Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 8,Issue 4,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  A brief review on biomarkers and proteomic approach for malaria research
    Vivek Bhakta Mathema Kesara Na-Bangchang
    2015, 8(4):253-262. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60327-8
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 22.47 M](238)
    Malaria remains as one of the significant health threat to people living in countries throughout tropical and subtropical zones. Proteomic studies of Plasmodium, the protozoan causing malaria, is essential for understanding its cellular structure, growth stage-specific expression of protein metabolites and complex interaction with host. In-depth knowledge of the pathogen is required for identification of novel biomarkers that can be utilized to develop diagnostic tests and therapeutic antimalarial drugs. The alarming rise in drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium has created an urgent need to identify new targets for drug development that can act by obstructing life cycle of this parasite. In the present review, we briefly discuss on role of various biomarkers including Plasmodium-associated aldolase, histidine-rich proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for diagnosis of malaria. Here we also summarize the present and future prospects of currently used techniques in proteomic approaches such as two dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) for diagnosis and potential identification of novel proteins for malaria research.
    2  Trigonelline protects the cardiocyte from hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells
    Soundharrajan Ilavenil Da Hye Kim Young-Il Jeong Mariadhas Valan Arasu Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar Ponnuraj Nagendra Prabhu Srisesharam Srigopalram Ki Choon Choi
    2015, 8(4):263-268. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60328-X
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 412.71 K](220)
    Objective: To elucidate the key parameters associated with hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress and investigates the mechanism of trigonelline (TG) for reducing the H2O2 induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of TG was assessed by EZ-CYTOX kit. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesized according to the kit manufacture protocol. Apoptosis was measured by the Flowcytometry, general PCR and qPCR. Results: It was found that the TG significantly rescued the morphology of the H9c2 cells. Treatment of cells with TG attenuated H2O2 induced cell deaths and improved the antioxidant activity. In addition, TG regulated the apoptotic gene caspase-3, caspase-9 and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, Bcl-XL during H2O2 induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. These results were comparable with quercetin treatment. For evident, flow cytometer results also confirmed the TG significantly reduced the H2O2 induced necrosis and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. However, further increment of TG concentration against H2O2 could induce the necrosis and apoptosis along with H2O2. Conclusions: It is suggested that less than 125 μ M of TG could protect the cells from H2O2 induced cell damage by down regulating the caspases and up regulating the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression. Therefore, we suggest the trigonelline could be useful for treatment of oxidative stress mediated cardiovascular diseases in future.
    3  In vitro cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effect of selected coniferous tree species
    Fatma Sezer Senol Ilkay Erdogan Orhan Osman Ustun
    2015, 8(4):269-275. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60329-1
    [Abstract](65) [HTML](0) [PDF 325.68 K](214)
    Objective: To explore cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effect of six coniferous trees (Abies bornmulleriana, Picea pungens, Juniperus communis, Cedrus libani, Taxus baccata, and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis). Methods: Acetone (Ace), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and ethanol (EtOH) extracts prepared from the needles and shoots of the six coniferous trees were screened for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical scavenging, metal-chelation capacity, ferric-(FRAP) and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. All of the assays were performed in ELISA microplate reader. Total phenol and flavonoid amounts in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Among thirty-six extracts in total, the shoot-Ace extract of Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis exerted the highest inhibition against AChE [(54.84±2.51)%], while the needle-Ace extract of Cedrus libani was the most effective in inhibiting BChE [(67.54±0.30)%]. The highest DPPH radical scavenging effect, FRAP and PRAP was observed in the shoot-Ace and EtOAc extracts from Taxus baccata, whereas all the extracts showed a variable degree of scavenging effect against DPMD radical. The shoot-EtOAc extract of Cedrus libani had the highest metalchelation capacity [(58.04±0.70)%]. The shoot extracts of Taxus baccata were determined to have the richest total phenol content, which may contribute to its marked antioxidant activity. Conclusions: The conifer species screened in this study may contain cholinesterase-inhibiting and antioxidant properties, which might be useful against Alzheimer’s disease.
    4  Monascus pilosus-fermented black soybean inhibits lipid accumulation in adipocytes and in high-fat diet-induced obese mice
    Young-Sil Lee#,Bong-Keun Choi#,Hae Jin Lee Dong-Ryung Lee Jinhua Cheng Won-Keun Lee Seung Hwan Yang Joo-Won Suh
    2015, 8(4):276-282. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60330-8
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 362.99 K](280)
    Objective: To explore the anti-obesity effects and the mechanism of action of Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus)-fermented black soybean (MFBS) extracts (MFBSE) and MFBS powders (MFBSP) in adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, respectively. Methods: Black soybean was fermented with M. pilosus, and the main constituents in MFBS were analyzed by HPLC analysis. In vitro, MFBSE were examined for anti-adipogenic effects using Oil-Red O staining. In vivo, mice were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD) control, HFD control or HFD containing 1 g/kg MFBSP for 12 weeks, and then body weight gain and tissues weight measured. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to determine the mechanism of anti-adipogenic effects. Results: MFBSE inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without exerting cell cytotoxicity. MFBSP treatment in HFD-fed mice significantly decreased the body weight gain compared with the HFD control mice. MFBSE and MFBSP trea tment resulted in significantly lower mRNA levels of adipogenesis-related genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS), in adipocytes and in white adipose tissue (WAT) of HFD-induced obese mice. Conclusions: These results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of MFBS are elicited by regulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in adipocytes and WAT of HFD-induced obese mice.
    5  Antiprotozoal assessment and phenolic acid profiling of five Fumaria (fumitory) species
    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan Nilgun Ozturk Bilge Sener
    2015, 8(4):283-286. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60331-X
    [Abstract](66) [HTML](0) [PDF 311.02 K](223)
    Objective: To explore some Fumaria species which were recorded to be traditionally used against malaria and other protozoal diseases. Methods: Consequently, in the current study, antiprotozoal effect of the ethanol extracts obtained from five Fumaria species(Fumaria densiflora, Fumaria cilicica, Fumaria rostellata, Fumaria kralikii, and Fumaria parviflora) was investigated against the parasites; Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) and Trypanosoma bruceirhodesiense (human African trypanosomiasis) at 0.81 and 4.85 μg/mL concentrations. Results: Among them, Fumaria densiflora extract exerted the highest antiplasmodial (93.80%) and antitrypanasomal effect (55.40%), while the ethanol extracts of Fumaria kralikii (43.45%) and Fumaria rostellata (41.65%) showed moderate activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Besides, phenolic acid contents of the extracts were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and trans-cinnamic (4.32 mg/g) and caffeic (3.71 mg/g) acids were found to be the dominant phenolic acids in Fumaria densiflora. Conclusions: According to our results, Fumaria densiflora deserve further study for its promising antiprotozoal activity.
    6  Profile and geographical distribution of reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Northwestern Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2013
    Najoua Haouas Omar Amer Asma Ishankyty Adnan Alazmi Ibrahim Ishankyty
    2015, 8(4):287-291. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60332-1
    [Abstract](77) [HTML](0) [PDF 341.50 K](217)
    Objective: To describe the profile and geographical distribution of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the province of Hail, Saudi Arabia from 2010 to 2013. Methods: Human data were collected from the dermatology service of both King Khaled and General Hail hospitals. Results: A total of 483 confirmed CL cases were investigated. Cutaneous leishmaniasis follows a seasonal distribution related to the activity of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. Both saudi and non saudi patients were almost equally infected. The number of reported cases of CL in men was higher than that in females. The frequency of CL was asoociated with age and increased in teenager and adult group. By analyzing the geographical distribution, the majority of Hail districts were affected with this disease. However it is more prevalent in Hail city. Conclusions: The lack of data concerning the parasite, the sand fly fauna and the existing transmission cycles in Hail province make difficult to interpret the reported results and to follow up the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease.
    7  Change of MicroRNA-134, CREB and p-CREB expression in epileptic rat
    Yan Zhu Cheng-Shan Li Yuan-Ye Wang Sheng-Nian Zhou
    2015, 8(4):292-298. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60333-3
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 351.72 K](220)
    Objective: To To investigate the changes of MicroRNA-134, CREB and p-CREB expression in epileptic rat brains in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy, providing new ideas for clinical treatment. Methods: Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups randomly, including control group, six hours after seizure group, 24-hour group, three-day group, one-week group, two-week group, four-week group, and eight-week group. All groups were placed under a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model except the control group, and all rats were decapitated in different points of time. Brain specimens were taken for quantitative PCR experiments, immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments. The results of the epilepsy model groups and the control group were compared. Results: There were no significant differences between the six hours after seizure group, the 24-hour group and the control group about the MicroRNA-134 levels. MicroRNA-134 in the hippocampus tissue of the three-day group significantly reduced compared with the control group; same result was observed with the one-week, two-week, four-week and eight-week groups. The CREB and p-CREB levels in the three-day group’s rat hippocampus significantly increased compared with the control group; and the high levels of CREB and p-CREB were constantly maintained in the one-week, two-week, four-week and eight-week groups. Conclusions: The MicroRNA 134 level of the epileptic rat hippocampus is significantly lower than normal after three days, and continues to maintain a low level; while CREB and p-CREB levels are rsignificantly increased after three days, and continue to remain at a high level. MicroRNA-134 plays a role in inhibiting synaptic plasticity by inhibiting CREB and p-CREB expressions.
    8  Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of ferulic acidpuerarin-astragaloside in combination with neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
    Li-Jun Ge Shou-Yan Fan Jie-Hong Yang Yi Wei Zhen-Hong Zhu Yi-Jia Lou Ying Guo Hai-Tong Wan Yi-Qiang Xie
    2015, 8(4):299-304. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60334-5
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 372.16 K](205)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of the active ingredients combined therapy on inflammatory factors interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) based on pharmacodynamics in rats. Methods: The animal model was built by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The method for evaluating the concentrations of the FA-Pr-Al components in rat plasma was established by using HPLC and the expression levels of IL-1β and NPY were determined by ELISA. A new mathematics method of the trend of percentage rate of change (PRC) was used to assess the correlation between pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Results: FA-Pr-Al in combination reduced neurological deficits, decreased infarct volume and inhibited the expression levels of IL-1βand NPY (all P<0.05) compared with the model group. FA, Pr and Al all displayed two compartment open models in rats. Clockwise hysteresis loops were obtained by time-concentration-effect curves. IL-1β and NPY level changes in the plasma followed an opposite trend to the plasma concentration tendency after Cmax was reached. Astragaloside’s PRC value was significantly higher than those of FA and puerarin between 120 to 180 min. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetics of FA-Pr-Al in combination were closely related its pharmacodynamics in treating ischemia/reperfusion injury, and the components of FA-Pr-Al may have a synergistic pharmacological effect. Astragaloside may play a more pronounced role in regulating IL-1β and NPY levels compared with puerarin or FA.
    9  HSP90 and SIRT3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and their effect on invasive capability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    Ming Gao Xiao-Ping Geng He-Ping Xiang
    2015, 8(4):305-308. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60335-7
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 300.46 K](222)
    Objective: To vexplore expression of HSP90, SIRT3 in liver cancer tissue and its effect on liver cancer cell invasion ability. Methods: Moderate expression of HSP90 in SMMC-7721, HepG2, LO2 and Hep-3B cell lines were screened, which was validated by RT-PCR. Over-expression of HSP90 cell line and lentivirus packaging HSP90-RNAi were established, which was validated by RT-PCR and western blot. The level of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related gene was detected by western blot. The percentage of cancer stem cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Results: RT-PCR demonstrated the highest expression of HSP90 mRNA in SMMC-7721 cells, the lowest expression of HSP90 mRNA in Hep3B and LO2 and the moderate expression of HSP90 mRNA in Hep-G2. Therefore, HepG2 was selected as a follow-up experiment cell lines. Compared with the blank control group, expression of HSP90 in HSP overexpression group was increased obviously, and expression of HSP90 in HSP90 shRNA group was significantly decreased, which indicated successful establishment of HSP overexpression and shRNA group. The apoptotic cell in hsp-siRNA group was higher than the blank control group, while the HSP overexpression group showed opposite results. Western blot results showed transfection HSP promoted cells EMT transformation, up-regulated the level of E-cadherin, and down-regulated the level of Vimentin; meanwhile, shRNA group showed opposite results. Conclusions: Carcinoma HepG2 cell transfected high expression of HSP can promote the transformation of EMT, improve the expression of Vimentin, reduce the expression of E-cadherin, and inhibit apoptosis of cancer stem cells, which improve the invasive ability of cancer of the liver cells. While hsp-siRNA group presents opposite results. In summary, the expression of HSP is closely related to the occurrence, development and invasion of cancer of the liver tissue.
    10  Relationship between arterial atheromatous plaque morphology and platelet-associated miR-126 and miR-223 expressions
    Heng-Song Tian Qing-Guo Zhou Fang Shao
    2015, 8(4):309-314. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60336-9
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 364.15 K](221)
    Objective: To study the expression of miR-126 and miR-223 in platelet of rabbit arterial plaque models, and explore its correlation with plaque morphology. Methods: Rabbit arterial plaque models were established, peripheral blood of models and control animals was collected. Plaque morphologies were divided into type I, type Ⅱ and typeⅢ based on angiography plaque morphology and Ambrose method. Platelet isolation kit was applied to isolate and purify peripheral blood platelets, CD45 immunomagnetic beads were used to remove the residual white blood cells. The miRNAs of platelets was extracted by miRNA Isolation Kit, and expressions of miR-126 and miR-223 of the platelets samples were detected by Real-time PCR. The correlation between plaque morphology and platelet-associated miR-126 and miR 223 expressions were analyzed. Expressions of target gene VCAM-1 and P2Y12 receptors of miR-126 and miR-223 in the atherosclerosis plaque of rabbit model were detected by Western blot. Results: Relative expression levels of miR-126 and miR-223 in the model group were 0.27±0.10 and 0.71±0.14, respectively. Plaque morphology was divided into types I, Ⅱ and Ⅲ; and miR-126 and miR-223 expression levels were detected in each type. Expression levels of miR-126 in each type were 0.42±0.07, 0.17±0.11 and 0.22±0.15, respectively; and expression levels of miR-223 in each type are 0.68±0.02, 0.57±0.06 and 0.88±0.10, respectively. Relative to the control group, miR-126 and miR-223 known target genes in VCAM-1 and P2Y12 receptors increased platelets in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque models (P<0.05). Conclusions: Relative to normal control animals, miR-126 and miR-223 platelets were reduced in the rabbit atherosclerotic plaque model group (P<0.05). In the type Ⅱ plaque morphology group, miR 126 was greatly reduced; and there is no significant correlation between miR-223 and plaque morphology.
    11  Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect in patients with aortic valve prolapse and mild aortic regurgitation: feasibility and preliminary outcome
    Guan-Liang Chen Hai-Tao Li Hai-Rong Li Zhi-Wei Zhang
    2015, 8(4):315-318. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60337-0
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 315.55 K](196)
    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD) in patients with aortic valve prolapse (AVP) and mild aortic regurgitation (AR). Methods: Between January 2008 and July 2014, transcatheter closure of VSD was attempted in 65 patients. Results: The total intermediate closure successful rate in all subjects was 96.9%. During the perioperative period, no death, major bleeding, pericardial tamponade, occluder dislodgement, residual shunt or hemolysis occurred. Two procedures had been forced to suspend due to significant aggregation of device related aortic regurgitation, three cases of transient complete left bundle branch block occurred but did not sustain. At 1-year follow-up, no patients had residual shunts and complications. Furthermore, grade of residual AR were relieved in 61.9% (39/63) cases and degree of AVP were ameliorated in 36.5% (23/63) patients; Conclusions: Transcatheter closure VSD in selected patients with AVP and mild AR is technically feasible and highly effective. Long term safety and efficacy needs to be assessed.
    12  Effects of gene silencing of CypB on gastric cancer cells
    Feng Guo Ying Zhang Chun-Na Zhao Lin Li Yan-Jun Guo
    2015, 8(4):319-324. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60338-2
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 377.36 K](211)
    Objective: To determine the effect of gene silencing of cyclophilin B (CypB) on growth and proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Methods: CypB siRNA lentivirus (LV-CypB-si) andcontrol lentivirus (LV-si-con) were produced. CypB expression in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by Western blot. BGC823 and SGC7901 cells were chosen to be infected with LV-sicon and LV-CypB-si, and stable transfectants were isolated. The cell groups transfected with LV-CypB–siRNA, LV-siRNA-con and transfected no carrier were served as the experimental group, the implicit control group and the blank control group respectively. MTT and colony formation assays were used to examine the effect of CypB on the cell growth and proliferation in vitro. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry. The expression of VEGFR of BGC823si and SGC7901-si was detected by Western blot. Results: Gene silencing of CypB can inhibit gastric cancer cell growth, proliferation, cell cycle progress and tumorigenesis. CypB expression level was obviously higher in SGC7901 and BGC823 than MKN28 and GES. These two cell lines were infected with LV-si-con and LV-CypB-si respectively. MTT and cloney formation assays showed a significantly decreased rate of cell proliferation from the forth day or the fifth day in cells transfected with LV-CypB-si (P<0.05). Down-regulation of CypB resulted in slightly decreased percentage of S phase and increased percentage of G1 (P<0.05). These findings indicated that CypB could promote the G1-S transition of gastric cancer cell. In addition, the expression of VEGF of BGC823 and SGC7901 transfected with CypB siRNA was reduced in comparison with the implicit control group and the blank control group. Conclusions: Gene silencing of CypB decreases gastric cancer cells proliferation and in vivo tumorigenesis. These findings indiccate CypB could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
    13  Microscopic study of ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction effects on vascular smooth muscle cells
    Bo Zhang Yi-Rong Hou Tian Chen Bing Hu
    2015, 8(4):325-329. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60339-4
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 313.34 K](201)
    Objective: To observe vascular smooth muscle cell morphological changes induced by ultrasound combined with microbubbles by Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM).Methods: A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells were divided into groups: control group (without ultrasonic irradiation, no micro bubbles) and US+MB group (45 kHz, 0.4 W/cm2 ultrasoundirradiate for 20 seconds with a SonoVue concentration of [(56-140)x105/mL]. Cell micro-morphological changes (such as topographic and acoustic prognosis) were detected, before and after ultrasound destruction by AFAM. Results: In cell morphology, smooth muscle cells were spread o and connected to each another by fibers. At the center of the cell, the nuclear area had a rough surface and was significantly elevated from its surroundings. The cytoskeletal structure of the reticular nucleus and cytoplasm in the morphology of A7r5 cells (20μm×20μm) wereclear before microbubble intervention. After acoustic exciting, the cell structure details of the acoustic image were improved with better resolution, showing the elasticity of different tissues. In the acoustic image, the nucleus was harder, more flexible and uneven compared with the cytoplasm. Many strong various-sized echo particles were stuck on the rough nuclear membrane’s substrate surface. The nuclear membrane did not have a continuous smooth surface; there were many obstructions (pores). After ultrasound-intervention was combined with microbubbles, the dark areas of the A7r5 cell images was increased in various sizes and degrees. The dark areas showed the depth or low altitudes of the lower regions, suggesting regional depressions. However, the location and scope of the acoustic image dark areas were not similar to those found in the topographic images. Therefore, it was likely that the dark areas, both from the topographic and acoustic images, were sound-holes. In addition, some cell nuclei become round in different degrees after irradiation. Conclusions: Atomic force microscopy and acoustic excitation method can noninvasively and completely display a cell’s structure, connections and elastic properties at a nano scale in just several minutes. The dark areas, both from the topographic and acoustic images, may be sound-holes; therefore, it would be helpful if these sound-holes were found. These findings provide a relationship between cell apoptosis after ultrasound and microbubble ultrasound irradiation, and the sound-hole effect.
    14  Analysis of the CHRNA7 gene mutation and polymorphism in Southern Han Chinese patients with nocturnal frontal epilepsy
    Zhi-Hong Chen Chun Wang Lin-Gan Wang Mu-Qing Zhuo Zhi-Hong Tang Qiong-Xiang Zhai Qian Chen Yu-Xiong Guo Yu-Xin Zhang
    2015, 8(4):330-333. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60340-0
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.67 K](230)
    Objective: To detect the CHRNA7 gene mutation and polymorphism in Southern Han Chinese patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). Methods: Blood samples were collected from 215 Southern Han Chinese patients with NFLE and 200 healthy Southern Han Chinese control subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted, and CHRNA7 whole genome exons were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and subjected to Sanger sequencing. Results: No CHRNA7 gene mutation was detected in all of the NFLE patients. However, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sporadic cases were found, located in exons 5, 6, and 7 of the CHRNA7 gene. Among them, c.690G>A and c.698A>G are known SNPs, while c.370G>A, c.654C>T, and c.497-498delTG were newly discovered SNPs. These SNPs were also found in some of the healthy controls. Conclusions: No CHRNA7 gene mutation was identified in Southern Han Chinese patients with NFLE. The CHRNA7 gene is probably not responsible for NFLE in this population.
    15  Liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly associated with Schistosoma mansoni in a Sudanese woman in Malaysia: A case report
    Yamuna Rajoo Rohela Mahmud Ng Rong Xiang Sharifah F.S. Omar G Kumar Yvonne A.L Lim Arine Fadzlun Ahmad Amirah Amir Zurainee Mohamed Nor Romano Ngui
    2015, 8(4):334-336. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60341-2
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 280.35 K](224)
    We report a case of a patient with Schistosoma mansoni infection who presented with liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly. She was diagnosed by a serological test and Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. The patient was a 52-year-old woman from Sudan who came to Malaysia for a week to visit her sons. The patient lives in the middle of Rabak region, Sudan, a highly endemic area for schistosomiasis where her daily routine includes rearing of cows and farming. The site of toilet and sources of drinking water are canals and wells; both infested with snails. Patient had a long history of exposure and coming into contact with water from these canals and wells.

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