Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 9,Issue 5,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Gastric acid inhibitory and gastric protective effects of cannabis and cannabinoids
    Omar Abdel-Salam
    2016, 9(5):401-408. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.04.021
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 726.14 K](229)
    Cannabis sativa has long been known for its psychotropic effect. Only recently with the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous legends and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, the role of this ‘endocannabinoid system’ in different pathophysiologic processes is beginning to be delineated. There is evidence that CB1 receptor stimulation with synthetic cannabinoids or Cannabis sativa extracts rich in ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibit gastric acid secretion in humans and in experimental animals. This is specially seen when gastric acid secretion is stimulated by pentagastrin, carbachol or 2 deoxy-D-glucose. Cannabis and/or cannabinoids protect the gastric mucosa against noxious challenge with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethanol as well as against stress induced mucosal damage. Cannabis/cannabinoids might protect the gastric mucosa by virtue of its antisecretory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilator properties.
    2  Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Ajuga nipponensis extract by ultrasonic-assisted extraction
    Chang-Wei Hsieh Wen-Ching Ko Wai-Jane Ho Chao-Kai Chang Guo-Jhou Chen Jen-Chieh Tsai
    2016, 9(5):409-414. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.029
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](0) [PDF 785.79 K](266)
    Article history: Objective: To investigate suitable condition for extraction of the active components from Ajuga nipponensis (A. nipponensis). Methods: Orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimal extraction parameters for ecdysterones and flavonoids. Finally, the hepatoprotective abilities of A. nipponensis extracts were evaluated by CCl4-induced animal models. Results: Maximum yields of flavonoids (7.87±0.10) mg/g and ecdysterones (0.73±0.02) mg/g could be obtained when the extraction time was 50 min, the extraction temperature was 60°C, and the ratio of sample to 70% (v/v) ethanol was 1:20 (w/w). The antioxidant property of A. nipponensis was correlated to the concentration of its extracts. At 5 mg/mL, A. nipponensis extract scavenged 84.8% of DPPH radical and had absorbance values of 2.43±0.04 reducing power. Upon CCl4-induced liver injury, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase decreased significantly after the mice were treated with A. nipponensis. Histological researches also explained that A. nipponensis reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl4. Conclusions: A. nipponensis exhibited potent antioxidant activity in chemical experimental models and hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage.
    3  Anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils of Cymbopogon validus (Stapf) Stapf ex Burtt Davy from Eastern Cape, South Africa
    Pamela Rungqu Opeoluwa Oyedeji Benedicta Nkeh-Chungag Sandile Songca Oluwatobi Oluwafemi Adebola Oyedeji
    2016, 9(5):415-419. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.031
    [Abstract](73) [HTML](0) [PDF 741.25 K](283)
    Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and the anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon validus (C. validus) leaves and flowers. Methods: A total of 300 g of fresh or dry (leaves and flowers) of C. validus were cut into small pieces and subjected to hydro-distillation method for approximately 5 h using the Clevenger apparatus. The extracted essential oils were then used for testing the anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using egg-albumin induced paw edema. Results: The extracted oils had the following yields 2.2% for fresh leaves, 2.0% for dry leaves and 2.4% v/w for dry flowers. GCMS results revealed that the oils contained artemisia ketone (37.5%), linalool (3.2%-29.6%), northujane (4.4%-16.8%), verbenone (13.5%), naphthalene (1.7%-9.6%), δ-cadinene (0.5%8.1%), hedycaryol (5.4%-7.6%) and αα-eudesmol (6.5%-6.7%) as the major constituents. C. validus essential oils showed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory effects from the first 30 min after albumin injection compared to aspirin which had a later onset of effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the essential oil extracted from C. validus fresh or dry leaves and flowers have anti-inflammatory properties; that might be associated with the major components and the minor components found in the essential oils.
    4  Hydroethanolic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaves improves hyperglycemia of streptozotocin induced neonatal diabetic rats
    Silmara Baroni Bruno Ambrosio da Rocha Juliana Oliveira de Melo Jurandir Fernando Comar Silvana Martins Caparroz-Assef Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado
    2016, 9(5):420-424. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.033
    [Abstract](58) [HTML](0) [PDF 733.01 K](255)
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hydroethanolic extract of yacon on the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in neonatal rats. Methods: Wistar rats aged two days old received an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (160 mg/kg); after seven weeks, glycosuria was determined and animals with glucose levels above 250 mg/dL were included in the study. Groups of diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated orally with yacon extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Tests were made for phytochemical characterization, glucose tolerance and toxicity. Results: The results showed that treatment with the extract reduced the glucose levels of fed diabetic rats and did not change the glucose levels of fasting diabetic and normal rats. Additionally, also it was observed that treatment with the extract reduced blood glucose levels of diabetic rats during the oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. There was no change in body weight, liver enzymes or mortality with yacon extract treatment. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and gallic acid. Conclusions: The data suggest that yacon extract reduces hyperglycemia, possibly by improving insulin sensibility through its phytochemicals constituents (phenolic compounds).
    5  Effects of feeding a diet containing Gymnema sylvestre extract: attenuating progression of obesity in C57BL/6J mice
    Hyeon-Jeong Kim Seong-Ho Hong Seung-Hee Chang Sanghwa Kim Ah Young Lee Yoonjeong Jang Orkhonselenge Davaadamdin Kyeong-Nam Yu Ji-Eun Kim Myung-Haing Cho
    2016, 9(5):425-431. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.0037
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 866.12 K](242)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GS) on initial anti-obesity, liver injury, and glucose homeostasis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: The dry powder of GS was extracted with methanol, and gymnemic acid was identified by high performance liquid chromatography as deacyl gymnemic acid. Male C57BL/6J mice that fed on either a normal diet, normal diet containing 1 g/kg GS (CON+GS) HFD, or HFD containing 1.0 g/kg GS (HFD+GS) for 4 weeks were used to test the initial anti-obesity effect of GS. Body weight gain and food intake, and serum levels about lipid and liver injury markers were measured. Histopathology of adipose tissue and liver stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil-red O were analyzed. After 4 weeks of GS extract feeding, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Results: The methanol extracts of GS exerted significant anti-obesity effects in HFD+GS group. They decreased body weight gain, a lower food and energy efficiency ratio, and showed lower serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol and leptin compared with the HFD group. The decreases of abdominal as well as epididymal fat weight and adipocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplets in liver, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were also observed. The CON+GS group showed an effect of glucose homeostasis compared to the CON group. Conclusions: This study shows that GS provide the possibility as a key role in an initial anti-obesity effects feeding with a HFD.
    6  Zika virus spreading in South America: evolutionary analysis of emerging neutralizing resistant Phe279Ser strains
    Marta Giovanetti Teresa Milano Luiz Carlos Alcantara Laura Carcangiu Eleonora Cella Alessia Lai Alessandra Lo Presti Stefano Pascarella Gianguglielmo Zehender Silvia Angeletti Massimo Ciccozzi
    2016, 9(5):432-438. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.028
    [Abstract](54) [HTML](0) [PDF 896.15 K](261)
    Objective: To investigate the genetic diversity of Zika virus (ZIKV) and the relationships existing among these circulating viruses worldwide. To evaluate the genetic polymorphisms harboured from ZIKV that can have an influence on the virus circulation.Methods: Three different ZIKV dataset were built. The first dataset included 63 E gene sequences, the second one 22 NS3 sequences and the third dataset was composed of 108 NS5 gene sequences. Phylogenetic and selective pressure analysis was performed. The edited nucleic acid alignment from the Envelope dataset was used to generate a conceptual translation to the corresponding peptide sequences through UGene software. Results: The phylogeographic reconstruction was able to discriminate unambiguously that the Brazilian strains are belonged to the Asian lineage. The structural analysis reveals instead the presence of the Ser residue in the Brazilian sequences (however already observed in other previously reported ZIKV infections) that could suggest the presence of a neutralization-resistant population of viruses. Conclusions: Phylogenetic, evolutionary and selective pressure analysis contributed to improve the knowledge on the circulation of ZIKV.
    7  Evaluation of hypolipidemic Marrubium vulgare effect in Triton WR1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice
    Abeer Y Ibrahim Saber F Hendawy Ahmed A A Elsayed Elsayed A Omer
    2016, 9(5):439-445. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.038
    [Abstract](87) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.20 K](235)
    Objective: To evaluate the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic activities of four Marrbium vulgare (M. vulgare) herb extracts using Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg body weight ). The animals were divided into main four groups of eight mice each: normal control group, hyperlipidemic control group, hyperlipidemic plus tween-40 control and treated group. The fourth one was divided into four subgroups, petroleum ether extract group, chloroform extract group, ethyl acetate extract group and methanol extract treated group each of them contains two sub-sub group for treating animals with two doses at 0.1 and 0.25 LD50. Results: After 7 h and 24 h of treatment, the intragastric administration of all extracts caused a significant decrease of plasma total cholesterol. Triglyceride levels were also significantly lowered by all extracts while petroleum ether produced the lowest decreasing level. Similar results were observed for LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, more polar extracts (methanol and ethyl acetate)-soluble fractions showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index (AI) and LDL/HDL-C ratios, while these atherogenic markers were not statistically suppressed by the chloroform and petroleum ether-soluble extract. Conclusion: The findings indicated that Marrubium may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
    8  Anti Toxoplasma antibodies prevalence and associated risk factors among HIV patients
    Dechassa Tegegne Mukarim Abdurahaman Tadesse Mosissa Moti Yohannes
    2016, 9(5):446-451. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.034
    [Abstract](86) [HTML](0) [PDF 679.36 K](247)
    Objective: To assess the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxoplasmosis among HIV patients in Agaro Town Health Center of Jimma zone. Methods: Convenient sampling was used to collect blood samples from 135 patients attending antiretroviral therapy from February to March 2015. Serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibody by using latex agglutination test. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Results: Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 80.7% (109/135, CI: 74.04-87.36). In multivariate analysis significant association was observed between anti T. gondii seropositivity and raw meat consumption (OR: 3.514, CI: 1.16710.581, P=0.025), knowledge about toxoplasmosis (OR: 5.225, CI: 1.382, P=0.015) and sex (OR: 4.023, CI: 1.382-19.762, P=0.015). Conclusions: Immuno compromised patients showed high rate of seropositivity and thus, it is highly advisable to introduce routine anti-T. gondii antibodies serological screening test prior to ART commencement.
    9  Serological survey on some pathogens in wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Central Italy
    Valentina Virginia Ebani Alessandro Poli Guido Rocchigiani Fabrizio Bertelloni Simona Nardoni Roberto Amerigo Papini Francesca Mancianti
    2016, 9(5):452-455. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.032
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 697.59 K](259)
    Objective: To determine the exposure of wild brown hares [Lepus europaeus (L. europaeus), pallas] to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) sensu lato, Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi), Leishmania sp., Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Methods: Two hundred twenty-two blood serum samples of wild brown hares captured in protected areas of the province of Pisa (Central Italy) were tested to detect antibodies against the reported pathogens. Results: Thirty one (14.0%) animals resulted positive for at least one tested agent, with antibody titres ranging from 1:20 to 1:320. In particular, 13 (5.8%) samples were positive to B. burgdorferi s.l., 11 (4.9%) to N. caninum, 3 (1.3%) to T. gondii, 2 (0.9%) to A. phagocytophilum and 2 (0.9%) to Leishmania sp. No samples scored positive to E. cuniculi. Four animals (14.8%) resulted coinfected with 2 different pathogens. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that B. burgdorferi s.l. N. caninum, T. gondii, A. phagocytophilum and Leishmania sp circulate in wild brown hares in Central Italy, suggesting a possible role of L. europaeus as reservoir of these pathogens. The obtained results showed that autochthonous wild brown hares living in Central Italy have been exposed to several pathogens circulating in this area, suggesting a possible role of L. europaeus as reservoir.
    10  Exploration of the regulatory effect of miR-21 on breast cancer cell line proliferation and invasion as well as the downstream target genes
    Ying Kuang Ying-Jie Nie
    2016, 9(5):456-459. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.025
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](0) [PDF 663.34 K](237)
    Objective: To study the regulatory effects of miR-21 on breast cancer cell line proliferation and invasion as well as the downstream target genes. Methods: Breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 were cultured and transfected with miR-21 mimics and the corresponding negative control mimics (NC mimics), and then MTS kits were used to detect cell viability. Transwell experiment was used to detect cell invasion ability, and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes in cells. Results: 24h after transfection of miR-21 mimics and NC mimics, cell OD value and the number of invasive cells of miR-21 group were significantly higher than those of NC group, and mRNA contents of PDCD-4, FasL, PTEN, RhoB, Maspin, TIMP3 and RECK in cells were significantly lower than those of NC group. Conclusion: miR-21 can promote the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cell lines, and its downstream target genes include PDCD-4, FasL, PTEN,RhoB, Maspin, TIMP3 and RECK.
    11  Mechanism of low molecular weight GTP binding protein RAC1 in injury of neural function of rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion
    Ya-Hong Li Lu-Jun Qiao Xiao-Ying Lin
    2016, 9(5):460-464. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.024
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 664.83 K](278)
    Objective: To discuss the mechanism of low molecular weight GTP binding protein RAC1 in the injury of neural function based on building the rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Methods: Middle cerebral artery of rats was ligated and the ligature was released to restore the perfusion after 2 h, the rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury was built, while the middle cerebral artery was ligated. The rats were randomly divided into the sham group, cerebral ischemia reperfusion group (I/R group) and the group with the injection of RAC1 activity inhibitor NSC23766 (NSC group). The survival and neurological severity score of rats in each group were observed and recorded. Nissl staining was employed to observe the nerve cells, and Western blot to detect expression of RAC1, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde. Results: Number of nerve cells for rats in NSC group was significantly more than that in I/R group, but significantly less than that in sham group, with the statistical difference (P<0.05). The brain water content for rats in NSC group was significantly lower than that in I/R group, but significantly higher than that in sham group, with the statistical difference (P<0.05). The expression of RAC1 and malondialdehyde for rats in NSC group was significantly lower than that in I/R group, but higher than that in sham group; while the expression of superoxide dismutase was lower than that in sham group, but higher than that in I/R group, with the statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusions: The inhibition of RAC1 activity can reduce the oxidative stress, reduce the neurologic impairment because of cerebral ischemia reperfusion and thus protect the neural function.
    12  Involvement of α5 integrin in survivin-mediated osteosarcoma metastasis
    Xiao-Zhou Liu Cheng-Jun Li Su-Jia Wu Xin Shi Jian-Ning Zhao
    2016, 9(5):465-469. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.022
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 915.78 K](267)
    Objective: To investigate the role of survivin in osteosarcoma metastasis. Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown the expression of survivin and α5 integrin in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Western blotting and immunostaining methods was used to assessed the effect of survivin knockdown on the expression of α5 integrin through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy detection. Meanwhile, the invasion and migration of transfected cells in Transwell and wound healing assays were probed, and the growth situation of these cells transplanted into nude mice was monitored. Results: Knockdown of survivin expression could inhibit the invasion and migration of osteosarcoma MG64 cells in vitro and the expression of α5 integrin on osteosarcoma MG64 cell surface, suggesting that survivin can inhibit the invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells through downregulation of α5 integrin. Anti-α5 integrin antibody could also markedly decrease the capability of invasion and migration of osteosarcoma MG64 cells. Additionally, knockdown of survivin expression could slow the growth of osteosarcoma MG63 cells transplanted into nude mice. Conclusions: Survivin-directed anti-tumor strategies might be an effective method in the treatment of osteosarcoma.
    13  Polarization of M1 tumor associated macrophage promoted by the activation of TLR3 signal pathway
    Bo Liu Xia Wang Tai-Zhong Chen Guang-Liang Li Chang-Chun Tan Yong Chen Shao-Qiang Duan
    2016, 9(5):470-474. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.019
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](0) [PDF 674.18 K](281)
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between activation of toll-like receptors 3 (TLR3) signaling pathway and tumor-associated macrophage and its effect on the tumor growth. Methods: The mice Lewis lung cancer cell lines 3LL and melanoma B16H10 were used to construct the subcutaneous transplantation tumor models and then they were treated with Poly-ICLC. The curative effect was observed and then the T cell and macrophage phenotypes infiltrated in local tumor were detected by flow cytometry. After the in vitro culture of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage, the real-time PCR and western blot were applied to detect the expression of macrophage activation markers and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Results: The survival time of mice with brown tumor treated with Poly-ICLC significantly increased and the tumor growth was inhibited. The ratio of local tumor-infiltrated Treg decreased, while the ratio of CD8+ T cell increased significantly. The macrophages surface CD206 expression was down-regulated while the expression of iNOS increased. The Poly-ICLC could promote the expression of M1 markers (IL-1β, TNF-αα and iNOS) in bone marrow-derived macrophage and inhibited the expression of M2 molecules (Arg-1, YM-1 and CD206). The phosphorylation level of downstream p65, TBK1 and IRF3 increased significantly. Conclusions: The Poly-ICLC can activate the TLR3 downstream signaling pathway to induce a M1 polarization of tumor associated macrophage, thereby inhibiting the tumor growth.
    14  Influence of hydrogen sulfide on zymogen activation of homocysteineinduced matix metalloproteinase-2 in H9C2 cardiocytes
    Zi-Shu Wang Hong Jin Dong-Ming Wang
    2016, 9(5):475-479. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.023
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 845.54 K](219)
    Objective: To observe the influence of different concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the secretion and activation of matix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in cardiocytes so as to search for new ways to fight against myocardial tissue fibrosis. Methods: Cardiocytes H9C2 was cultured in vitro and different concentrations of Hcy and H2S were added for 6-h and 24-h cultivation. MTT cell proliferation assay was applied to test the activation change of cardiocytes H9C2 after affecting by different concentrations of Hcy and H2S. ELISA and MTT were employed to detect the expression and enzymatic activity of MMP-2. Results: The H9C2 cell inhibition of activity was more significant with 1 000 μmol/ L of Hcy as compared with other concentrations (P<0.001). With 2.5-100.0 μmol/L Hcy and 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mmol/L H2S, the activity of H9C2 did not change significantly (P>0.05). Hcy with concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 μmol/L could increase the quantity of MMP-2 secreted by cardiocytes H9C2, and the interaction strength was concentration-dependent (P<0.05). After interacting with 100 μmol/L of Hcy for 6 h, the zymogen activation effect of MMP-2 was stronger than that of the 2.5-25 μmol/L group (P<0.05). After interacting with Hcy and H2S (1.0 mmol/L) for 6 h and 24 h, the activation effect of MMP-2 was stronger than those interacted with 10, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/L of Hcy (P<0.05). Conclusions: Hcy can increase the production of MMP-2 secreted by H9C2 cell and improve its zymogen activation. Besides, the interaction strength is concentration-dependent; while H2S can up-regulate the activation of MMP-2 and co-promote the activation of MMP-2 with Hcy as well.
    15  Effect and mechanism of miR-34a on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of laryngeal carcinoma cells
    Ju-Xiang Wang Qing-Jun Zhang Shi-Geng Pei Bao-Liang Yang
    2016, 9(5):480-484. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.018
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](0) [PDF 652.13 K](235)
    Objective: To discuss the effect and mechanism of miR-34a on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of laryngeal carcinoma cells. Methods: The laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells were transiently transfected with miR-34a mimics and miR-34a NC. The MTT, colony-forming assay, Hoechst staining and AnnexinV-PI double staining flow cytometry were employed to detect the effect of miR-34a on the viability and apoptosis of laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells; Transwell assay to defect the effect of miR-34a on the migration and invasion of laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells; western blot and RTPCR assay to defect the effect of miR-34a mimics on the expression of survivin and Ki-67 mRNA in laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells. Results: Compared with miR-34a NC group, the cell viability in miR-34 mimics group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), the cell apoptosis rate was significantly increased (P<0.01), the abilities of cell migration and invasion were significantly reduced (P<0.01) and the expression of survivin and Ki-67 mRNA was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusions: The increased expression of miR-34a can induce the apoptosis of Hep2 laryngeal carcinoma cells and inhibit the cell proliferation and invasion, which is related to the down-regulated expression of survivin and Ki-67.
    16  Study on the role of Cathepsin B and JNK signaling pathway in the development of cerebral aneurysm
    Dong Guo Ye-Wei Wang Ji Ma Lei Yan Teng-Fei Li Xin-Wei Han Shao-Feng Shui
    2016, 9(5):485-488. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.020
    [Abstract](71) [HTML](0) [PDF 644.63 K](236)
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between JNK signal and the apoptosis of VSMC as well as the expression of Cathepsin B and to explore the role of JNK signal in the development of cerebral aneurysm. Methods: Rat models of cerebral aneurysm were established and histopathologic changes of cerebral aneurysm and the apoptosis of VSMC were analyzed. Rat models were respectively subject to subcutaneous injection of Cathepsin B siRNA and JNK inhibitor SP600125. Western blot technique was used to detect the expression of proteins like Cathepsin B, Caspase-3, and p-JNK. Spearman's rho was used to examine the correlation between p-JNK and Cathepsin B, as well as the expression of relevant proteins. Results: The success rate of modeling rats with cerebral aneurysm was 88.75%. After the respective injection of Cathepsin B siRNA, SP600125 and their combination, the cell densities of VSMC of rats with cerebral aneurysm all increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but the apoptosis rate of VSMC decreased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with normal rats, the expression of Cathepsin B, Caspase-3 and p-JNK in cerebral aneurysm models increased significantly. Effectively intervening Cathepsin B genes with Cathepsin B siRNA could significantly inhibit the expression of Cathepsin B and Caspase-3, but hardly influence the expression of p-JNK. JNK inhibitor SP600125 had no influence on the expression of Cathepsin B and Caspase-3, but effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK. In cerebral aneurysm tissues, positive correlation was observed between the expression of p-JNK and Cathepsin B, the correlation coefficient was r=0.640. Conclusion: After the attack of cerebral aneurysm, proteins like Cathepsin B, Caspase-3 and p-JNK are all involved in the apoptosis of VSMCs. This process may be realized by Cathepsin B which activates the apoptosis mechanism of Caspase-3 and mediate the apoptosis of VSMC through the JNK signaling pathway. Therefore, silencing Cathepsin B gene or inhibiting the conduction through JNK signaling pathway can mitigate the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in cerebral aneurysm.
    17  Mechanism of TLR-4/NF-κB pathway in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury of mouse
    Hao Chen Ruo-Qing Zhang Xiao-Gang Wei Xiao-Min Ren Xiao-Qian Gao
    2016, 9(5):489-493. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.021
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](0) [PDF 688.74 K](342)
    Objective: To detect the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and NF-κB and to discuss the mechanism of TLR-4/NF-κB pathway in the myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury of mouse. Methods: TLR-4 mutant mice and wild homozygous mice were divided into the model group and sham group. Mice in the model group were given the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for the modeling, while mice in the sham group were not given the ligation after threading. The cardiac muscle tissues were collected for the morphological observation. The immuno histochemistry was employed to detect the expression of NF-κB, Western blot was used to detect the expression of TLR-4 and ELISA to detect the expression of serum inflammatory factors. Results: The expression of NF-κB in TLR-4 null mice after the myocardial ischemia reperfusion was significantly lower than that in wild homozygous mice. For the model group and sham group, the expression of TLR-4 in wild homozygous mice was all significantly higher than that in TLR-4 null mice, while the expression of TLR-4 in TLR-4 null mice in the model group was significantly higher than that in sham group, with the statistical difference (P<0.05). The expression of inflammatory factors in TLR-4 null mice and wild homozygous mice in the model group was significantly higher than that in sham group. The expression of all factors in group A with TLR-4 null was significantly lower than that in group B with wild homozygous type, with the statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusions: TLR-4/NF-κB pathway is closely related to the myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, which plays its role through the release of inflammatory cytokines.
    18  Inhibition of long non-coding RNA TUG1 on gastric cancer cell transference and invasion through regulating and controlling the expression of miR-144/c-Met axis
    Ting-Ting Ji Xuan Huang Jie Jin Sheng-Hua Pan Xiao-Ju Zhuge
    2016, 9(5):494-498. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.026
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.81 K](241)
    Objective: To discuss the expression of long noncoding RNA TUG1 (lncRNA-TUG1) in gastric carcinoma (GC) and its effects on the transferring and invading capacity of gastric carcinoma cells. Methods: Forty cases of carcinoma tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were selected from GC patients who underwent surgical removal in Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Wenzhou Central Hospital from January, 2013 to December, 2014; the expressing level of lncRNA-TUG1 in GC and para-C tissues was detected by applying the qRT-PCR technique. The correlation between lncRNA-TUG1 expression and patients’ clinical data was classified and analyzed. SGC-7901 cells were transfected using lncRNA-TUG1 specific siRNA. Changes of the transferring and invading capacity of siRNAtransfected SGC-7901 cells were scratch-tested and transwell-detected. qRT-PCR was applied to detect the expression level of microRNA-144 after lncRNA-TUG1 was silenced. Changes of c-Met mRNA and protein expressions was detected by qRT-PCR and western-blot test. Results: The expression level of lncRNA-TUG1 in GC tissue was significant higher than that in para-C tissue (P<0.05) and the high expression level of lncRNA-TUG1 in GC tissue was significantly correlated with tumor lymph nodes metastasis and advance TNM phasing (P<0.05). The transferring and invading capacity of SGC-7901 cells was highly inhibited after being transfected by lncRNA-TUG1 specific siRNA (P<0.05). The results of qRT-PCR and western-blot proved that the expression of microRNA-144 was significantly boosted and the expression level of c-Met mRNA and protein was inhibited after lncRNA-TUG1 was silenced (P<0.05). Conclusions: lncRNA-TUG1 shows an up-regulated expression in GC tissue and that bears a correlation with clinicopathological features of malignant tumor. lncRNATUG1 can promote the transferring and invading capacity of GC by inhibiting the pathway of microRNA-144/c-Met.
    19  Afebrile, asymptomatic and non-thrombocytopenic Zika virus infection: don t miss it!
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016, 9(5):499-500. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.036
    [Abstract](68) [HTML](0) [PDF 595.83 K](259)
    Zika virus infection is the present problematic arboviral disease. Classically, this disease cause febrile illness and can result in low platelet count. However, there are some new obervations on atypical clinical presentations of Zika virus infection that can make the diagnosis more difficult. The afebrile, asymptomatic and non-thrombocytopenic Zika virus infection can be seen in clinical practice and can lead to missed or delayed diagnosis.

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