Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 8,Issue 7,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Andrographolide effect on both Plasmodium falciparum infected and non infected RBCs membranes
    Zaid O Ibraheem Abd Majid R Sabariah MN Hasidah MS Al-Zihiry K Yam MF Basir R
    2015, 8(7):505-510. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60370-9
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 348.25 K](194)
    Objective: To explore whether its antiplasmodium effect of andrographolide is attributed to its plausible effect on the plasma membrane of both Plasmodium falciparum infected and non-infected RBCs. Methods: Anti-plasmodium effect of andrographolide against Plasmodium falciparum strains was screened using the conventional malaria drug sensitivity assay. The drug was incubated with uninfected RBCs to monitor its effect on their morphology, integrity and osmotic fragility. It was incubated with the plasmodium infected RBCs to monitor its effect on the parasite induced permeation pathways. Its effect on the potential of merozoites to invade new RBCs was tested using merozoite invasion assay. Results: It showed that at andrographolide was innocuous to RBCs at concentrations approach its therapeutic level against plasmodia.Nevertheless, this inertness was dwindled at higher concentrations. Conclusions: In spite of its success to inhibit plasmodium induced permeation pathway and the potential of merozoites to invade new RBCs, its anti-plasmodium effect can’t be attributed to these functions as they were attained at concentrations higher than what is required to eradicate the parasite. Consequently, other mechanisms may be associated with its claimed actions.
    2  Immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant 78 kDa antigen of Leishmania donovani formulated in various adjuvants against murine visceral leishmaniasis
    Rajeev Nagill Tejinder Kaur Jyoti Joshi Sukhbir Kaur
    2015, 8(7):511-517. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60371-0
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 416.68 K](203)
    Objective: To analyze the protective efficacy of recombinant 78 kDa antigen of Leishmania donovani in combination with two adjuvants, that is, cationic liposomes or MPL-A against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Methods: The genomic DNA of promastigotes was isolated and 583 bp of T cell epitopes of gene encoding 78 kDa was amplified using specific primers. The amplified gene was cloned into pET28c, transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and got expressed after IPTG induction. The recombinant protein was then purified using Ni-NTA and named r78. Three groups of mice were immunized with 10 μg of r78 plus MPL-A, r78 encapsulated in positively charged liposomes and control animals immunized with PBS. Two booster doses were given with the respective vaccine at an interval of 2 weeks each. Mice were challenged with 1x107 Leishmania promastigotes and sacrificed on different post infection/challenge days. Results: Immunization with r78 along with MPL-A and liposomeencapsulated r78 brought a significant reduction in parasite load. In comparison to the infected controls, the parasite load declined by 96.2% in mice immunized with r78 plus MPL-A and 97.23% in animals immunized with liposome-encapsulated r78. The immunized animals also exhibited profound DTH response. The serum antibody responses increased from 15 to 90 dayspost infection/challenge. Immunized animals showed greater IgG2a levels and lesser IgG1 levels in comparison to the infected controls. The splenocytes from immunized mice were cultured, stimulated withr78 and analyzed for cytokine profile. The levels of IL-2 and IFNγwere greater in immunized animals as compared to control mice. Conclusions: The study proves that r78 in combination with suitable adjuvants is a potential vaccine candidate and may be instrumental in control of visceral leishmaniasis.
    3  Oral administration of Sauce llorón extract to growing lambs to control gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp.
    Cedillo J Kholif AE Salem AZM Elghandour MMY Vázquez JF Alonso MU Barbabosa A Chagoyán JCV Reyna AG
    2015, 8(7):518-523. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60372-2
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 330.39 K](216)
    Objective: To explore anthelmintic effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Sauce llorón (Salix babylonica; SB) against gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. Methods: Sixteen Pelibuey male lambs of 3-4 months of age and (23.7±3.3) kg body weight were used in a completely randomized design to be fed a total mixed ration (Control; SB0), or Control plus SB extract using 20 (SB20), 40 (SB40) and 60 (SB60) mL/lamb/day for 45 days. Lambs had a natural gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. infection and had never been treated with chemical anthelmintic drugs. Individual faecal samples were collected for ova counting using McMaster procedure after 0, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 45 days post extract administration. Results: No extract dose X day interactions for both gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. egg count were found. Administration of SB extract had a higher effect (quadratic effect, P=0.006 4) at dose of 20 mL SB/lamb/day for gastrointestinal nematode eggs during the first 21 days; however, the dose of SB40 tended (linear effect, P=0.089 7) to be more effective than the others for Moniezia spp. egg during the first 7 days. Sampling day had a linear (P=0.043 6) effect on Moniezia spp. egg count. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of SB could be more effective against nematodes at 20 and at 40 mL/lamb/day for Moniezia spp. The use of the SB extract could represent a promising alternative to synthetic anthelmintics for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. in small ruminants from organic and conventional production systems.
    4  Hepatoprotective and proapoptotic effect of Ecballium elaterium on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
    El Moataz Bellah El Naggar Marta Chalupová Gabriela Pra anová Tomá Parák Emil vajdlenka Milan emlika Pavel Suchy
    2015, 8(7):524-529. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60373-4
    [Abstract](97) [HTML](0) [PDF 363.53 K](243)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of perorally administered juice on tetrachloromethane (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tube-administrated silymarin, Ecballium juice at 0.2 mL/kg and 0.7 mL/kg daily for 3 consequent days, ie. 3.28 μg and 11.48 μg of cucurbitacin B per kg of body weight respectively. On the third day, liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal application of CCl4. On the fourth day, abdominal cavity was macroscopically examined and liver samples were taken for histopathological and immunochemical evaluation. HPLC was used to determine the content of the active substance cucurbitacin B. Results: The experiment revealed that 0.7 ml/kg juice concentration expressed the highest pro-apoptotic activity, but with prevailing negative effects. Compared with the lower concentration, there was an observable vasodilatation with consequent interstitial hemorrhages and a larger scope of inflammatory damage, which suppressed the hepatoprotective effect. In the 0.2 mL/kg concentration, there was a smaller pro-apoptotic activity but other parameters had better results, and the liver parenchyma damage was reversible. Conclusions: No reactions confirming the potentially allergic effect on laboratory rats were observed; its hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effect was confirmed on a model of acute liver damage.
    5  Evaluation of protective effect of cactus pear seed oil (Opuntia ficusincida L. MILL.) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice
    Berraaouan Ali Ziyyat Abderrahim Mekhfi Hassane Legssyer Abdelkhaleq Aziz Mohammed Bnouham Mohamed
    2015, 8(7):530-535. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60374-6
    [Abstract](64) [HTML](0) [PDF 346.19 K](244)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant power of cactus pear seed oil [Opuntia ficusincida L. MILL. (CPSO)] and its protective effect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus in mice. Methods: The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPSO was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The preventive effect was conducted on Swiss albino mice treated with CPSO (2 mL/kg, per os), before and after a single intraperitoneal alloxan administration (100 mg/kg). Survival rate, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured and histopathological analysis of pancreas was performed to evaluate alloxaninduced tissue injuries. Results: CPSO exhibited an antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging assay. Moreover, the administration of CPSO (2 mL/kg) significantly attenuated alloxaninduced death and hyperglycemia (P<0.001) in treated mice. Morphometric study of pancreas revealed that CPSO significantly protected islets of langerhans against alloxan induced-tissue alterations. Conclusions: Based on theses results, CPSO can prevent alloxan-induced-diabetes by quenching free radicals produced by alloxan and inhibiting tissue injuries in pancreaticβ-cells.
    6  Antimicrobial activity and synergism of Sami-Hyanglyun-Hwan with ciprofloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Jang-Gi Choi Ji-Young Choi Su-Hyun Mun Ok-Hwa Kang Preeti Bharaj Dong-Won Shin Myong-Soo Chong Dong-Yeul Kwon
    2015, 8(7):536-540. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60375-8
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 337.01 K](209)
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity of SHHextracted with either water or ethanol against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and combinatory antimicrobial effect with ciprofloxacin (CIP) by time kill assay and checkerboard dilution test. Methods: The antibacterial activity determined by broth dilution method indicated that the antibacterial activity of Sami -Hyanglyun-Hwan (SHH) water extract (SHHW) and SHH ethanol extract (SHHE) ranged from 250 to 2 000 μg/mL and 125 to 1 000 μg/mL against MRSA, respectively. Results: In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SHHE with CIP had a partial synergistic or synergistic effect against MRSA. The time-kill curves showed that a combined SHHE and CIP treatment reduced the bacterial counts dramatically after 24 h. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the therapeutic ability of SHHE against MRSA infections.
    7  Role of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus during the 2011 dengue fever epidemics in Hanoi, Vietnam
    Pham Thi Kim Lien Vu Trong Duoc Laurent Gavotte Emmanuel Cornillot Phan Thi Nga Laurence Briant Roger Frutos Tran Nhu Duong
    2015, 8(7):541-546. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60376-5
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 324.03 K](198)
    Objective: To record the human cases of dengue fever (DF) and investigate the Aedes mosquito species circulating during the Hanoi 2011 DF epidemics. Methods: 24 different outbreak points were recorded in 8 districts between August and December 2011. Results: 140 patients were hospitalized following dengue diagnostic with a predominance of males (59.3%) and the 15-34 age class. Only DENV-1 (11.27%) and DENV-2 (88.73%) serotypes were detected in human samples. Mosquito sampling performed in and around patients households revealed the predominance of Aedes aegypti (95.15%) versus Aedes albopictus (4.85%). There is a positive correlation between the population density of Aedes aegypti and the number of human cases and duration of outbreaks. Conclusions: This was not observed for Aedes albopictus. 3 pools of Aedes aegypti were positive with dengue virus, two with DENV-1 and one with DENV-2.
    8  Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia
    Kefale Awoke Endalkachew Nibret Abaineh Munshea
    2015, 8(7):547-552. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60377-7
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 294.37 K](240)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. Three hundred eighty four serum samples were collected from November 2013 to January 2014. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant with simple random sampling technique. The serum samples were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies using latex agglutination test. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among the pregnant women was 18.5%. All of T. gondii positive cases found to be positive only for IgG antibody. Significant association was observed between seroprevalence and presence of domestic cats [AOR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.66-4.90, P=0.000], consumption of raw or undercooked meat [AOR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-2.43, P=0.014] and history of abortion [AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.40-4.34, P=0.002]. No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and socio-demographic characters, gestational age, gravidity, consumption of raw vegetable, and blood transfusion. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Bahir Dar town was relatively high. Presence of domestic cats at home and consumption of raw or undercooked meat were identified as main risk factors for T. gondii infection. Therefore, health education towards avoiding eating raw or undercooked meat and avoiding contact with cats are recommended for prevention of miscarriage or defects during pregnancy.
    9  Effect of PDGF-Rb antagonist imatinib on endometrial injury repairing in mouse model
    Xin-Rong Wang Cheng-De Wang Xue-Mei Liu Hong-Chu Bao Qing-Lan Qu Cui-Fang Hao
    2015, 8(7):553-557. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60378-9
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 310.36 K](194)
    Objective: To study the effects of PDGF-Rb antagonists imatinib on endometrial injury repairing in the mouse model. Methods: The cultured MSCs cells from male mice were marked with BrdU in vitro, and then transplanted to the female mice which suffered from radiation injury through tail vein, PDGF-Rb antagonists imatinib was injected through abdominal cavity. Four groups were arranged, which were radiation transplantation group, normal control group, imatinib intervention group and radiation control group. BrdU incorporation, SRY expression and MVD status were detected in uterus of mice. Results: SRY gene was negative expressed in normal control group and radiation control group. SRY gene presented positive in radiation transplantation group and imatinib intervention group; BrdU incorporation showed negative in radiation control group and normal control group which died in the early stage in mice; the incorporation of BrdU was higher in radiation transplantation group compared with imatinib intervention group; CD34 was positive on the uterus of all the four groups,which showed highest in radiation control group and lowest in radiation control group; The MVD in imatinib intervention group was lower than radiation control group; the difference of MVD was significantly compared with normal control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: PDGF-Rb antagonists imatinib could inhibit the repairing function of MSCs in the endometrial lesions in mice.
    10  Anti-tumor effect of LTA combined with 5-FU on H22 tumor bearing mice
    Bin Wang Chang-Jiang Lei Rong Wu Lei Li Chun-Mei Deng Wen-Xia Chen Fu-Rong Hu Hao-Cheng Long Ze-Zhang Tao Cheng Zeng Jian-Bin Huang Chun-Zhou Chen De-Fa Ren
    2015, 8(7):558-561. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60379-0
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 316.45 K](211)
    Objective: To study the effect of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and 5-FU on the expression of caspase-3, EGFR, TGF-αα proteins of tumor tissue of H22 cancer bearing mice and its antitumor mechanism. Methods: A total of 40 SPF grade Kunming mice were selected to establish H22 liver cancer model, and then the mice were divided into 4 groups at random with ten mice in each group. Group A was given saline lavage treatment, Group B was treated with 5-FU by intraperitomeal injection, Group C was treated with LTA by lump body injection; Group D was treated with LTA by lump body injection and 5-FU by intraperitomeal injection. Two weeks after the treatment, the mice in each group were executed and the tumor tissue was stripping and weighted, and the tumor growth inhibition ratio was calculated. Then the tumor tissue was processed for conventional embedding, sectioned to observe the expression of caspase-3, EGFR, TGF-αα by immunohistochemical staining method. Results: The tumor inhibitory rate of Group D was significantly higher than Groups B and C (P<0.05); B, the tumor inhibitory rate o f Group B had no statistical difference compared with Group C (P>0.05). The IDO values of TGF-αα, EGFR proteins in Groups B, C, D mice tumor tissue were significantly lower than that in group A (P<0.05); while IDO value of caspase-3 in Groups B, C, D group mice tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in Group A (P<0.05). The IDO value of TGF-αα, EGFR in Group D mice tumor tissue were significantly lower than that in Groups B and C; While IDO value of aspase-3 in Group D was significantly higher than that in Groups B and C (P<0.05). Conclusions: LTA combined with 5-FU can effectively inhibit the tumorigenesis of H22 tumor bearing.
    11  Effect of subarachnoid nerve block anesthesia on glutamate transporter GLAST and GLT-1 expressions in rabbits
    Ke-Qing Xiao Mei Xiao Li Meng Xiang-Yang Du Jing Hu Bao-Feng Gao Wen-Qiang Yu Xin-Jie Wang Yan-Lin Ban
    2015, 8(7):562-565. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60380-7
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](0) [PDF 288.81 K](240)
    Objective: To observe the effect of subarachnoid nerve block anesthesia on glutamate transporter glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and GLT-1 expressions in rabbits, and to investigate the effect of peripheral nerve anesthesia on the morphology and function of the spinal cord. Methods: Twenty healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and control group; with 10 rabbits in each group. For spinal nerve anesthesia, 5 g/L of bupivacaine was used in the experimental group, and sterile saline was used in the control group. After 30 min of cardiac perfusion, GLAST and GLT-1 protein expression in spinal neurons were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: GLAST and GLT-1 protein-positive cells increased in neurons in the experimental group, compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: After subarachnoid nerve block anesthesia, rabbit glutamate transporter GLAST and GLT-1 expression is increased; and spinal cord nerve cell function is inhibited.
    12  Relationship between gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk
    Qian-He Han Zhong-Jie Shan Jian-Ting Hu Nan Zhang Xue-Pei Zhang
    2015, 8(7):566-570. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60381-9
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 332.46 K](184)
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between genetic factor and prostate cancer (Pca) risk and the possible cause in it. Methods: The polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 family 17 (CYPl7) rs743572, p27 V109G and androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat length in peripheral blood from 70 cases and 70 controls were detected through the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique or short tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction technique. Then, according to the results of case-control study, the recombinant plasmids containing the wild/mutant p27 gene were constructed and transfected Pca LNcap cells. After 24 and 72 h of transfection, the cell proliferative activity was determined by MTT method, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, and the expression level of bcl-2, caspase-3 and p27 protein was determined by Western-blot. Results: In three target polymorphisms, only p27 V109G polymorphism was related to Pca risk (P=0.030, OR=0.202, 95% CI=0.042-0.973). Pca risk of p27-109G allele was lower than -109V allele (P=0.006, OR=0.285, 95% CI=0.110-0.737). Cells transfected with wild/mutant p27 gene both showed the higher cells apoptosis rate and the lower cell proliferative activity than mock cells (P<0.05 or 0.01), the regulatory effect of mutant p27 on cell proliferation and apoptosis was stronger than the wild p27 (P<0.05). Conclusions: p27-109G allele that could cause higher p27 protein expression than -109V allele in LNcap cells, maybe is the protective factor of Pca.
    13  Expression of transferrin in hematoma brain tissue at different stages after intra cerebral hemorrhage in rats
    Long Chen Xue-Gang Jin Jian-Fang Zhu Hui-Juan Li Yan-Ping Wang You-Xin Zhou Jian Wang Wen-Hua Wang
    2015, 8(7):571-574. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60382-0
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 297.36 K](235)
    Objective: To explore the expression of transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) in hematoma brain tissue at different stage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Methods: ICH rats model were established by collagenase method, and rats were sacrificed at 24 h, 72 h, 7 d and 14 d after operation. The levels of Tf and TfR in different periods of rats were detected by immunohistochemical method, and correlation between two groups was analyzed. Results: Tf, TfR-positive cells at each time after operation in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Tf, TfR-positive cells began to increase from 24 h after the operation and reached the peak 72 h-7 d after surgery, but then gradually decreased. Tf was mainly expressed in nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells around the hematoma, but TfR was mainly expressed in nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons and choroid plexus endothelial cells. Correlation analysis showed that the Tf-positive cell was significantly positively correlated with TfR-positive cell expression (r=0.447, P=0.022). Conclusions: Tf and TfR were important transporters in brain tissue excessive load iron transport after ICH, and detecting the expression levels of the two indicators can provide a reference for prognosis treatmentin ICH.
    14  Effect of salinomycin on metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cell line T24
    Hu Qu Bo Ma Hao-Feng Yuan Zhong-Yang Wang Sheng-Jie Guo Jing Zhang
    2015, 8(7):575-578. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60383-2
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 308.95 K](280)
    Objective: To explore the effect of salinomycin on the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cell line T24 by regulating the related protein expression in the process of epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT), and to provide experimental basis for the treatment of urological tumors. Methods: The bladder cancer cell line T24 was cultured in vitro. The rat bladder tumor model was established in vivo. The rats were randomized into two groups, among which the rats in the experiment group were given intraperitoneal injection of salinomycin, while the rats in the control group were given intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. The change of tumor cells in the two groups was observed. Transwell was used to detect the cell migration and invasion abilities, Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of mRNA, while Western-blot was utilized for the determination of the expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin proteins. Results: The metastasis and invasion abilities of serum bladder cancer cell line T24 after salinomycin treatment in the experiment group were significantly reduced when compared with those in the control group, and the tumor metastasis lesions were decreased from an average of 1.59 to 0.6 (P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation in the experiment group was gradually decreasing. T24 cell proliferation at 48 h was significantly lower than that at 12 h and 24 h (P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation at 24 h was significantly lower than that at 12 h (P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation at each timing point in the experiment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The serum mRNA level and E-cadherin expression in the tumor tissues in the experiment group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while vimentin expression level was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Salinomycin can suppress the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cells, of which the mechanism is probably associated with the inhibition of EMT of tumor cells.
    15  Influence of overexpression of SOCS2 on cells of DN rat
    Na-Na Bao De-Yang Kong Dan Zhu Li-Rong Hao
    2015, 8(7):579-584. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60384-4
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 333.27 K](235)
    Objective: To explore the influence and mechanism of overexpression of SOCS2 on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and cells. Methods: STZ was used to induce male SD rats and SOCS2 was injected into left renal vein. Rats were divided into DN group, DN-Ad-null group and DNAd-SOCS2 group. Glucose with high and normal concentration was used to culture HBZY-1 cells and then transfect Ad-SOCS2. HG group, HG-Ad-null group, HG-Ad-SOCS2 group, CG group, CG-Ad-null group, and CG-Ad-SOCS2 group were created. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6) in kidney tissue of rats, fibrosis related protein (FN, Collagen IV and TGF-β) in kidney tissue and cells of rats, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway related proteins (p-JAK2 and p-STAT3) were tested by western blot. ELISA was used to test the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in cells. Results: The expression of inflammatory cytokines in DN rats (MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6) and cell (TNF-α and IL-6) were increased (P<0.01) significantly. However, SOCS2 could decrease the overexpression of mediated inflammatory cytokines in DN animal models and cell models (P<0.01). The expression of fibrosis related protein in DN rats and cells increased while SOCS2 decreased the overexpression of mediated fibrosis related protein in DN model rats and cells (P<0.01). The expression of JAK/STAT pathway related protein in both DN rats and cells increased and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was activated. Yet, SOCS2 obviously suppressed the expression of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway as well as the related proteins (p-JAK2 and p-STAT3) in both DN rats and cells. Conclusions: The overexpression of SOCS2 can decrease the expression of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis related proteins in DN rats and cells, and meanwhile suppress the activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway mediated by DN.
    16  Risk factors of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Li People
    Bao Shan Jun-hong Cai Shu-Ying Yang Zhuo-Ri Li
    2015, 8(7):585-588. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(15)60385-6
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.01 K](173)
    Objective: To study the relevant risk factors of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) of Li People so as to provide basis for early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. Methods: With case-control study method, 285 cases of PCOS of Li People were as recruited case group, and 580 cases of non-PCOS of female Li People as control group. Questionnaire was adopted to collect data regarding risk factors of PCOS, then the risk factors of PCOS was searched by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors of PCOS included in menstrual cycle disorder (OR=5.824), bad mood (OR=2.852), family history of diabetes (OR=7.008), family history of infertility (OR=11.953), menstrual irregularity of mother (OR=2.557) and lack of physical exercise (OR=1.866). Conclusions: To target the high risk factors of menstrual cycle disorder, family history of diabetes, family history of infertility, family history of diabetes, bad mood and lack of physical exercise of female population, we should implement early screen, diagnose and treatment of POCS in order to reduce the incidence rate of PCOS and improve prognosis of PCOS.

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