Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 9,Issue 4,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Pregnane receptor gene polymorphisms, pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug sensitivity, and TCM dyndrome differentiation in patients with cholelithiasis
    Yi-Qiang Xie Jing-Zhe Zhang Hua Zhang Lei Peng Shuang Zhou Li-Zhuo Li Bang-Jiang Fang Chuan-Zhu Lyu
    2016, 9(4):301-305. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.001
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 653.70 K](272)
    Objective: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and drug resistance in bile and the association between the pregane X receptor (PXR) gene polymorphisms, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes and the risk of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD). Methods: A total of 392 samples were enrolled in this study from January 2014 to February 2015, among which 192 patients were with CGD, and 200 samples were healthy. Strains were isolated and susceptibility testing was the disk diffusion method susceptibility testing. The patients were divided into hepatochlic hygropyrexia, stagnation of liver-qi, and the accumulation of damp. The PXR gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The association between the PXR gene polymorphisms and the risk of CGD was examined by logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 192 cases were detected in 230 of bile culture pathogens, including Gram-negative bacteria 133 (57.83%), Gram-positive bacteria 76 (33.04%), and fungi 21 (9.13%). The top five pathogens were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus feces, of which 110 cases was of single infection, 48 cases of mixed infection of two strains, eight cases of mixed infection of three bacteria. Among 59 Escherichia coli, the yield extended-spectrum beta-lactamases had 40 (67.80%). The hepatochlic hygropyrexia was the most TCM syndrome, followed by stagnation of liver-qi, and the accumulation of damp was least. Different pathogens and the rs6785049 genotypes distributed differently in cholelithiasis patients with different TCM syndromes (P<0.05). In hepatochlic hygropyrexia patients the Gram-negative bacteria was most. There was significant differences between CGD group and control group in rs6785049 (P<0.001). Comparison with wild-type portable GG, GA genotype increased the risk of the occurrence of gallstones (OR=0.40, 95%CI: 0.16-0.79); likewise, carrying the GA + AA genotype also increased the risk (OR=0.38, 95%CI: 0.19-0.81). There was no significant differences in rs2276707, rs3814055 site polymorphic loci alleles in CGD group and control group. Conclusions: In the treatment of cholelithiasis, bile samples should be collected for bacterial culture and sensitivity test, and drugs should be strictly chosen based on the results. The rs6785049 polymorphisms in PXR gene may increase the risk of gallstones ontogeny, and gallstones can be early detected and prevented by detecting genotypes. rs6785049 polymorphisms in PXR gene may has relationship with TCM syndromes.
    2  Microarray analysis of PBMC after Plasmodium falciparum infection: molecular insights into disease pathogenesis
    Wan-Chung Hu
    2016, 9(4):306-315. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.013
    [Abstract](111) [HTML](0) [PDF 950.56 K](253)
    Objective: To find out host gene expression profiles after malarial infection. Methods: Further time-course microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells focusing on malaria pathogenesis was performed. Results: Up-regulation of coagulation-related genes, heat shock proteins, glycolytic enzymes, glucose transporters, and vacuolar H+-ATPases was found in acute febrile malaria. In early malaria, prior to detectable parasitemia, CD36 and ICAM1 were up-regulated. During acute malaria, there is correlation between IL-1β and heat shock proteins. CD163, a hemoglobin scavenger receptor, was up-regulated in acute malaria to potentially facilitate free hemoglobin up-take by leukocytes. In acute malaria, high MafB gene expression was negatively correlated with hemoglobin and platelet counts. Consistent with hemoglobin down-regulation, peripheral red blood cell counts tended to increase during acute malaria. Up-regulations of red blood cell and leucocyte binding mediators like CD36, ICAM1, thrombospondin, and thrombomodulin may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. Similarly, up-regulation of correlated glycolytic enzymes, glucose transporter and H+-ATPases may contribute to the hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis frequently observed in serious malaria patients. Overall gender effects on gene expression profiles between male and female were not apparent, except for some hemoglobins were significantly down-regulated in male versus female, which suggesting males are prone to malaria-related anemia. Conclusions: Leucocyte gene expression profiles can explain the pathogenesis of malarial complication such as fever, metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, anemia, and coagulopathy.
    3  Molecular survey on zoonotic tick-borne bacteria and chlamydiae in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica)
    Valentina Virginia Ebani Fabrizio Bertelloni Paolo Mani
    2016, 9(4):316-319. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.005
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 631.83 K](359)
    Objective: To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Methods: Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp.and Chlamydophila spp. Results: Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for Coxiella burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Conclusions: Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too.
    4  In vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Alseodaphne corneri Kosterm
    Azeana Zahari Abdulwali Ablat Yasodha Sivasothy Jamaludin Mohamad Muhammad I. Choudhary Khalijah Awang
    2016, 9(4):320-324. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.008
    [Abstract](142) [HTML](0) [PDF 686.89 K](460)
    Objective: To study antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of the isolation of alkaloids from the active dichloromethane extract of Alseodaphne corneri. Methods: Phytochemical studies of the crude extract led to the isolation of six alkaloids using recycle high performance liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated usingthe histidine-rich protein II assay. The isolated alkaloids were also tested for their antioxidant activity using three different assays; DPPH, ferric reducing ability of plasma and metal chelating assays. Results: Malaria infection caused the formation of free radicals which subsequently led to oxidative stress and apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of the alkaloids under investigation revealed that in addition to the antiplasmodial activity, the alkaloids could also prevent oxidative stress. (+)-laurotetanine and (+)-norstephasubine exhibited strong antiplamodial activities with IC50 values of 0.189 and 0.116 μM, respectively. Conclusions: Interestingly, the two most potent compounds that exhibit antiplasmodial activity also exhibit good antioxidant activities. The crude dichloromethane extract and the isolated compounds exert substantial antiplasmodial and antioxidative activities which in turn suppress oxidative stress and cause less damage to the host.
    5  Mechanism of Japanese encephalitis virus genotypes replacement based on human, porcine and mosquito-originated cell lines model
    Loan Phuong Do Trang Minh Bui Nga Thi Phan
    2016, 9(4):325-328. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.007
    [Abstract](104) [HTML](0) [PDF 746.15 K](318)
    Objective: To examine the multiplication efficiency Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype Ⅰ (GⅠ) and genotype Ⅲ (GⅢ) of different cell lines which originated from human, porcine, mosquitoes in order to prove mechanism of JEV GⅠ replacement JEV GⅢ since it emerging in nature recent decades. Methods: The mixture of GI and GIII JEV isolates was inoculated on human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD), pig kidney epithelial (PS) and Aedes albopictus C6/36 clone (C6/36) which originated from human, porcine and mosquitoes, respectively. Plaque assays were performed to calculate virus titer and real-time RT-PCR with GI and GIII specific primer sets to quantify the number of GI and GIII RNA copies. Results: The highest virus titer reached at the 3rd day of post infection when GⅠ and GⅢ mixture was inoculated on RD and PS and that of C6/36 was at the 4th day. JEVs were amplified and maintained by C6/36 cells after 10 passages whereas that by RD and PS only limited within 8 and 6 passages, respectively. GⅠ?strain amplified and maintained more efficiently on C6/36 and PS but not RD, whereas GⅢ strain amplified and maintained more efficiently on RD. Conclusions: There is a correlation between the multiplication efficiency of GⅠand GⅢ JEV strains when these two genotype strains co-infected on different cell lines with the predominance of GⅠ strains in C6/36 and PS and the limited detection of GⅠ strains in RD cells proving a possible mechanism of shift JEV genotypes in nature recent decades since GⅠ emerging.
    6  Genetic diversity in Ebola virus: Phylogenetic and in silico structural studies of Ebola viral proteins
    Alba Grifoni Alessandra Lo Presti Marta Giovanetti Carla Montesano Massimo Amicosante Vittorio Colizzi Alessia Lai Gianguglielmo Zehender Eleonora Cella Silvia Angeletti Massimo Ciccozzi
    2016, 9(4):329-335. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.016
    [Abstract](71) [HTML](0) [PDF 920.36 K](295)
    Objective: To explore the genetic diversity and the modification of antibody response in the recent outbreak of Ebola Virus. Methods: Sequences retrieved from public databases, the selective pressure analysis and the homology modelling based on the all protein (nucleoprotein, VP35, VP40, soluble glycoprotein, small soluble glycoprotein, VP30, VP24 and polymerase) were used. Results: Structural proteins VP24, VP30, VP35 and VP40 showed relative conserved sequences making them suitable target candidates for antiviral treatment. On the contrary, nucleoprotein, polymerase and soluble glycoprotein have high mutation frequency. Conclusions: Data from this study point out important aspects of Ebola virus sequence variability that for epitope and vaccine design should be considered for appropriate targeting of conserved protein regions.
    7  Ethanol extract of Kalopanax septemlobus leaf inhibits HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation via inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase
    Cheol Park Ji-Suk Jeong,,,Jin-Woo Jeong Sung Ok Kim Yong-Joo Kim Gi-Young Kim Su-Hyun Hong Yung Hyun Choi
    2016, 9(4):336-342. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.003
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 902.86 K](261)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. leaf (EEKS) on cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its mechanisms of action. Methods: Cells were treated with EEKS and subsequently analyzed for cell proliferation and flow cytometry analysis. Expressions of cell cycle regulators were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting, and activation of cyclin-associated kinases studied using kinase assays. Results: The EEKS suppressed cell proliferation in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells, but showed a more sensitive anti-proliferative activity in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an association between the growth inhibitory effect of EEKS and with G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells, along with the dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and enhanced binding of pRB with the E2F transcription factor family proteins. Treatment with EEKS also increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, such as p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, without any noticeable changes in G1 cyclins and CDKs (except for a slight decrease in CDK4). Treatment of HepG2 cells with EEKS also increased the binding of p21 and p27 with CDK4 and CDK6, which was paralleled by a marked decrease in the cyclin D- and cyclin E-associated kinase activities. Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that EEKS may be an effective treatment for liver cancer through suppression of cancer cell proliferation via G1 cell cycle arrest. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds in EEKS.
    8  In vivo anticancer activity of maesopsin 4-O-β-glucoside isolated from leaves of Artocarpus tonkinensis A. Chev. Ex Gagnep
    Trinh Thi Thuy Dao Duc Thien Tran Quang Hung Nguyen Thanh Tam Nguyen Thi Hoang Anh Nguyen Thi Nga Nguyen Thi Cuc Le Phuong Mai Tran Van Sung Domenico V. Delfino Do Thi Thao
    2016, 9(4):343-348. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.012
    [Abstract](86) [HTML](0) [PDF 758.30 K](294)
    Objective: To investigate the antitumor effect of maesopsin 4-O-β-glucoside (TAT2) isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus tonkinensis (A. tonkinensis) A. Chev. ex Gagnep. Methods: The antitumor activity of TAT2 was evaluated in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing mice. BALB/c mice had tumors induced by implantation with 2×106 LLC cells into the subcutaneous right posterior flank. Tumor-bearing mice were treated orally with a range of doses of TAT2 and a standard drug, doxorubicin. Animals were observed for tumor growth and mortality rate. Blood was collected to determine hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: TAT2 was isolated from an ethanolic extract of A. tonkinensis leaves. Its structure was determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy, and identified as TAT2. The compound did not show acute toxicity at the highest dose tested (2 000 mg/kg body weight). TAT2 exhibited antitumor activity by decreasing tumor growth, increasing the survival rate, and ameliorating some hematological and biochemical parameters at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that TAT2 possesses clear antitumor activity. Due to its bioavailability and low toxicity, and the fact that it could be isolated in a large scale from A. tonkinensis leaves, the compound shows promise as a potential anticancer drug.
    9  Fruits extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. suppresses lipopolysaccharidestimulated inflammatory responses through nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in Raw 264.7 cells
    Ju-Yeon Park Jin-Young Moon Sun-Dong Park Won-Hwan Park Hyuck Kim Jai-Eun Kim
    2016, 9(4):349-355. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.017
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 918.34 K](288)
    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the action mechanism of the fruits of Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. Methods: The extract of H. dulcis fruits (EHDF) were extracted with 70% ethanol. Mouse macrophages were treated with different concentrations of EHDF in the presence and absence of LPS (1 μg/mL). To demonstrate the inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression levels were analyzed by using in vitro assay systems. COX-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E2 were determined using ELISA kits. Cell viability, heme oxygenase-1 expression, nuclear factor-kappaB and nuclear factor E2-related factors 2 translocation were also investigated. Results: EHDF potently inhibited the LPS-stimulated nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, COX-2, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in a dose-dependent manner. EHDF suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibited kappaB-alpha and p65 nuclear translocation. Treatment of macrophage cells with EHDF alone induced the heme oxygenase-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanol extract of H. dulcis fruit exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting inhibited kappaBalpha phorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB.
    10  Antioxidant potential, tannin and polyphenol contents of seed and pericarp of three Coffea species
    éva Brigitta Patay Nikolett Sali Tamás K?szegi Rita Csepregi Viktória Lilla Balázs Tibor Sebastian Németh Tibor Németh Nóra Papp
    2016, 9(4):356-362. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.014
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](0) [PDF 796.51 K](268)
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total tannin content of the pericarp and the seed of Coffea benghalensis (C. benghalensis) and Coffea liberica compared to Coffea arabica (C. arabica). Methods: The antioxidant potential, total tannin and polyphenol contents of the immature and mature seed and pericarp of C. benghalensis and Coffea liberica were quantified and compared to C. arabica. Enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL), 2,2diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Folin-Ciocalteau method and total tannin content assays were used. Results: Trolox equivalent (TE/g plant-1-picrylhydrazyl material) values obtained by ECL and DPPH methods showed loose correlation (r2=0.587) while those measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay were higher without correlation in each plant. A closer correlation was detected between the ECL method and the percentage antioxidant activity of the DPPH technique (r2=0.610 7) in each species, however the immature pericarp of C. benghalensis showed much higher DPPH scavenging potential than was seen in the ECL assay. The immature pericarp of C. benghalensis expressed the highest tannin and polyphenol content, and a high polyphenol level was also detected in the immature seed of C. arabica. The immature pericarp of Bengal and Liberian coffees showed the largest amount of phenolic contents. Conclusions: The obtained data highlight the potential role of C. benghalensis as a new source of natural antioxidants and polyphenols compared to C. arabica.
    11  Bioactive extracts of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea and Osmundaria obtusiloba (Floridophyceae: Rhodophyta) with antioxidant and bacterial agglutination potential
    Daniel Barroso de Alencar Fátima Cristiane Teles de Carvalho Rosa Helena Rebou?as Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante Rebeca Larangeira de Lima Bárbara Mendes Baracho Rayssa Mendes Bezerra Francisco Arnaldo Viana Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira Alexandre Holanda Sampaio Oscarina Viana de Sousa Silvana Saker-Sampaio
    2016, 9(4):363-370. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.015
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 858.63 K](289)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and bacterial cell agglutination activities of the hexane (Hex) and 70% ethanol (70% EtOH) extracts of two species of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea (P. capillacea) and Osmundaria obtusiloba. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous ion chelating assay, β-carotene bleaching assay and total phenolic content quantification. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the method of disc diffusion on Mueller-Hinton medium. The ability of algal extracts to agglutinate bacterial cells was also tested. Results: The 70% EtOH extract of the two algae showed the highest values of total phenolic content compared to the Hex extract. The results of DPPH for both extracts (Hex, 70% EtOH) of Osmundaria obtusiloba (43.46% and 99.47%) were higher than those of P. capillacea (33.04% and 40.81%) at a concentration of 1 000 μg/mL. As for the ferrous ion chelating, there was an opposite behavior, extracts of P. capillacea had a higher activity. The extracts showed a low ferric-reducing antioxidant power, with optical density ranging from 0.054 to 0.180. Antioxidant activities of all extracts evaluated for β-carotene bleaching were above 40%. There was no antibacterial activity against bacterial strains tested. However, the extracts of both species were able to agglutinate bacterial Gram positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative cells of Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella and Vibrio harveyi. Conclusions: This is the first report of the interaction between these algal extracts, rich in natural compounds with antioxidant potential, and Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cells.
    12  Dengue outbreak in Swat and Mansehra, Pakistan 2013; an epidemiological and diagnostic perspective
    Muhammad Suleman Rani Faryal Uzma Bashir Aamir Muhammad Masroor Alam Nadia Nisar Salmaan Sharif Shahzad Shaukat Adnan Khurshid Mehar Angez Massab Umair Ghulam Mujtaba Mian Muhammad Sufian Yasir Arshad Lubna Rehman Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
    2016, 9(4):371-375. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.010
    [Abstract](61) [HTML](0) [PDF 667.30 K](263)
    Objective: To High light some epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic features of dengue fever during an outbreak and the role of different diagnostic techniques to achieve the highest level of accuracy in results. Methods: Blood samples (n=323) were collected along with epidemiological and clinical data from suspected dengue patients who visited different hospitals in Swat and Mansehra district of Pakistan between May-November 2013 during a dengue outbreak. Samples were tested for the detection of viral nucleic acid by real-time PCR, non structural protein-1 (NS1) antigen and IgM antibodies by ELISA. Results: Out of 323 cases with clinical dengue infection, 304 were positive by one or more diagnostic parameter; 201 samples were positive by real-time PCR, 209 were positive by NS1 ELISA and 190 were positive by IgM antibodies. Sensitivities of real-time PCR and NS1 ELISA were comparable for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection, IgM antibody detection assay was found useful for the diagnosis in the samples collected later than day 5 of onset. Conclusions: The use of real-time PCR or detection of non structural protein NS1 by ELISA followed by IgM antibodies detection can be recommended for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection with a high level of accuracy.
    13  Phylogeny of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in Australia and Papua New Guinea
    Eleonora Cella Ivan Gabrielli Gianguglielmo Zehender Marta Giovanetti Alessandra Lo Presti Alessia Lai Giordano Dicuonzo Silvia Angeletti Marco Salemi Massimo Ciccozzi
    2016, 9(4):376-380. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.006
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 791.65 K](267)
    Objective: To study the genetic diversity of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Methods: MVEV envelope gene sequences were aligned using Clustal X and manual editing was performed with Bioedit. ModelTest v. 3.7 was used to select the simplest evolutionary model that adequately fitted the sequence data. Maximum likelihood analysis was performed using PhyML. The phylogenetic signal of the dataset was investigated by the likelihood mapping analysis. The Bayesian phylogenetic tree was built using BEAST. Results: The phylogenetic trees showed two main clades. The clade Ⅰ including eight strains isolated from West Australia. The clade Ⅱ was characterized by at least four epidemic entries, three of which localized in Northern West Australia and one in Papua New Guinea. The estimated mean evolutionary rate value of the MVEV envelope gene was 0.407×10-3 substitution/site/year (95% HPD: 0.623×10-4-0.780×10-3). Population dynamics defines a relative constant population until the year 2000, when a reduction occurred, probably due to a bottleneck. Conclusions: This study has been useful in supporting the probable connection between climate changes and viral evolution also by the vector point of view; multidisciplinary monitoring studies are important to prevent new viral epidemics inside and outside new endemic areas.
    14  Etiological agents causing leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: A review
    Chamidri Naotunna Suneth Buddhika Agampodi Thilini Chanchala Agampodi
    2016, 9(4):381-385. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.009
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 683.09 K](296)
    Objective: To systematically review the etiological agent causing human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. Methods: Published articles on leptospirosis and Leptospira in Sri Lanka were all reviewed to determine serovar, strain and species level indentification of Leptospira. After screening process, 74 full text articles/reports were reviewed and among of them, 12 published papers describing isolation of Leptospira from Sri Lankan patients/animals, 5 molecular epidemiology papers on newer typing methods citing Sri Lanka isolates, with a descriptions of the isolates and 6 published papers reporting PCR based species level identification were identified. Results: Published literature showed that more than 40 strains classified under at least 20 serovars and 10 serogroups have been isolated from Sri Lanka. These isolates belong to four species, namely, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira kirschneri, Leptospira borgpetersenii, and Leptospira santarosai. In addition, recent studies on direct patient samples without culture and isolation showed Leptospira from Leptospira weilli is also circulating in Sri Lanka. Multi locus sequence typing showed 13 genotypes of Leptospira from Sri Lankan isolates. Conclusions: This review shows the diversity of Leptospira in Sri Lanka, but culture isolation data has not been published in Sri Lanka during last 30 years.
    15  Current perspectives on dengue episode in Malaysia
    Ee Leen Pang Hwei-San Loh
    2016, 9(4):386-392. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.004
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 720.66 K](250)
    To Prevalence of dengue transmission has been alarmed by an estimate of 390 million infections per annum. Urban encroachment, ecological disruption and poor sanitation are all contributory factors of increased epidemiology. Complication however arises from the fact that dengue virus inherently exists as four different serotypes. Secondary infection is often manifested in the more severe form, such that antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) could aggravate ailment by allowing pre-existing antibodies to form complexes with infecting viruses as means of intrusion. Consequently, increased viraemic titter and suppression of antiviral response are observed. Deep concerns are thus expressed in regards to escalating trend of hospitalisation and mortality rates. In Malaysia, situation is exacerbated by improper clinical management and pending vector control operations. As a preparedness strategy against the potential deadly dengue pandemic, the call for development of a durable and cost-effective dengue vaccine against all infecting serotypes is intensified. Even though several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, uncertainties in regards to serotypes interference, incomplete protection and dose adequacy have been raised. Instead of sole reliance on outsourcing, production of local vaccine should be considered in coherent to government’s efforts to combat against dengue.
    16  Clinacanthus nutans: a review of the medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry
    Md. Ariful Alam Sahena Ferdosh Kashif Ghafoor Md. Abdul Hakim Abdul Shukor Juraimi Alfi Khatib Md. Zaidul I. Sarker
    2016, 9(4):393-399. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.011
    [Abstract](78) [HTML](0) [PDF 822.04 K](252)
    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work.
    17  Determination of ligand cluster and binding site within VP40 of Ebola virus: clue for drug development
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016, 9(4):400-400. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.002
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 630.90 K](272)

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