Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 8,Issue 3,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Statistical estimations for Plasmodium vivax malaria in South Korea
    Youngsaeng Lee Hyeongap Jang Jeong Ae Rhee Jeong-Soo Park
    2015, 8(3):169-175. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60310-2
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.10 M](282)
    Objective: To calculate the numbers of weekly infections and prevalence of malaria, and to predict future trend of malaria incidences in South Korea. Methods: Weekly incidences of malaria for 13 years from the period 2001-2013 in South Korea were analyzed. The back-calculation equations were used with incubation period distributions. The maximum likelihood estimation for Poisson model was also used. The confidence intervals of the estimates were obtained by a bootstrap method. A regression model for time series of malaria incidences over 13 years was fitted by the non-linear least squares method, and used to predict futuretrend. Results: The estimated infection curve is narrower and more concentrated in the summer than in the incidence distribution. Infection started around the 19th week and was over around the 41st week. The maximum weekly infection 110 was obtained at the 29th week. The prevalence at the first week was around 496 persons, the minimum number was 366 at 22nd week, and the maximum prevalence was 648 at 34th week. Prevalence drops in late spring with people that falling ill and had had long incubation periods and rose in the summer with new infections. Our future forecast based on the regression model was that an increase at year 2014 compared to 2013 mayreach a peak (at maximum about 70 weekly cases) at year 2015, with a decreasing trend after then. Conclusions: This work shows that back-calculation methods could work well in estimating the infection rates and the prevalence of malaria. The obtained results can be useful in establishing an efficient preventive program for malaria infection. The method presented here can be used in other countries where incidence data and incubation period are available.
    2  Evolutionary relationship of 5’-untranslated regions among Thai dengue-3 viruses, Bangkok isolates, during 24 year-evolution
    Watcharee Attatippaholkun Panyupa Pankhong Ananda Nisalak Siripen Kalayanarooj
    2015, 8(3):176-184. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60311-4
    [Abstract](69) [HTML](0) [PDF 16.19 M](389)
    Objective: To study evolutionary relationship of the 5’untranslated regions (5’UTRs) in low passage dengue3 viruses (DEN3) isolated from hospitalized children with different clinical manifestations in Bangkok during 24 year-evolution (1977-2000) comparing to the DEN3 prototype (H87). Methods: The 5’UTRs of these Thai DEN3 and the H87 prototype were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Their multiple sequence alignments were done by Codon Code Aligner v 4.0.4 software and their RNA secondary structures were predicted by MFOLD software. Replication of five Thai DEN3 candidates comparing to the H87 prototype were done in human (HepG2) and the mosquito (C6/36) cell lines. Results: Among these Thai DEN3, the completely identical sequences of their first 89 nucleotides, their high-order secondary structure of 5’UTRs and three SNPs including the predominant C90T, and two minor SNPs including A109G and A112G were found. The C90T of Thai DEN3, Bangkok isolates was shown predominantly before 1977. Five Thai DEN3 candidates with the predominant C90T were shown to replicate inhuman (HepG2) and the mosquito (C6/36) cell lines better than the H87 prototype. However, their highly conserved sequences as well as SNPs of the 5’UTR did not appear to correlate with their disease severity in human. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted evolutionary relationship of the completely identical 89 nucleotide sequence, the high-order secondary structure and the predominant C90T of the 5’UTR of these Thai DEN3 during 24 year-evolution further suggesting to be their genetic markers and magic targets for future research on antiviral therapy as well as vaccine approaches of Thai DEN3.
    3  Depressant effects of Agastache mexicana methanol extract and one of major metabolites tilianin
    María Eva González-Trujano Hilda Ponce-Mu?oz Sergio Hidalgo-Figueroa Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez Samuel Estrada-Soto
    2015, 8(3):185-190. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60312-6
    [Abstract](68) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.14 M](304)
    Objective: To determine the depressant-like effects and the possible mechanism of action of tilianin isolated from active methanol extract of Agastache mexicana (A. mexicana). Also, to establish the pharmacophoric requirements of tilianin, as a possible ligand of GABAA/ BZD receptor, by the alignment of diazepam, CGS-9896 and diindole, using a previously described pharmacophoric model. Methods: Tilianin (30 to 300 mg/kg, ip. and 300 mg/kg, po.) and methanol crude extract (10 to 300 mg/kg, ip. and 300 mg/kg po.) from A. mexicana were evaluated for potential sedative and anxiolytic-like response drugs by using open-field, hole-board, cylinder of exploration, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis mice methods. Results: Methanol extract and tilianin showed anxiolytic-like activity from a dosage of 30 mg/kg, ip. or 300 mg/kg, po. and were less potent than diazepam 0.1 mg/kg, a reference anxiolytic drug used. Moreover, depressant activity of both potentiates sodium pentobarbital (SP)-induced sleeping time. The anxiolytic-like effect of 30 mg/kg ip. observed for the extract and tilianin, by using the plus-maze model, was partially prevented in the presence of flumazenil (a GABAA/BZD antagonist, 5 mg/kg ip.) but not in the presence of WAY 100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.32 mg/kg, ip.). Pharmacophoric modeling alignments of three agonist of GABAA/BZD allow identify seven chemical features. Tilianin contains six of the seven features previously determined. Conclusions: Results indicate that tilianin is one of the bioactive metabolites in the anxiolytic-like activity of A. mexicana,reinforcing its central nervous system uses, where GABAA/BZD, but not 5-HT1A, receptors are partially involved.
    4  Fatty acid methyl ester profiles and nutritive values of 20 marine microalgae in Korea
    Sung-Suk Suh So Jung Kim Jinik Hwang Mirye Park Taek-Kyun Lee Eui-Joon Kil Sukchan Lee
    2015, 8(3):191-196. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60313-8
    [Abstract](92) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.90 M](270)
    Objective: To screen the fatty acid (FA) composition of 20 marine microalgae species, including seven Diophyceae, six Bacillariophyceae, four Chlorophyceae, two Haptophyceae and one Raphidophyceae species. Methods: Microalgal cells cultured at the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology were harvested during the late exponential growth phase and the FA composition analyzed. Results: The FA composition of microalgae was species-specific. For example, seven different species of Dinophyceae were composed primarily of C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, while C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were abundant FAs in six species ofBacillariophyceae. In addition, four Chlorophyceae, two Haptophyceae and one Raphidophyceae species all contained a high degree of C16:1n-7 [(9.28-34.91)% and (34.48-35.04)%], C14:0 [(13.34-25.96)%] and [(26.6928.24)%], and C16:0 [(5.89-29.15)%] and [(5.70-16.81)%]. Several factors contribute to the nutritional value of microalgae, including the polyunsaturated FA content and n-3 to n-6 FA ratio, which could be used to assess the nutritional quality of microalgae. Conclusions: This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the FA composition and nutritional value of microalgae species in South Korea, and identifies the potential utility of FAs as species-specific biomarkers.
    5  Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from different sources in Pakistan
    Fariha Masood Siddiqui Muhammad Akram Nighat Noureen Zobia Noreen Habib Bokhari
    2015, 8(3):197-202. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60314-X
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.97 M](321)
    Objective: To determine antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from clinical human diarrheal infections, cattle and healthy broilers. Methods: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of C. jejuni isolates were determined by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion assay. These isolates were then subjected to virulence profiling for the detection of mapA (membrane-associated protein), cadF (fibronectin binding protein), wlaN (beta-1,3galactosyltransferase) and neuAB (sialic acid biosynthesis gene). Further C. jejuni isolates were grouped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling. Results: A total of 436 samples from poultry (n=88), cattle (n=216) and humans (n=132) from different locations were collected. Results revealed percentage of C. jejuni isolates were 35.2% (31/88), 25.0% (54/216) and 11.3% (15/132) among poultry, cattle and clinical human samples respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed that similar resistance patterns to cephalothin was ie. 87.0%, 87.1% and 89%among humans, poultry and cattle respectively, followed by sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim 40.0%, 38.7% and 31.0% in humans, poultry and cattle and Ampicillin 40%, 32% and 20% in humans, poultry and cattle respectively. Beta-lactamase activity was detected in 40.00% humans, 20.37% cattle and 32.25% in poultry C. jejuni isolates. CadF and mapA were present in all poultry, cattle and human C. jejuni isolates, wlaN was not detected in any isolate and neuAB was found in 9/31 (36%) poultry isolates. RAPD profiling results suggested high diversity of C. jejuni isolates. Conclusions: Detection of multidrug resistant C. jejuni strains from poultry and cattle is alarming as they can be potential hazard to humans. Moreover, predominant association of virulence factors, cadF and mapA (100 % each) in C. jejuni isolates from all sources and neuAB (36%) with poultry isolates suggest the potential source of transmission of diverse types of C. jejuni to humans.
    6  Prevalence of West Nile virus in Mashhad, Iran: A population-based study
    Zahra Meshkat Sadegh Chinikar MohammadTaghi Shakeri Lida Manavifar Maryam Moradi Hessam Mirshahabi Tahmineh Jalali Sahar Khakifirouz,Nariman Shahhosseini
    2015, 8(3):203-205. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60315-1
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.83 M](227)
    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of West Nile virus seropositivity in the general population of Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Methods: One hundred and eighty two individuals living in the city of Mashhad were studied using cluster sampling method. Both IgM and IgG antibodies against WNV were detected by ELISA method. Results: In this study, the overall IgG seroprevalence of positive West Nile virus was 11%; however, IgM antibody was not found in the participants. Conclusions: Our study suggested that the prevalence rate of West virus is considerable in Mashhad city. It seems necessary for clinicians and health care workers to be aware of WNV infection in the Northeast Iran.
    7  Dengue in pregnancy: an under-reported illness, with special reference to other existing co-infections
    Nidhi Singla Sunita Arora Poonam Goel Jagdish Chander Anju Huria
    2015, 8(3):206-208. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60316-3
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.68 M](270)
    Objective: To keep the level of awareness high as far as incidence of dengue among pregnant women is concerned. Methods: A total of 300 blood samples of patients with fever in pregnancy were received in the Department of Microbiology to rule out dengue infection (January 2011 to December 2012). The samples were put up for presence of dengue IgM antibodies and NS1Ag by ELISA. The patients who turned out to be positive for dengue serology were retrospectively analysed with respect to patient’s age, gestational age, clinical presentation, complications, platelet counts and maternal as well as foetal outcomes. Results: Out of 300 females tested, 22 (7.3%) were found positive for dengue infection during the said time period. Out of them 9 were positive for IgM antibodies against dengue and 10 were found to be positive for NS1Ag, while 3 were positive for both IgM antibody and NS1Ag. Five patients presented with dengue in first trimester, 9 in second trimester and 8 in third trimester. Two patients had coinfections. Patient with coinfection of dengue with malaria had intrauterine death of fetus at 37 weeks while the second one having dengue with typhoid had a preterm vaginal delivery at 35 weeks. Conclusions: Establishing diagnosis of dengue infection in pregnancy is important for effective management by the obstetricians particularly the mode of delivery due to the potential risk of hemorrhage for both the mother and the newborn. Co infections seen in endemic areas may be more common than usually reported.
    8  Effects of high glucose on expression of OPG and RANKL in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells
    Hong-Juan Chang Tian-Fa Li Jun-Li Guo You-Ling Lan Yue-Qiong Kong Xin Meng Xian-Ji Ma Xiao-Ling Lu Wei-Ying Lu Shao-Jiang Zheng
    2015, 8(3):209-213. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60317-5
    [Abstract](65) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.72 M](259)
    Objective: To explore effect of high glucose on expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Methods: SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin, OPG and RANKL expression in rat thoracic aortas were detected by immunohistochemical staining. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) (A7r5), qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to examine the mRNA and protein levels of OPG and RANKL. Results: Our results demonstrated that OPG expression was increased in hyperglycemic rat aortic VSMCs, while RANKL expression was decreased. Besides, in vitro experiments high glucose induced OPG expression, but depressed RANKL expression by dose- and time-dependent manner in cultured A7r5. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that high glucose could promote the expression of OPG, and inhibit the expression of RANKL in VSMCs, which may be partly be the molecular mechanism of diabetic vascular calcification.
    9  Expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood
    Yu-Hui Zhang Liang-Hua Xia Jia-Mei Jin Ming Zong Ming Chen Bo Zhang
    2015, 8(3):214-219. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60318-7
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.24 M](306)
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression level of miR-155 and the severity of coronary lesion, and explore the action mechanism. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated form blood simple from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UAP), stable angina (SAP) and chest pain syndrome (CPS). RT-PCR was performed to analysis the expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, plasma and RAW264.7 macrophagocyte. MTT was used to analyze the cell viability of OxLDL treated RAW264.7 macrophagocyte. Results: The expression level of miR-155 in blood sample from coronary heart disease patients was much lower than in the blood sample of non-coronary heart disease (P<0.05). The level of miR-155 in PBMCs was much higher in the blood sample from CPS group than the other three group, and the level of miR-155 in plasma was higher in the CPS group than in the UAP and the AMI group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level of miR-155 in PBMCs is positively associated with the level in the plasma (r=0.861, P=0.000). OxLDL can induce the expression of miR-155 in RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, decrease the cell viability of RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, and with the concentration and the treatment time of OxLDL increased, the effort become more obvious. The inhibition effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte with high miR-155 expression is much lower than the control group, and it is statistically significant after treated for 12, 24 and 48 h. Conclusions: miR-155 plays a protective role in the progression of atherosclerosis, and it may be achieved by reducing the apoptosis effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.
    10  Effect of NF-kB inhibitor PDTC on VEGF and endostatin expression of mice with Lewis lung cancer
    Ping Gao Ya-Jie Gao Hong-Lu Liang
    2015, 8(3):220-224. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60319-9
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.58 M](291)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of NF-kB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate hydrochloride (PDTC) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin expression in mice with Lewis lung cance; and its mechanism. Methods: Mice survival rate and anti-tumor effects were observed in different concentrations of NF-kB inhibitor PDTC after the Lewis lung cancer mice model was established. VEGF and endostatin expressions were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Results: Lewis lung cancer was be inhibited by 0.5 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg of NF-kB inhibitor PDTC (P<0.05). Microvessel density (MVD) in 0.5 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg NF-kB inhibitor PDTC groups were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical assay results showed that VEGF and endostatin expressions in the 0.5 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg NFkB inhibitor PDTC groups were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Western blot results also showed that NF-kB inhibitor PDTC could inhibit VEGF and endostatin expressions in tumor tissues. Conclusions: NF-kB inhibitor PDTC can inhibit tumor formation and reduce tumor angiogenesis in mice with Lewis lung cancer; and its mechanism maybe associated to VEGF and endostatin down-regulation.
    11  Effect of survivin siRNA on biological behaviour of breast cancer MCF7 cells
    Hao Wang Yi-Feng Ye
    2015, 8(3):225-228. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60320-5
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.44 M](259)
    Objective: To investigate the expression of survivin in breast cancer cell lines and explore the effect of survivin siRNA on biology behavior of breast cancer cells. Methods: Western blot was performed to detect the expression of survivin in breast cancer cell lines. Eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP-Survivin siRNA was constructed and transfected in MCF7 cells with liposome, the efficiency of survivin siRNA was measured by Western blot and RTPCR. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK8 and cell flow respectively. Cell migration and invasion was measured by transwell assay. Results: Survivin was highly expressed in MCF-7. Green fluorescence was found in MCF-7 cells tranfected with survivin siRNA and control siRNA by inverted fluorescence microscopy, the protein and mRNA level of survivin was significantly lower in cells tranfected with survivin siRNA compared with control group. Compared with control group, interfering the expression of survivin by siRNA significantly decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, the percentage of apoptosis cells was greatly promoted. Conclusions: Interfering the expression of Survivin can inhibit the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promot apoptosis in MCF-7.
    12  Effects of antiarrhythmic peptide 10 on acute ventricular arrhythmia
    Bing Sun Jin-Fa Jiang Cui-Mei Zhao Chao-Hui Hu
    2015, 8(3):229-233. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60321-7
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.03 M](280)
    Objective: To observe the effects antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) aon acute ventricular arrhythmia and the phosphorylation state of ischemic myocardium connexin. Methods: Acute total ischemia and partial ischemia models were established by ceasing perfusion and ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in SD rats. The effects of AAP10 (1 mg/L) on the incidence rate of ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia were observed. The ischemic myocardium was sampled to detect total-Cx43 and NP-Cx43 by immunofluorescent staining and western blotting. the total-Cx43 expression was detected through image analysis system by semi-quantitative analysis. Results: AAP10 could significantly decrease the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. During ischemic stage, total ischemia (TI) and AAP10 total ischemia (ATI) groups were compared with partial ischemia (PI) and AAP10 partial ischemia (API) groups. The rates of incidence for arrhythmia in the ATI and API groups (10% and 0%) were lower than those in the TI and PI groups (60% and 45%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.019, P=0.020). The semi-quantitative analysis results of the ischemic myocardium showed that the total-Cx43 protein expression distribution areas for TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly decreased compared with the control group. On the other hand, the NP-Cx43 distribution areas of TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P>0.05). AAP10 could increase the total-Cx43 expression in the ischemic area and decrease the NP-Cx43 expression. Western blot results were consistent with the results of immunofluorescence staining. Conclusions: AAP10 can significantly decrease the rate of incidence of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Acute ischemic ventricular arrhythmias may have a relationship with the decreased phosphorylation of Cx43 induced by ischemia. AAP10 may stimulate the phosphorylation of Cx43 by increasing the total-Cx43 expression and decreasing the NP-Cx43 expression in the ischemic area, so as to decrease ventricular arrhythmia.
    13  Expression and significance of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in precocious puberty female rat hypothalamus
    Yan-Chao Shang Jie Zhang Yan-Qiu Shang
    2015, 8(3):234-238. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60322-9
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.64 M](332)
    Objective: To study expressions of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in female precocious puberty rat hypothalamus, and explore its effect on precocious puberty process. Methods: Forty female one-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: experimental group A (precocious puberty early youth), experimental group B (precocious puberty medium youth), group A (normal pre-puberty), group B (normal early youth) with 10 rats in each group. Precocious puberty experimental rats were induced with Danazol and rats in control group were injected with saline. Uterus and ovaries were removed, specimens were weighed, uterus index and ovarian index were calculated, and amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected from the blood by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to detect netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C, as well as hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamus tissues; and then, a coimmunoprecipitation study of interactions between netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C was carried out. Results: Relative target gene expression levels of control group A, control group B, experimental group A, and experimental group B (withβ-actin as an internal control for normalization) were as follows: Netrin-1: 3.5±0.9, 5.4±0.7, 4.9±1.0, 5.3±0.3; UNC5C: 0.8± 0.04, 1.7±0.2, 1.82±0.23, 1.58±0.4; GnRH: 1.2±0.3, 2.7±0.3, 2.4±0.7, 3.2±0.4. Conclusions: LH and FSH concentrations, netrin-1 and its receptor expression are increased in precocious puberty animal models.
    14  MicroRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cell line A549
    Xun Yang Bei-Bei Chen Ming-Hua Zhang Xin-Rong Wang
    2015, 8(3):239-242. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60323-0
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.68 M](219)
    Objective: To study the role of microRNA-126 in the development of lung cancer. Methods: The biological function of microRNA-126 was detected using EdU assay and CCK-8 assay; the target gene of microRNA-126 was analyzed using real time RT-PCR and Western blot assay. Results: In A549 cell line, overexpression of microRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation rate; VEGF is the target gene of microRNA-126; microRNA-126 exerts its function via regulating VEGF protein level. Conclusions: microRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation in A549 cell line.
    15  Influence of artificial luminous environment and TCM intervention on development of myopia rabbits
    Yan Liu Yu-Liang Wang Ke-Lei Wang Fang Liu Xia Zong
    2015, 8(3):243-248. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60325-4
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.63 M](336)
    Objective: To explore the influence of artificial luminous environment and preventive function of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) intervention based on “Theory of yin-yang clock” on myopia. Methods: A total of 45 New Zealand young rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups, 9 for each group. Control group was exposed in natural light. Fluorescent group and full spectrum group were exposed in fluorescent light and full spectrum light, on which basis fluorescent TCM group and full spectrum TCM group were added with “Rizhong Yinyang Formulas”, respectively. Optical parameters were measured and the influence of different lights on the serum and retinal dopamine (DA) levels as well as the retinal histopathological tissues was observed. Results: The spectrum of fluorescent light mainly focused at 420-490 nm with the peak value of wavelength near 450 nm, whereas that of full spectrum was wider (400-800 nm) with the peak value near 600 nm. After 4 and 12 weeks, fluorescent group was evidently lower in serum and retinal DA levels (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference among full spectrum group, fluorescent TCM group and full spectrum TCM group (P>0.05). Histopathological observation showed that there was significant difference in pigment epithelium layer, photoreceptor and nerve fiber layer between fluorescent group and control group, but the difference among the test groups was not significant. Conclusions: Fluorescent light has certain influence on retinal histological construction and visual performance. However, TCM intervention may have some degree of protective function on retina.
    16  Relevance of EGFR gene mutation with pathological features and prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma
    Cheng-De Wang Xin-Rong Wang Chao-Yang Wang Yi-Jun Tang Ming-Wen Hao
    2015, 8(3):249-252. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60326-6
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.75 M](332)
    Objective: To study the relevance of EGFR gene mutation with pathological features and prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Methods: A total of 297 patients from July 2009 to May 2013 were chosen as objects. EGFR gene mutation were detected with fluorescence quantitative PCR. Relevance of EGFR gene mutation with clinical and pathological features was analyzed, and the prognosis of EGFR- mutant-patients and that of EGFR- wide type-patients was compared. Results: In 297 patients, 136 (45.79%) showed EGFR gene mutation. EGFR gene mutation had no significant relevance with age, gender, smoking history, family history of cancer and clinical stage (P>0.05); there was significant relevance between EGFR gene mutation and blood type, pathologic types, differentiation and diameter of cancer (P<0.05). The difference between prognosis of EGFR- mutant-patients and that of EGFR- wide type-patients was statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusions: EGFR gene mutation has significant relevance with pathological features, the prognosis of EGFR mutant-patients is better than that of EGFR- wide type-patients.

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