 K](233)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the regulation effect of Rheum palmatum (R. palmatum) L. on NF-k B signaling pathway of ALF mice. Methods: The intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN/LPS was employed for the model building. Mice in the treatment group and positive control group were given the R. palmatum L. and bifendate before the model building. Mice in the normal group were given the intraperitoneal injection of equivalent normal saline for continuously 3 d. After 16 h of model building, the blood was collected from eyeballs of mice and then mice were executed. The measurement was performed on the content of ALT, AST, NO and Il-1β in the serum of mice in each group, as well as the activity of Caspase 3 and Caspase 8 in the liver tissue. HE staining was employed to detect the pathological morphology of liver; and the western blot was used to detect the expression of iNOS, COX-2, Bax, Bcl-2, PCNA, NF-kB p65 and IkB. Results: The content of ALT, AST, NO and Il-1β in the serum and the activity of Caspase 3 and Caspase 8 in the liver tissue were increased in the mice of ALF model group. Besides, the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and Bax was increased, the expression of Bcl-2 and PCNA was decreased, the phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and IkBα was significant and the treatment group of R. palmatum L. could inhibit such change. Conclusions: Through NF-k B signaling pathway, the R. palmatum L. could reduce the content of enzyme of liver function and inflammation factor in the serum of ALF mice, regulate the expression of cell apoptosis-related protein and improve the symptoms of ALF mice.
    12  Expression of HIP/PAP in hepatocellular carcinoma and effect of siRNA on migration and invasion in HCC cells
    Gang Wang Xin Zhao De-Chun Li
    2015, 8(10):830-834. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.012
    [Abstract](72) [HTML](0) [PDF 365.12 K](233)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the expression of HIP/PAP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and explore its role in migration and invasion of HCC. Methods: The expression of HIP/PAP in HCC tissue and corresponding adjacent noncancerous tissue was assessed by IHC, RT-PCR and Western blot. The correlation between clinicopathological features and HIP/PAP expression was analyzed. The role of HIP/PAP on invasion and migration of HCC cells was observed by RNA interference, wound healing and Transwell assay. Results: Both mRNA and protein expression of HIP/PAP was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to tumor-adjacent tissue and correlated with poor tumor differentiation, advanced tumor stage and vascular invasion. HIP/PAP expression was also upregulated in HCC cells, and silencing its expression by specific siRNA could inhibit the invasion and migration of HCC cells. Conclusions: HIP/ APA is overexpressed in HCC and contributes to the migration and invasion of HCC cells.
    13  Effect of HDAC-6 on PD cell induced by lactacystin
    Li-Fei Xing Dong-Tao Wang Yu Yang Su-Yue Pan
    2015, 8(10):835-839. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.013
    [Abstract](70) [HTML](0) [PDF 318.70 K](240)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effects of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC-6) on the PD cell model induced by proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Methods: Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were cultured. The wild type pcDNA3.1-alpha-synuclein eukaryotic expression plasmid was transferred into the cells which then were divided into control group, group L, group T and group T+L. The cells of group L were added with 5 μmol/L lactacystin dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to induce PD cell model with abnormal protein aggregation, the cells of control group were treated with 5 μmol/L DMSO, the cells of group T were treated with 5 μmol/L selective HDAC-6 inhibitor tubacin dissolved in DMSO, and the cells of group T+L were treated with 5 μmol/L lactacystin and 10 μmol/L tubacin dissolved in DMSO. The expression levels of alpha-synuclein oligomers, HSP-27 and HSP-70 were detected by Western blot and the cell survival rate of all the groups was detected by MTT colorimetric assay, and compared 24 h after the cells were treated. Results: The expression levels of alpha-synuclein oligomers, HSP-27 and HSP-70 of the cells of group L were significantly higher than the control group, and the cell survival rate was significantly lower (P<0.05); the expression level of alpha-synuclein oligomers of the cells of group T+L was significantly higher than group L, but the expression level of HSP-27 and HSP-70 were significantly lower, and so as the cell survival rate (P<0.05); the differences of the expression level of alpha-synuclein oligomers, HSP-27 and HSP-70 and the cell survival rate of the cells of group T and the control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: The expression level of alphasynuclein oligomers can be improved and the cell survival rate can be reduced by the PD cell model induced by lactacystin and treated with selective HDAC-6 inhibitor tubacin, which means that alpha-synuclein oligomers of the PD cell model induced by lactacystin can be inhibited and the cell survival rate can be improved by HDAC-6, and the mechanism may be related to the increased of HSP-27 and HSP-70.
    14  Effect of Yaobitong capsule on histomorphology of dorsal root ganglion and on expression of p38mark phosphorylation in autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation model of rats
    Jian Xin Feng-Shuang Jia Zhan-Wang Xu
    2015, 8(10):840-843. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.014
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.91 K](248)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To discuss the effect of Yaobitong capsule on histomorphology of dorsal root ganglion and on expression of p38MARK phosphorylation in autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation model of rats. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into the blank group, model group and Yaobitong capsule group, with 20 rats in each group. The animal model of autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation around the lumbar nerve root was built. Three days after the modeling, rats were given the drugs for the first time, while rats in the model group were given the equivalent normal saline. After 30 d of continuous administration, samples were collected from rats. HE staining was performed on the dorsal root ganglion of L4 and L5 spinal cord of rats in each group and the expression of p38MARK phosphorylation was measured. All data were treated with the statistical analysis. Results: The histological examination showed that the histomorphology of dorsal root ganglion in the Yaobitong capsule group was more significantly improved than the one in the model group, while the results of western blot showed that Yaobitong capsule could significantly inhibit the level of p38MAPK phosphorylation of dorsal root ganglion cells. Conclusions: Yaobitong capsule can improve the symptoms and nerve radiculopathy of autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation of rats and its mechanism may be associated with its inhibiting effect on the level of p38MAPK phosphorylation.
    15  Blood pH in coronary artery microthrombosis of rats
    Kuai-Fa Fang Zhu-Jun Chen Meng Liu Ping-Sheng Wu Da-Zhi Yu
    2015, 8(10):844-849. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.015
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 326.59 K](233)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the mechanism and significance of pH change in the coronary artery microthrombosis of rats. Methods: After the sodium laurate-induced model of coronary artery microthrombosis of rats was constructed, the vascular endothelial cells were separated and then cultured in the mediums with different pH values for 24 h. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the content of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the medium; while the real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to detect the expression of fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) at the mRNA and protein level. The comprehensive evaluation was performed to discuss the effect of pH change on the coronary artery microthrombosis of rats. Results: The expression level of vWF detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was 336.67±24.95, 311.33±14.98, 359.67±39.63, 354.67±49.01 and 332.00±33.42 (pg/mL) respectively; while the expression of vWF in the model group was 570.00±57.94, 524.67±57.94, 437.00±95.38, 415.33±44.38 and 444.67±74.31 respectively. Being cultured under the different pH values, the relative expression level of FGL2 mRNA in the model group was 7.93±0.93, 6.70±0.70, 5.03±0.32, 5.13±0.40 and 5.57±0.83 respectively. Conclusions: The coronary artery microthrombosis of rats can cause the high expression and secretion of vWF. Meanwhile, FGL2 is also up-regulated in the thrombosis and such up-regulation is more significant in the condition with low pH, which indicates that the low-pH condition may be one of factors that contribute to the cardiovascular diseases.
    16  Expression of serum Dickkopf-1 in gastric cancer patients
    Gui-Feng Zhuang Yan Tan Jun-Tao Zeng Jie-Wei Zhang Jing Tang Shi-Ping Zeng Xi Qin
    2015, 8(10):850-852. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.016
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 290.49 K](244)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the expression and clinical significance of DKK-1 protein in patients with gastric cancers. Methods: Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect expressions of serum DKK-1 protein in 90 cases of gastric cancers,50 cases of gastric benign disease and 40 healthy cases. The dynamic change in serum DKK-1 protein of gastric cancer patients who accepted radical operation for a month was also observed. Results: The expression of serum DKK-1 protein in gastric cancer groups was significantly higher than that in gastric benign group’s (P<0.01) and in health control (P<0.01). Serum DKK 1 level was increased gradually along with the progress of the disease. Serum DKK 1 levels were significantly higher in patients at TNM staging Ⅲ and IV than patients at TNM staging I and Ⅱ. Level of serum DKK-1 was related to microvascular invasion, differentiation degree and infiltration depth. Level of serum DKK-1 was significantly reduced in patients after radical surgery (P<0.01). Conclusions: The expression of serum DKK-1 protein in gastric cancer patients is increased. Level of serum DKK-1 is related to TNM staging, microvascular invasion, differentiation degree and infiltration depth. DKK-1 detection can be used as a reference index in monitoring gastric cancer progress and biological behavior.
    17  Therapeutic effect and mechanism of breviscapine on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice
    Xiao-Yu Lou Jing-Liang Cheng Bo Zhang
    2015, 8(10):853-857. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.017
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 290.57 K](241)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To observe the protective effect of breviscapineon mice with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Mice were given a single injection of cisplatin (8 mg/kg, i.p.); then, breviscapine was given to mice at 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses, respectively, once a day for seven days. Renal tissue structure was observed after animals were sacrificed. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), lipid peroxide (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) serum levels were detected; and MDA, glutathione peroxidase, and SOD levels in the renal cortex were detected. Results: Compared with the blank control group (BCG), the kidney pathological damage of mice in the model control group (MCG) was more severe. After applying different doses of breviscapine, different degrees of renal injury improvement appeared. Compared with the BCG, the serum levels of Scr and BUN in the MCG increased to (89.92±6.78) μmoL/L and (15.32±4.53) mmoL/L. The differences were statistical significant (P<0.01). Compared with the MCG, the serum levels of Scr and BUN in the Bre low-dose groups and Bre high-dose groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the BCG, the MDA levels in serum and in the renal cortex in the MCG significantly increased, while the SOD levels significantly decreased. Both the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the Bre low-dose groups and Bre high-dose groups, MDA levels in serum and in the renal cortex significantly decreased, while SOD and glutathione peroxidase levels in the renal cortex significantly increased, compared with the MCG; and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: Breviscapine can reduce cisplatin induced renal toxicity in mice and it’s possible through inhibition of renal tubule cell lipid peroxidation and reduces the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin.
    18  Fatal case of amoebic liver abscess in a child
    Khuen Foong Ng Kah Kee Tan Romano Ngui Yvonne AL Lim Amirah Amir Yamuna Rajoo Hamimah Hassan Rohela Mahmud
    2015, 8(10):858-860. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.018
    [Abstract](77) [HTML](0) [PDF 263.63 K](225)
    Abstract:
    We reported a case of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in a 6-year-old Malaysian boy who presented with fever, lethargy, diarrhea and right hypochondriac pain. On admission he was diagnosed with perforated acute appendicitis and a laparotomy was done. After surgery he developed acute respiratory distress. Ultrasonography, chest X-Ray and CT scan revealed two ALAs in the posterior segment of right lobe of liver, pleural effusion and collapsed consolidation of lungs bilaterally. Percutaneous liver abscesses drainage was done and intravenous Metronidazole was started. PCR carried out on the pus from the abscess was positive for Entamoeba histolytica. Patient however succumbed to the infection one week after admission.

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