Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 9,Issue 12,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Phytochemical overview and medicinal importance ofCoffeaspecies from the past until now
    éva Brigitta Patay Tímea Bencsik Nóra Papp
    2016, 9(12):1101-1110. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.008
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 400.57 K](400)
    Coffea(coffee) species are grown in almost all countries along the Equator. Many members of the genus have a large production history and an important role both in the global market and researches. Seeds (Coffeae semen)are successfully used in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries due to its caffeine and high polyphenol content. Nowadays, the three best-known coffee species are Arabic (Coffea arabica L.), Robusta (Coffea robusta L. Linden), and Liberian coffees(Coffea libericaHier.). Even though, many records are available on coffee in scientific literature, wild coffee species like Bengal coffee (Coffea benghalensisRoxb. Ex Schult.) could offer many new opportunities and challenges for phytochemical and medical studies. In this comprehensive summary, we focused on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and medical significance of coffee species up to the present.
    2  Control of animal brucellosis: the Malaysian experience
    M. Zamri-Saad M. I. Kamarudin
    2016, 9(12):1111-1115. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.007
    [Abstract](58) [HTML](0) [PDF 251.45 K](266)
    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease characterized by reproductive failure in animals and undulent fever in humans. In cattle, it is caused by Brucella abortus while in goats by Brucella melitensis, the main cause of brucellosis in humans. Brucellosis in livestock has been associated with importation of animals from breeder herd of unknown disease status. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis Brucella abortus in 2014 ranged between 1%-2% in Thailand and Indonesia, and 4%-5% in Malaysia and Myanmar. Prevalence of goat brucellosis Brucella melitensis is approximately 1% in Malaysia and Thailand. ‘Test-and-slaughter’ is the general policy against brucellosis adopted by most ASEAN countries to eradicate the disease. Under this program, the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) is used as the screening test to identify infected farm/herd while the Complement Fixation Test (CFT) is the confirmatory test. The test-and-slaughter eradication strategy that was implemented since 1979 had managed to keep the prevalence rate to less than 5%, from 3.3% in 1979, 0.23% in 1988, 1% in 1998 and 5% in 2016. The test-and-slaughter program seemed effective in reducing the prevalence of brucellosis but was unable to eradicate the disease due to several factors, which include failure to locate and identify the remaining affected animals and to control their movement, importation of breeder animals from non-brucellosis free countries and lack of participation by the farmers following unrealiable test results. To support the eradication policy, research activities since 1980s have suggested combinations of serological tests to improve diagnosis while surveillance should be focused on hotspots areas. The prevalence can be further reduced by strictly sourcing breeder animals from brucella-free areas or countries.
    3  Medical plant extracts and natural compounds with a hepatoprotective effect against damage caused by antitubercular drugs: A review María Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes?, Gabriel Alfonso
    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo Mariana Meckes-Fischer Rosalba León-Díaz
    2016, 9(12):1116-1125. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.010
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 318.74 K](289)
    Drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure; example of this scenery is hepatotoxicity caused by the first-line antituberculous drugs isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide, which are basic for treatment of drug-sensible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. In the search for pharmacological alternatives to prevent liver damage, antitubercular drugs have been the subject of numerous studies and published reviews, a great majority of them carried out by Asian countries. At the same time, hepatoprotectors from plant source are now emerging as a possible alternative to counteract the toxic effects of these therapeutic agents. The present review aims to highlight the most recent studies on the subject, based information published in scientific databases such as Scopus and PubMed.
    4  Genetic association study of P2x7 A1513C (rs 3751143) polymorphism and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis: A meta-analysis based on the findings of 11 case-control studies
    Eyad M.A. Alshammari Raju K. Mandal Mohd Wahid Sajad A. Dar Arshad Jawed Mohammed Y. Areeshi Saif Khan Md. Ekhlaque Ahmed Khan Aditya K. Panda Shafiul Haque
    2016, 9(12):1126-1134. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.006
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 388.05 K](242)
    Objective: To summarize the precise association between pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and P2x7 A1513C gene polymorphism.Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar web-databases were searched for the studies reporting the association of P2x7 A1513C polymorphism and PTB risk. A meta-analysis was performed for the selected case-control studies and pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for all the genetic models. Results: Eleven studies comprising 2 678 controls and 2 113 PTB cases were included in this meta-analysis. We observed overall no significant risk in all the five genetic models. When stratified population by the ethnicity, Caucasian population failed to show any risk of PTB in all the genetics models. In Asian ethnicity, variant allele (C vs. A: P=0.001; OR=1.375, 95% CI=1.159-1.632) and heterozygous genotype (AC vs. AA: P=0.001; OR=1.570, 95% CI=1.2691.944) demonstrated significant increased risk of PTB. Likewise, recessive genetic model (CC+AC vs. AA: P=0.001; OR=1.540, 95% CI=1.255–1.890) also demonstrated increased risk of PTB in Asians. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis did not suggest the association of P2x7 A1513C polymorphism with PTB risk in overall or separately in Caucasian population. However, it plays a significant risk factor for predisposing PTB in Asians. Future larger sample and expression studies are needed to validate this association.
    5  Protective effects of a polymethoxy flavonoids-rich Citrus aurantium peel extract on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice
    Seol-Wa Lim Dong-Ryung Lee Bong-Keun Choi Hong-Suk Kim Seung Hwan Yang Joo-Won Suh Kyung Soo Kim
    2016, 9(12):1135-1141. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.009
    [Abstract](72) [HTML](0) [PDF 366.87 K](316)
    Objective: To evaluate the possible protective effect ofCitrus aurantium peel extract(CAE) against apoptosis in cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice.Methods: Male ICR mice were divided to 5 groups: 1) Control group (Sham-operated mice), 2) Cholestatic liver injury group induced by bile duct ligation (BDL), 3) BDL mice treated with silymarin (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, 4) BDL mice treated with 50 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks, 5) BDL mice treated with 200 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed and liver fibrosis was evaluated by serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry tests and liver histopathological examination. Effects of CAE on inflammation and apoptosis gene regulation were investigated through real-time PCR. CAE effect on lipid metabolism related signaling was determined by western blot analysis. Results: In BDL mice, administration of CAE for 4 weeks markedly attenuated liver fibrosis based on histopathological alteration. Serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry results revealed that CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that CAE regulated inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism factors increased by BDL. Interleukin family, tumor necrosis factor α, and related apoptosis factors mRNA levels were increased by BDL treatment. However, these increases were suppressed by CAE administration. In addition, CAE effectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and related cytoprotective proteins. Conclusions: CAE can efficiently regulate BDL-induced liver injury with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities.
    6  Glycoproteomics analysis of plasma proteins associated with Opisthorchis viverrini infection-induced cholangiocarcinoma in hamster model
    Pramote Sriwanitchrak Atchara Paemanee Sittiruk Roytrakul Vithoon Viyanant Kesara NaBangchang
    2016, 9(12):1142-1147. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.09.013
    [Abstract](85) [HTML](0) [PDF 289.11 K](261)
    Objective: To apply lectin affinity chromatography and glycoproteomics-based LC-MS/MS to preliminarily investigate the possible potential plasma biomarkers of Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)-associated CCA in OV/dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced CCA hamster model.Methods: Nine Syrian hamsters were divided into 3 groups as follows (n=3 each): normal (healthy control group); OV group; and OV/DMN group (CCA group). Pooled plasma samples collected from animals in each group at the 6th month post-infection with OV metacercarae were subjected to glycoproteomics analysis. Glycoproteins in the pooled sample from each group were initially isolated by concanavilin A (ConA)-based affinity chromatography. The expression of glycoproteins isolated by both enrichment methods were determined using LCMS/MS.Results: Among the 24 ConA-binding glycoproteins isolated, two proteins, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) and fetuin-B (FETUB) were found up-regulated only in the samples from the OV and control groups, but not in the OV/DMN (CCA) groups. On the other hand, one protein, i.e., NSFL1 cofactor p47 isoform x3 (NSFL1C) was found only in the samples from OV/DMN (CCA) and control groups, but not in the OV group. The remaining 21 proteins were upregulated in the samples from all groups.Conclusions: NDRG1, FETUB and NSFL1C glycoproteins isolated by ConA-based affinity chromatography could be potential biomarkers for CCA. Plasma samples with negative for NDRG1 and FETUB proteins but positive for NSFL1C are likely to be OV-associated CCA. Nevertheless, this conclusion remains to be confirmed whether this battery test can discriminate OV-associated CCA from other risk factors.
    7  Asiatic acid-pectin hydrogel matrix patch transdermal delivery system influences parasitaemia suppression and inflammation reduction in P. berghei murine malaria infected Sprague-Dawley rats
    Greanious Alfred Alfrd Mavondo Musabayane Cephas Tagumirwa
    2016, 9(12):1148-1156. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.008
    [Abstract](73) [HTML](0) [PDF 366.67 K](276)
    Objective: To report the influence of transdermal delivery of asiatic acid (AA) in Plasmodium berghei-infected Sprague Dawley rats on physicochemical changes, %parasitaemia and associated pathophysiology.Methods: A topical once-off AA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg)- or chloroquine (CHQ)-pectin patch was applied on the shaven dorsal neck region of Plasmodium berghei-infected Sprague Dawley rats (90-120 g) on day 7 after infection. Eating and drinking habits, weight changes, malaria effects and %parasitaemia were compared among animal groups over 21 d.Results: AA-pectin patch application preserved food and water intake together with %weight gain. All animals developed stable parasitaemia (15%-20%) by day 7. AA doses suppressed parasitaemia significantly. AA 5 mg/kg patch was most effective. AA and CHQ displayed bimodal time-spaced peaks. CHQ patch had a longer time course to clear parasitaemia.Conclusions: AA influences bio-physicochemical changes and parasitaemia suppression in dose dependent manner. In comparison by dose administered, AA has much better efficacy than CHQ. AA may be a useful antimalarial. AA and CHQ displays bimodal peaks suggesting possible synergism if used in combination therapy.
    8  Novel neuroprotective and hepatoprorective effects of citric acid in acute malathion intoxication
    Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam Eman R. Youness Nadia A. Mohammed Noha N. Yassen Yasser A. Khadrawy Safinaz Ebrahim El-Toukhy Amany A. Sleem
    2016, 9(12):1157-1169. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.005
    [Abstract](77) [HTML](0) [PDF 524.32 K](270)
    Objective: To study the effect of citric acid given alone or combined with atropine on brain oxidative stress, neuronal injury, liver damage, and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes induced in the rat by acute malathion exposure.Methods: Rats were received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of malathion 150 mg/kg along with citric acid (200 or 400 mg/kg, orally), atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or citric acid 200 mg/kg+atropine 1 mg/kg and euthanized 4 h later. Results: Malathion resulted in increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and nitric oxide concentrations accompanied with a decrease in brain reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glucose concentrations. Paraoxonase-1, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities decreased in brain as well. Liver aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were raised. The Comet assay showed increased DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Histological damage and increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were observed in brain and liver. Citric acid resulted in decreased brain lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. Meanwhile, glutathione, GPx activity, TAC capacity and brain glucose level increased. Brain AChE increased but PON1 and butyrylcholinesterase activities decreased by citric acid. Liver enzymes, the percentage of damaged blood lymphocytes, histopathological alterations and iNOS expression in brain and liver was decreased by citric acid. Meanwhile, rats treated with atropine showed decreased brain MDA, nitrite but increased GPx activity, TAC, AChE and glucose. The drug also decreased DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes, histopathological alterations and iNOS expression in brain and liver.Conclusions: The study demonstrates a beneficial effect for citric acid upon brain oxidative stress, neuronal injury, liver and DNA damage due to acute malathion exposure.
    9  Recombinant expression and purification of functional vascular endothelial growth factor-121 in the baculovirus expression system
    Nastaran Mohseni Ali Jahanian Najafabadi Fateme Kazemi-Lomedasht Roghaye Arezomand Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi Delavar Shahbazzadeh Mahdi Behdani
    2016, 9(12):1170-1174. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.09.012
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 286.92 K](257)
    Objective: To express human Vascular endothelial growth factor121 (VEGF121) in insect cells.Methods: A gene construct containing VEGF was cloned in the pFastBac-HTA vector, followed by transformation in DH10BAC. The recombinant bacmid was then extracted, and transfected into Sf9 insect cells. The transfected cells were harvested, and then VEGF expression was confirmed by Western blotting using specific antibodies. The tube formation assay was used for functional assessment of VEGF.Results: Our results showed that VEGF could be successfully expressed in the baculovirus system. Purified VEGF was able to stimulate in vitro tube formation of human endothelial cells.Conclusions: Results from this study demonstrated that the recombinantly-produced VEGF can be considered as a promising candidate for therapeutic purposes.
    10  Influence of bioactive sulphated polysaccharide-protein complexes onhepatocarcinogenesis, angiogenesis and immunomodulatory activities
    Azza A. Matloub Hadeer A. Aglan Sahar Salah Mohamed El Souda Mona Elsayed Aboutabl Amany Sayed Maghraby Hanaa H. Ahmed
    2016, 9(12):1175-1186. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.004
    [Abstract](92) [HTML](0) [PDF 454.67 K](280)
    Objective: To explore the in vivo anticancer, anti-angiogenesis and immunomodulatory efficacies of the bioactive polysaccharide isolated from cold aqueous extract of Jania rubens (JCEM) and Pterocladia capillacea (PCEM) as well as hot aqueous extract of Enteromorpha intestinalis (EHEM) against hepatocellular carcinoma rat model (HCC) and to studytheir chemical composition.Methods: The sugars and amino acids composition of the bioactive polysaccharides of JCEM, PCEM and EHEM were determined using gas liquid chromatography and amino acid analyzer, respectively.These polysaccharide extracts (20 mg/ kg b.wt. for 5 weeks) were assessed on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and α-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), glypican-3 (GPC-3), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ig G levels were evaluated.Results: The GLC analysis of JCEM, PCEM and EHEM polysaccharide revealed the presence of 10, 9 and 10 sugars, in addition the amino acid analyser enable identification of 16, 15 and 15 amino acids, respectively. These polysaccharide extracts of JCEM, PCEM and EHEM produced significant decrease in serum AFP, CEA, GPC-3, HGF and VEGF compared with untreated HCC group. JCEM, PCEM and EHEM had an immunostimulatory responses by increasing the IgG levels as compared by na?ve value (1.23, 1.53 and 1.17 folds), respectively. The bioactive polysaccharides in HCC induced rats improved the humoral immune response. The photomicrographs of liver tissue sections of the groups of HCC treated with polysaccharide extracts of Jania rubens and Enteromorpha intestinalis showed intact histological structure.Moreover, fractions HE1, HE4, HE7 obtained from polysaccharide of EHEM showed moderate cytotoxic activity against Hep G2 in vitro with IC50 73.1, 42.6, 76.2 μg/mL. However, fractions of PCEM and JCEM show no or weak cytotoxicity against Hep G2 in vitro where the cytotoxic activity of their crude polysaccharide extract proved synergetic effect.Conclusions: The pronounced antitumor activity of sulphated polysaccharide-protein complexes of JCEM and EHEM is due to direct cytotoxic activity, anti-hepatocarcinogensis, and anti-angiogenesis. In addition, JCEM, PCEM and EHEM had an immunostimulatory response and improved the humoral immune response in HCC induced rats.
    11  NS1 antigen: A new beam of light in the early diagnosis of dengue infection
    Muhammad Suleman Rani Faryal Muhammad Masroor Alam Salmaan Sharif Shahzad Shaukat Uzma Bashir Aamir Adnan Khurshid Mehar Angez Massab Umair Mian Muhammad Sufian Yasir Arshad Ghulam Mujtaba Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
    2016, 9(12):1187-1189. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.007
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 237.25 K](261)
    Objective: To evaluate NS1 antigen detection ELISA for the early laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection.Methods: The present study was conducted to evaluate the overall positivity of NS1 antigen detection ELISA and its comparison with viral RNA detection via real time PCR and IgM antibodies detection by ELISA.Results: A total of 1 270 serum samples were tested 86% (1 097/1 270) were detected positive by one or more than one diagnostic test. Out of 1 270, 64% (807/1 270) were positive by NS1 ELISA and 52% (662/1 270), 51% (646/1 270) were positive by real-time RT-PCR and IgM ELISA respectively.Conclusions: NS1 antigen detection ELISA is highly suitable diagnostic tools and it also has great value for use in outbreak and epidemic situation.
    12  Geohelminths eggs contamination of sandpits in Vladivostok, Russia
    Moskvina Tatyana Vladimirovna Bartkova Albina Dmitrievna Ermolenko Alexey Vasil'evich
    2016, 9(12):1190-1192. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.002
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 251.78 K](257)
    Objective: To detect nematode eggs in sandpits in urban area in Vladivostok. Methods: Totally 60 samples were collected from five districts. Sand samples were analyzed using combined flotation-sedimentation method. In result, 18 sand samples were positive for at one or two parasites species.Results: Overall, only 3 genera of helminths were recovered. Most samples were positive for Toxocara spp. eggs. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in each district. More samples with Toxocara spp. eggs were found in Pervomaiskii district. Ascaris spp. eggs were also appeared in each district, however Ascaris eggs rate of contamination was less than rate of Toxocara spp. contamination. Toxascaris leonina eggs were the less frequent species in sandpits, it was found only in Sovetskii and Pervomaiskii districts. Ascaris eggs rate of contamination was less than rate of Toxocara spp. contamination. Toxascaris leonina eggs were the less frequent species in sandpits, it was found only in two districts. No correlation between districts and helmiths eggs present in soil samples was found (P>0.05).Conclusions: Considering the high sand contamination with parasite infective elements of both human and animal origin, measures to improve environmental and sanitary conditions are indicated, as well as promoting the concept of responsible pet ownership.
    13  EUS for pancreatic cystic neoplasms: The roadmap to the future is much more than just a few shades of gray
    Tejas Kirtane Manoop S. Bhutani
    2016, 9(12):1193-1196. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.003
    [Abstract](76) [HTML](0) [PDF 254.09 K](252)
    Pancreatic cystic and neoplasms are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Accurate diagnosis and determination of benign versus malignant lesions is crucial for determining need for surveillance versus surgery or endoscopic therapy as well as avoiding unnecessary surgery in cysts with no malignant potential. Tumor markers such as KRAS and GNAS hold promise, but which molecular marker or a combination of markers is most useful and cost effective remains to be seen. Advanced imaging with confocal laser endomicroscopy can serve as an optical biopsy and play a part in the diagnostic algorithm. Microforceps aided biopsy of pancreatic cyst wall and tumor contents hold great promise as they allow direct tissue acquisition. Much progress has been made in the role of EUS guided evaluation of pancreatic cystic neoplasms over the last several years, and with the advances enumerated above, the future is more than just a few shades of grey. Future studies should include prospective multi-arm trials of microforceps biopsy versus conventional EUS-FNA and use of biochemical and molecular markers, confocal laser endomicroscopy or a combination thereof to determine best approach to pancreatic cystic neoplasms. In Osler’s words,Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability’. Incorporation of advanced imaging and molecular markers into a new diagnostic algorithm with subsequent validation through retrospective and prospective studies has the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy and guide optimal management of patients and improve outcomes.
    14  Seronegative disseminated Bartonella spp. infection in an immunocompromised patient
    Claudia Weilg Olguita Del Aguila Fernando Mazulis Wilmer Silva-Caso Carlos AlvaUrcia Rosario Cerpa-Polar Erick Mattos-Villena Juana Del Valle Mendoza
    2016, 9(12):1197-1200. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.001
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.00 K](260)
    An 11 year old, hispanic girl with a history of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted to the hospital for symptoms compatible withBartonella henselae infection. The first molecularly diagnosed case of disseminated Bartonella henselae infection was reported in an immunocompromised patient in Lima, Peru. The analysis was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction and automated sequencing of a liver biopsy sample, even though the serologic tests were negative. In conclusion,Bartonella spp. infection should have a particular diagnostic consideration in immunocompromised patients with fever of unknown origin and further investigation regarding the patient’s past exposures with cats should also be elicited.

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